40th & 42nd Governor of Arkansas
42nd President of the United States
A political sex scandal involving US President Bill Clinton and 22-year-old White House intern Monica Lewinsky took place in 1998. Their sexual relationship lasted between 1995 and 1997. Clinton ended a televised speech in late January 1998 with the statement that he "did not have sexual relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky." Further investigation led to charges of perjury and to the impeachment of Bill Clinton in 1998 by the U.S. House of Representatives. He was subsequently acquitted on all impeachment charges of perjury and obstruction of justice in a 21-day Senate trial. Clinton was held in civil contempt of court by Judge Susan Webber Wright for giving misleading testimony in the Paula Jones case regarding Lewinsky and was also fined $90,000 by Wright. His license to practice law was suspended in Arkansas for five years; shortly thereafter, he was disbarred from presenting cases in front of the United States Supreme Court.
Lewinsky was a graduate of Lewis & Clark College. She was hired during Clinton's first term in 1995 as an intern at the White House and was later an employee of the White House Office of Legislative Affairs. Some[who?] believe that Clinton began a personal relationship with her while she worked at the White House, the details of which she later confided to Linda Tripp, her Defense Department co-worker who secretly recorded their telephone conversations.
In January 1998, Tripp discovered that Lewinsky had sworn an affidavit in the Paula Jones case, denying a relationship with Clinton. She delivered tapes to Ken Starr, the independent counsel who was investigating Clinton on other matters, including the Whitewater scandal, the White House FBI files controversy, and the White House travel office controversy. During the grand jury testimony, Clinton's responses were carefully worded, and he argued, "it depends on what the meaning of the word 'is' is," with regard to the truthfulness of his statement that "there is not a sexual relationship, an improper sexual relationship or any other kind of improper relationship."
The wide reporting of the scandal led to criticism of the press for over-coverage. This scandal is sometimes referred to as "Monicagate," "Lewinskygate," "Tailgate," "Sexgate," and "Zippergate," following the "-gate" construction that has been used since Watergate.
Allegations of sexual contact
Lewinsky said she had sexual encounters with Bill Clinton on nine occasions from November 1995 to March 1997. According to her published schedule, First Lady Hillary Clinton was at the White House for at least some portion of seven of those days.
In April 1996, Lewinsky's superiors relocated her job to the Pentagon, because they felt she was spending too much time around Clinton. According to his autobiography, then-United Nations Ambassador Bill Richardson was asked by the White House in 1997 to interview Lewinsky for a job on his staff at the United Nations. Richardson did so, and offered her a position, which she declined. The American Spectator alleged that Richardson knew more about the Lewinsky affair than he declared to the grand jury.
Lewinsky confided in Linda Tripp about her relationship with Clinton. Tripp persuaded Lewinsky to save the gifts Clinton had given her, and not to dry clean a semen-stained blue dress in order to keep it as an "insurance policy." Tripp reported their conversations to literary agent Lucianne Goldberg, who advised her to secretly record them, which Tripp began doing in September 1997. Goldberg also urged Tripp to take the tapes to Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr and bring them to the attention of people working on the Paula Jones case. In the fall of 1997, Goldberg began speaking to reporters (including Michael Isikoff of Newsweek) about the tapes.
In the Paula Jones case, Lewinsky had submitted an affidavit that denied any physical relationship with Clinton. In January 1998, she attempted to persuade Tripp to commit perjury in the Jones case. Instead, Tripp gave the tapes to Starr, who was investigating the Whitewater controversy and other matters. Starr was now armed with evidence of Lewinsky's admission of a physical relationship with Clinton, and he broadened the investigation to include Lewinsky and her possible perjury in the Jones case.
Denial and subsequent admission
News of the scandal first broke on January 17, 1998, on the Drudge Report, which reported that Newsweek editors were sitting on a story by investigative reporter Michael Isikoff exposing the affair. The story broke in the mainstream press on January 21 in The Washington Post. The story swirled for several days and, despite swift denials from Clinton, the clamor for answers from the White House grew louder. On January 26, President Clinton, standing with his wife, spoke at a White House press conference, and issued a denial in which he said:
Now, I have to go back to work on my State of the Union speech. And I worked on it until pretty late last night. But I want to say one thing to the American people. I want you to listen to me. I'm going to say this again: I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky. I never told anybody to lie, not a single time; never. These allegations are false. And I need to go back to work for the American people. Thank you.
Pundits debated whether Clinton would address the allegations in his State of the Union Address. Ultimately, he chose not to mention them. Hillary Clinton remained supportive of her husband throughout the scandal, despite the betrayal and public humiliation. On January 27, in an appearance on NBC's Today she said, "The great story here for anybody willing to find it and write about it and explain it is this vast right-wing conspiracy that has been conspiring against my husband since the day he announced for president."
For the next several months and through the summer, the media debated whether an affair had occurred and whether Clinton had lied or obstructed justice, but nothing could be definitively established beyond the taped recordings because Lewinsky was unwilling to discuss the affair or testify about it. On July 28, 1998, a substantial delay after the public break of the scandal, Lewinsky received transactional immunity in exchange for grand jury testimony concerning her relationship with Clinton. She also turned over a semen-stained blue dress (which Tripp had encouraged her to save without dry cleaning) to the Starr investigators. The FBI tested the dress and matched the semen stains to a blood sample from Clinton, thereby providing unambiguous DNA evidence that could prove the relationship despite Clinton's official denials.
Clinton admitted in taped grand jury testimony on August 17, 1998, that he had engaged in an "improper physical relationship" with Lewinsky. That evening he gave a nationally televised statement admitting that his relationship with Lewinsky was "not appropriate".
On August 20, 1998, three days after Clinton testified on the Monica Lewinsky scandal, Operation Infinite Reach launched missiles against al-Qaeda bases in Khost, Afghanistan, and the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum, Sudan, in retaliation for the 1998 United States embassy bombings. Some countries, media outlets, protesters, and Republicans accused Clinton of ordering the attacks as a diversion. The attacks also drew parallels to the then-recently released movie Wag the Dog, which features a fictional president faking a war in Albania to distract attention from a sex scandal. Administration officials denied any connection between the missile strikes and the ongoing scandal, and 9/11 Commission investigators found no reason to dispute those statements. The missile strikes also caused anti-Semitic canards to spread in the Middle East that Lewinsky was a Jewish agent sent to influence Clinton against aiding Palestine. This conspiracy theory would influence Mohamed Atta, the ringleader of al-Qaeda's Hamburg cell and the September 11 attacks.
In his deposition for the Jones lawsuit, Clinton denied having sexual relations with Lewinsky. Based on the evidence—a blue dress with Clinton's semen that Lewinsky provided—Starr concluded that the president's sworn testimony was false and perjurious.
During the deposition, Clinton was asked "Have you ever had sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky, as that term is defined in Deposition Exhibit 1?" The judge ordered that Clinton be given an opportunity to review the agreed definition. Afterwards, based on the definition created by the Independent Counsel's Office, Clinton answered, "I have never had sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky." Clinton later said, "I thought the definition included any activity by [me], where [I] was the actor and came in contact with those parts of the bodies" which had been explicitly listed (and "with an intent to gratify or arouse the sexual desire of any person"). In other words, Clinton denied that he had ever contacted Lewinsky's "genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks", and effectively claimed that the agreed-upon definition of "sexual relations" included giving oral sex but excluded receiving oral sex.
Two months after the Senate failed to convict him, President Clinton was held in civil contempt of court by Judge Susan Webber Wright for giving misleading testimony regarding his sexual relationship with Lewinsky, and was also fined $90,000 by Wright. Clinton declined to appeal the civil contempt of court ruling, citing financial problems, but still maintained that his testimony complied with Wright's earlier definition of sexual relations. In 2001, his license to practice law was suspended in Arkansas for five years and later by the United States Supreme Court.
In December 1998, Clinton's Democratic political party was in the minority in both chambers of Congress. A few Democratic members of Congress, and most in the opposition Republican Party, claimed that Clinton's giving false testimony and allegedly influencing Lewinsky's testimony were crimes of obstruction of justice and perjury and thus impeachable offenses. After a delay due to a brief bombing campaign in Iraq, the House of Representatives voted to issue two Articles of Impeachment against him which was followed by a 21-day trial in the Senate.
Clinton was acquitted on both counts as neither received the necessary two-thirds majority vote of the senators present. 45-50 senators voted to convict, depending on the charge, short of the 67 votes needed for conviction and removal from office. All the Democrats in the Senate voted for acquittal on both the perjury and the obstruction of justice charges. Ten Republicans voted for acquittal for perjury: John Chafee (Rhode Island), Susan Collins (Maine), Slade Gorton (Washington), Jim Jeffords (Vermont), Richard Shelby (Alabama), Olympia Snowe (Maine), Arlen Specter (Pennsylvania), Ted Stevens (Alaska), Fred Thompson (Tennessee), and John Warner (Virginia). Five Republicans voted for acquittal for obstruction of justice: Chafee, Collins, Jeffords, Snowe, and Specter.
President Clinton was thereby acquitted of all charges and remained in office. There were attempts to censure the president by the House of Representatives, but those attempts failed.
Effect on 2000 presidential election
The scandal arguably affected the 2000 U.S. presidential election in two contradictory ways. Democratic Party candidate and sitting vice president Al Gore said that Clinton's scandal had been "a drag" that deflated the enthusiasm of their party's base, and had the effect of reducing Democratic votes. Clinton said the scandal had made Gore's campaign too cautious, and that if Clinton had been allowed to campaign for Gore in Arkansas and New Hampshire, either state would have delivered Gore's needed electoral votes regardless of the effects of the Florida recount controversy.
Political analysts have supported both views. Before and after the 2000 election, John Cochran of ABC News connected the Lewinsky scandal with a voter phenomenon he called "Clinton fatigue". Polling showed that the scandal continued to affect Clinton's low personal approval ratings through the election, and analysts such as Vanderbilt University's John G. Geer later concluded "Clinton fatigue or a kind of moral retrospective voting had a significant impact on Gore's chances". Other analysts sided with Clinton's argument, and argued that Gore's refusal to have Clinton campaign with him damaged his appeal.[unreliable source?]
During the scandal, supporters of former president Clinton alleged that the matter should remain private, and called some supporting Clinton's impeachment hypocritical. A highly publicized investigation campaign actively sought information that might embarrass politicians who supported impeachment. According to the British newspaper The Guardian,
Larry Flynt ... the publisher of Hustler magazine, offered a $1 million reward ... Flynt was a sworn enemy of the Republican party [and] sought to dig up dirt on the Republican members of Congress who were leading the impeachment campaign against President Clinton. [... Although] Flynt claimed at the time to have the goods on up to a dozen prominent Republicans, the ad campaign helped to bring down only one. Robert Livingston—a congressman from Louisiana ... abruptly retired after learning that Mr. Flynt was about to reveal that he had also had an affair.
Henry Hyde, Republican chair of the House Judiciary Committee and lead House manager, also had an affair while in office as a state legislator. Hyde, aged 70 during the Lewinsky hearings, dismissed it as a "youthful indiscretion" (he had been 41).
Bob Livingston Republican congressman had been widely expected to become Speaker of the United States House of Representatives in the next Congressional session. Then just weeks away after Flynt revealed the affair, Livingston resigned and challenged Clinton to do the same.
Bob Barr (R-GA) another Republican House manager, had an affair while married. Barr had been the first lawmaker in either chamber to call for Clinton's resignation due to the Lewinsky affair. Barr lost a primary challenge less than three years after the impeachment proceedings.
Dan Burton (R-IN) said, "No one, regardless of what party they serve, no one, regardless of what branch of government they serve, should be allowed to get away with these alleged sexual improprieties ..." In 1998, Burton admitted that he himself had had an affair in 1983 which produced a child.
Newt Gingrich (R-GA) US Representative, Speaker of the House and leader of the Republican Revolution of 1994, admitted in 1998 to having had an affair with then House Agriculture Committee staffer Callista Bisek while he was still married to his second wife, at the same time as he was leading the impeachment of Bill Clinton for perjury regarding an affair with intern Monica Lewinsky.
Steven C. LaTourette (R-OH) US Representative, voted to impeach Bill Clinton for the Lewinsky scandal while he himself, was having a long-term affair with his chief of staff, Jennifer Laptook. (2003) 
Historian Taylor Branch implied that Clinton had requested changes to Branch's 2009 Clinton biography, The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President, regarding Clinton's revelation that the Lewinsky affair began because "I cracked; I just cracked." Branch writes that Clinton had felt "beleaguered, unappreciated, and open to a liaison with Lewinsky" following "the Democrats' loss of Congress in the November 1994 elections, the death of his mother the previous January, and the ongoing Whitewater investigation". Publicly, Clinton had previously blamed the affair on "a terrible moral error" and on anger at Republicans, stating, "if people have unresolved anger, it makes them do non-rational, destructive things".
- Bill Clinton sexual assault and misconduct allegations
- List of federal political scandals in the United States
- List of federal political sex scandals in the United States
- Second-term curse
- Posner, Richard A (2009). "Introduction". An Affair of State The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clinton. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00080-3. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
- Broder, John M.; Lewis, Neil A. (April 13, 1999). "Clinton is found to be in contempt on Jones lawsuit". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
- Jackson, Robert L. (July 30, 1999). "Clinton Fined $90,686 for Lying in Paula Jones Case". Los Angeles Times.
- Gearan, Anne (October 1, 2001). "Clinton Disbarred From Practice Before Supreme Court". The New York Times. Associated Press.
- "Tripp: I Am Not Intimidated". CBS. July 7, 1998. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
In January, Tripp gave Starr the tapes. She made the recordings secretly at her home at the urging of her friend Lucianne Goldberg, a New York literary agent.
- Noah, Timothy (September 13, 1998). "Bill Clinton and the Meaning of "Is"". Slate. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
- President Bill Clinton, The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, January 21, 1998.
- Gitlin, Todd. "The Clinton-Lewinsky Obsession: How the press made a scandal of itself". The Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2009.
- Kalb, Marvin (September 2001). One Scandalous Story: Clinton, Lewinsky, and Thirteen Days That Tarnished American Journalism. Free Press. ISBN 0-684-85939-4.
- Layton, Lyndsey (July 27, 2004). "The Frenzy Over Lewinsky: As the Scandal Unfolded, a Media Storm Swirled in Washington". The Washington Post. p. B04. Retrieved June 11, 2009.
- Rich, Frank. "Journal; Monicagate Year Two", The New York Times, December 16, 1998.
- Rich, Frank. "Journal; Days of the Locust", The New York Times, February 25, 1998.
- Hennenberger, Melinda. "The President Under Fire", The New York Times, January 29, 1998.
- James Barron with Hoban, Phoebe. "Dueling Soaps", The New York Times, January 28, 1998.
- "Lewinsky and the first lady". USA Today. Associated Press. March 19, 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
- Jeff Leen (January 24, 1998). "Lewinsky: Two Coasts, Two Lives, Many Images", The Washington Post.
- Irvine, Reed; Kincaid, Cliff (August 21, 1998). "Bill Richardson Caught In Clinton Undertow". Accuracy in Media. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
- York, Byron (November 15, 1998). "The American Spectator : Slick Billy". American Spectator. Archived from the original on April 23, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
- "'The president has a girlfriend': Linda Tripp's betrayal of Monica Lewinsky and the taped phone calls". ABC News. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
- US News and World Report, "The Monica Lewinsky Tapes", February 2, 1998, v.124 n.4 p.23.
- Thomas, Evan; Isikoff, Michael (November 9, 1998). "The Goldberg-Tripp-Jones Axis". Newsweek. Archived from the original on June 25, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- Cloud, John; Barnes, Edward; Zoglin, Richard (February 2, 1998). "Lucianne Goldberg: in pursuit of Clinton". Time. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009.
- "Newsweek Kills Story On White House Intern", DrudgeReportArchives, 1998.
- Schmidt, Susan; Peter Baker; Toni Locy (January 21, 1998). "Special Report: Clinton Accused". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Top 5: Political Quotes That Defined Presidencies, APOLITICUS.COM Archived December 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Clinton, Bill. Response to the Lewinsky Allegations Archived February 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Miller Center of Public Affairs, January 26, 1998.
- Woodward, Bob (June 14, 1999). "Public Dramas, Private Toll for First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
- "The Return of the 'Vast Right-Wing Conspiracy' Excuse". National Review. February 4, 2016. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
- Blitzer, Wolf; Franken, Bob (July 28, 1998). "Lewinsky Strikes Far-Reaching Immunity Deal". CNN. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- "Starr Report". The Washington Post. September 15, 1998. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Clinton, Bill. Address to the nation, PBS.org, August 17, 1998. Archived May 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- AP Archive (July 21, 2015). on YouTube
- Baum 2006, p. 1. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBaum2006 (help)
- Coll 2005, p. 412. sfn error: no target: CITEREFColl2005 (help)
- Vick, Karl (August 24, 1998). "U.S., Sudan Trade Claims on Factory". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Loeb, Vernon (July 25, 1999). "A Dirty Business". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Harris, John (August 21, 1998). "In the Midst of Scandal, Clinton Plotted Action". The Washington Post.
- Pine, Art (August 21, 1998). "Missiles Strike Bases Linked to African Blasts". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- 9/11 Commission Report, p. 118.
- Wright, Lawrence (2006). The looming tower : Al-Qaeda and the road to 9/11 (1 ed.). New York. ISBN 978-0-375-41486-2. OCLC 64592193.
- Tiersma, Peter. "The Language of Perjury", languageandlaw.org, November 20, 2007.
- Baker, Peter (February 13, 1999). "The Senate Acquits President Clinton". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Co. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- Montopoli, Brian (September 21, 2009). "Bill Clinton on Lewinsky Affair: 'I Cracked'". Political Hotsheet. CBS News. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- Dover, Edwin D. (2002). Missed opportunity: Gore, incumbency and television in election 2000. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-275-97638-5.
John Cochran on ABC described this phenomenon as "Clinton fatigue." He said voters were happy with the policy agenda and direction of the country but were tired of Clinton and wanted to forget him. Casting their votes for Bush and not for Clinton's surrogate, Gore, was one way to bring about this preferred change, Cochran concluded.
- Denton, Robert E. Jr. (2002). The 2000 Presidential Campaign: A Communication Perspective. Volume 2000, Part 3. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 92, 98. ISBN 978-0-275-97107-6.
- Geer, John Gray (2004). Public opinion and polling around the world: a historical encyclopedia. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-57607-911-9.
- Marable, Manning (Summer 2001). "Gore's Defeat: Don't Blame Nader". Synthesis/Regeneration (25). Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Weisberg, Jacob (November 8, 2000). "Why Gore (Probably) Lost". Slate. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- An anatomy of 2000 USA presidential election Archived May 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, NigerDeltaCongress.com
- Beyond the Recounts: Trends in the 2000 US Presidential Election, Cairn.info
- Goldenberg, Suzanne. "Porn king offers $1m for US political sex scandal" The Guardian, London. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- Talbot, David. "This hypocrite broke up my family", Salon, September 16, 1998.
- "Robert Livingston, The Heir Apparent With a Black Belt". The New York Times, November 10, 1998, p. A24. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- McCaffrey, Shannon. Will Bob Barr be the Ralph Nader of '08?, Associated Press (via CBS News), June 22, 2008.
- Baker, Russ. "Portrait of a political 'pit bull'", Salon, December 22, 1998.
- "Rep. Dan Burton—Member of Congress representing Indiana's 5th District" Archived May 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Library Factfiles, Indianapolis Star, updated January 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2007.
- "Gingrich Expects 'Republican Revolution'", news4jax.com, October 28, 2010.
- Jacobs, John. "The Gingrich affair: Hypocrisy and betrayal", http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/The-Gingrich-affair-Hypocrisy-and-betrayal-3057206.php, November 22, 1999
- Schneider, Bill. "Gingrich confession: Clearing the way for a 2008 run?", CNN. March 9, 2007. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
- "Gingrich admits having affair in '90s". MSNBC. Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
- Falone, Michael. CBS News. July 2, 2009, Politico, "GOP's Unlucky Class of '94" Retrieved June 21, 2010.
- "Sex Scandals Through the Years: Both Parties Even". Newsweek. June 25, 2009.
- Page, Susan (September 21, 2009). "Secret interviews add insight to Clinton presidency". USA Today. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- "Clinton: Lewinsky affair a 'terrible moral error'". CNN. June 21, 2004. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Communication from Kenneth W. Starr, Independent Counsel, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office, September 11, 1998, archived from the original on June 4, 2011
- A Chronology: Key Moments In The Clinton-Lewinsky Saga. CNN. (1998)
- "The Fallout". BBC Online in-depth coverage. (1999)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lewinsky scandal.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Clinton–Lewinsky scandal|
- Monica Lewinsky 2015 Ted Talk on bullying and the price of shame
- A Guide to the Monica Lewinsky Story—The Coffee Shop Times (last updated July 8, 2001)
-  The Clinton/Lewinsky Story: How Accurate? How Fair? (2003)