Clinical pharmacy

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Clinical pharmacy is the branch of Pharmacy where pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention.[1] Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside hospitals and clinics. Clinical pharmacists often collaborate with physicians and other healthcare professionals.

Clinical pharmacists have extensive education in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, sociobehavioral and clinical sciences. Most clinical pharmacists have a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree and many have completed one or more years of post-graduate training (e.g. a general and/or specialty pharmacy residency). Many clinical pharmacists also choose to become Board Certified through the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) which was organized in 1976 as an independent certification agency of APhA (American Pharmacists Association). A pharmacist may become a Board Certified Pharmacotherapy Specialist (BCPS), a Board Certified Oncology Pharmacist (BCOP), a Board Certified Nuclear Pharmacist (BCNP), a Board Certified Nutrition Support Pharmacist (BCNSP), a Board Certified Psychiatric Pharmacist (BCPP), a Board Certified Critical Care Pharmacist (BCCCP), a Board Certified Pediatric Pharmacy Specialist (BCPPS), or a Board Certified Ambulatory Care Pharmacist (BCACP) through the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS). There are also subspecialties within the Pharmacotherapy specialty: Cardiology and Infectious Disease. It is denoted as an "Added Qualification" or AQ (denoted as BCPS-AQ ID or BCPS-AQ Cardiology). In order to obtain one of these specialties you must first be a Board Certified Pharmacotherapy Specialist (BCPS) and then submit a portfolio to the Board of Pharmacy Specialties for review to determine if they will grant you the added qualifications.[2] An up-to-date explanation of pharmacy education leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy degree and Specialty Board Certification can be viewed at:

Within the system of health care, clinical pharmacists are experts in the therapeutic use of medications. They routinely provide medication therapy evaluations and recommendations to patients and other health care professionals. Clinical pharmacists are a primary source of scientifically valid information and advice regarding the safe, appropriate, and cost-effective use of medications.[3] Clinical pharmacists are also making themselves more readily available to the public. In the past, access to a clinical pharmacist was limited to hospitals, clinics, or educational institutions. However, clinical pharmacists are making themselves available through a medication information hotline, and reviewing medication lists, all in an effort to prevent medication errors in the foreseeable future. In the UK, clinical pharmacists are routinely involved in the direct care of patients within hospitals, and increasingly, in doctors surgeries. They also develop post registration professional education, professional curricula for workforce development, provide expertise on the use of medicines to national organisations such as NICE, the Department of Health and the MHRA, and develop medicines guidelines for use in therapeutic areas.

Clinical pharmacists interact directly with patients in several different ways. They use their knowledge of medication (including dosage, drug interactions, side effects, expense, effectiveness, etc.) to determine if a medication plan is appropriate for their patient. If it is not, the pharmacist will consult the primary physician to ensure that the patient is on the proper medication plan.[4] The pharmacist also works to educate their patients on the importance of taking and finishing their medications.

In some states, clinical pharmacists are given prescriptive authority under protocol with a medical provider (i.e., MD or DO), and their scope of practice is constantly evolving.[5][6][7] In the United Kingdom clinical pharmacists are given independent prescriptive authority.

Basic components of clinical pharmacy practice

  1. Prescribing drugs [8]
  2. Administering drugs[8]
  3. Documenting professional services
  4. Reviewing drug use
  5. Communication
  6. Counseling
  7. Consulting
  8. Preventing Medication Errors

Scope of clinical pharmacy:

Drug Information
Drug Utilization
Drug Evaluation and Selection
Medication Therapy Management
Formal Education and Training Programs
Disease State Management
Application of Electronic Data Processing (EDP)

A video explaining the scope of health-system pharmacy practice and clinical pharmacy can be viewed at:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Clinical Pharmacy Defined (Pharmacotherapy 2008;28(6):816–817)
  2. ^ Board Certification in Pharmacy
  3. ^
  4. ^ "About Clinical Pharmacists". American College of Clinical Pharmacy. Retrieved 2015-10-20. 
  5. ^ Collaborative drug therapy management (CDTM). Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter 2009;25(8):250801.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b

External links[edit]