A cloaking device is a hypothetical or fictional stealth technology that can cause objects, such as spaceships or individuals, to be partially or wholly invisible to parts of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. However, over the entire spectrum, a cloaked object scatters more than an uncloaked object.
Fictional cloaking devices have been used as plot devices in various media for many years.
Developments in scientific research show that real-world cloaking devices can obscure objects from at least one wavelength of EM emissions. Scientists already use artificial materials called metamaterials to bend light around an object.
Star Trek screenwriter Paul Schneider, inspired in part by the 1958 film Run Silent, Run Deep, and in part by The Enemy Below, which in turn had been released the previous year, 1957, imagined cloaking as a space-travel analog of a submarine submerging, and employed it in the 1966 Star Trek episode "Balance of Terror", in which he introduced the Romulan species. (He likewise predicted, in the same episode, that invisibility, "selective bending of light" as described above, would have an enormous power requirement.) Another Star Trek screenwriter, D.C. Fontana, coined the term "cloaking device" for the 1968 episode "The Enterprise Incident", which also featured Romulans.
An operational, non-fictional cloaking device might be an extension of the basic technologies used by stealth aircraft, such as radar-absorbing dark paint, optical camouflage, cooling the outer surface to minimize electromagnetic emissions (usually infrared), or other techniques to minimize other EM emissions, and to minimize particle emissions from the object. The use of certain devices to jam and confuse remote sensing devices would greatly aid in this process, but is more properly referred to as "active camouflage". Alternatively, metamaterials provide the theoretical possibility of making electromagnetic radiation pass freely around the 'cloaked' object.
Optical metamaterials have featured in several recent proposals for invisibility schemes. "Metamaterials" refers to materials that owe their refractive properties to the way they are structured, rather than the substances that compose them. Using transformation optics it is possible to design the optical parameters of a "cloak" so that it guides light around some region, rendering it invisible over a certain band of wavelengths.
These spatially varying optical parameters do not correspond to any natural material, but may be implemented using metamaterials. There are several theories of cloaking, giving rise to different types of invisibility. In 2014, scientists demonstrated good cloaking performance in murky water, demonstrating that an object shrouded in fog can disappear completely when appropriately coated with metamaterial. This is due to the random scattering of light, such as that which occurs in clouds, fog, milk, frosted glass, etc., combined with the properties of the metamaterial coating. When light is diffused, a thin coat of metamaterial around an object can make it essentially invisible under a range of lighting conditions.
Active camouflage (or adaptive camouflage) is a group of camouflage technologies which would allow an object (usually military in nature) to blend into its surroundings by use of panels or coatings capable of changing color or luminosity. Active camouflage can be seen as having the potential to become the perfection of the art of camouflaging things from visual detection.
Optical camouflage is a kind of active camouflage in which one wears a fabric which has an image of the scene directly behind the wearer projected onto it, so that the wearer appears invisible. The drawback to this system is that, when the cloaked wearer moves, a visible distortion is often generated as the 'fabric' catches up with the object's motion. The concept exists for now only in theory and in proof-of-concept prototypes, although many experts consider it technically feasible.
Plasma at certain density ranges absorbs certain bandwidths of broadband waves, potentially rendering an object invisible. However, generating plasma in air is too expensive and a feasible alternative is generating plasma between thin membranes instead. The Defense Technical Information Center is also following up research on plasma reducing RCS technologies. A plasma cloaking device was patented in 1991.
A prototype Metascreen is a claimed cloaking device, which is just few micrometers thick and to a limited extent can hide 3D objects from microwaves in their natural environment, in their natural positions, in all directions, and from all of the observer's positions. It was prepared at the University of Texas, Austin by Professor Andrea Alù.
The metascreen consisted of a 66 micrometre thick polycarbonate film supporting an arrangement of 20 micrometer thick copper strips that resembled a fishing net. In the experiment, when the metascreen was hit by 3.6 GHz microwaves, it re-radiated microwaves of the same frequency that were out of phase, thus cancelling out reflections from the object being hidden. The device only cancelled out the scattering of microwaves in the first order. The same researchers published a paper on "plasmonic cloaking" the previous year.
Howell/Choi cloaking device
University of Rochester physics professor John Howell and graduate student Joseph Choi have announced a scalable cloaking device which uses common optical lenses to achieve visible light cloaking on the macroscopic scale, known as the "Rochester Cloak". The device consists of a series of four lenses which direct light rays around objects which would otherwise occlude the optical pathway.
Cloaking in mechanics
The concepts of cloaking are not limited to optics but can also be transferred to other fields of physics. For example, it was possible to cloak acoustics for certain frequencies as well as touching in mechanics. This renders an object "invisible" to sound or even hides it from touching.
- Monticone, F.; Alù, A. (2013). "Do Cloaked Objects Really Scatter Less?". Phys. Rev. X. American Physical Society. 3 (4). arXiv:1307.3996. Bibcode:2013PhRvX...3d1005M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.3.041005.
- Sledge, Gary. "Going Where No One Has Gone Before", Discovery Channel Magazine #3. ISSN 1793-5725
- Service, Robert F.; Cho, Adrian (17 December 2010). "Strange New Tricks With Light". Science. 330 (6011): 1622. Bibcode:2010Sci...330.1622S. doi:10.1126/science.330.6011.1622. PMID 21163994.
- Pendry, J.B.; Schurig, D.; Smith, D.R. (2006). "Controlling electromagnetic fields" (PDF). Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 312 (5781): 1780–1782. Bibcode:2006Sci...312.1780P. doi:10.1126/science.1125907. PMID 16728597. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-10-06.
- Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R. (2008). "Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics". New Journal of Physics. 10 (11): 115019. Bibcode:2008NJPh...10k5019L. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/10/11/115019.
- Inami, M.; Kawakami, N.; Susumu, T. (2003). "Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology" (PDF). Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality. IEEE Computer Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-04-26.
- Alù, A.; Engheta, N. (2008). "Plasmonic and metamaterial cloaking: physical mechanisms and potentials". Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics. IOP Publishing. 10 (9): 093002. Bibcode:2008JOptA..10i3002A. doi:10.1088/1464-4258/10/9/093002. Archived from the original on 2016-04-20.
- Gonano, C.A. (2016). A perspective on metasurfaces, circuits, holograms and invisibility (PDF). Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-04-24.
- Smith, David R. (25 July 2014). "A cloaking coating for murky media". Science. 345: 384–385. Bibcode:2014Sci...345..384S. doi:10.1126/science.1256753. PMID 25061192.
- Schittny, Robert et cl. (25 July 2014). "Invisibility cloaking in a diffuse light scattering medium". Science. 345: 427–429. Bibcode:2014Sci...345..427S. doi:10.1126/science.1254524.
- "Army tests James Bond style tank that is 'invisible'". Daily Mail. London. 30 October 2007. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012.
- Clark, Josh. "Is the army testing an invisible tank?" Archived 2012-03-01 at the Wayback Machine., HowStuffWorks.com, 3 December 2007. accessed 22 February 2012.
- "Gone in less than 60 seconds! Engineers use LEDs and a camera to create an 'invisible' Mercedes (but they might need to work on the wheels)". Daily Mail. London. Archived from the original on 2013-12-30.
- Plasma cloaking: Air chemistry, broadband absorption, and plasma generation backup Archived 2009-08-02 at the Wayback Machine., February 1990.
- Gregoire, D. J. ; Santoru, J. ; Schumacher, R. W.Abstract Archived 2009-08-02 at the Wayback Machine. Electromagnetic-Wave Propagation in Unmagnetized Plasmas Archived 2009-08-02 at the Wayback Machine., March 1992.
- Roth, John R. "Microwave absorption system" U.S. Patent 4,989,006
- "Invisibility cloaks are almost a reality after scientists invent ultra-thin material that hides objects from microwaves". Daily Mail. London. 25 March 2013. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013.
- Tim Wogan (28 March 2013). "Ultrathin "metascreen" forms latest invisibility cloak". PhysicsWorld.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013.
- http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630 New Journal of Physics, March 2013.
- "Cloaking' device uses ordinary lenses to hide objects across range of angles". Science Daily. Science Daily. 29 September 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-10-01. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- Bückmann, Tiemo (2014). "An elasto-mechanical unfeelability cloak made of pentamode metamaterials". Nature Communications. 5 (4130). Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E4130B. doi:10.1038/ncomms5130. Archived from the original on 2016-02-02.
- Rincon, Paul (19 October 2006). "Experts test cloaking technology". BBC News. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
- Mosnews - Dr Oleg Gadomsky Cloaking Device Article
- "MSNBC: Can objects be turned invisible?"
- Optical Camouflage by the Tachi Lab in Japan
- Space Daily - Engineers Create Optical Cloaking Design For Invisibility, April, 2007
- University of Texas at Austin, Cockrell School of Engineering, Researchers at UT Austin Create an Ultrathin Invisibility Cloak, 26 March 2013.
- New Journal of Physics, Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space, by JC Soric, PY Chen, A Kerkhoff, D Rainwater, K Melin, and Andrea Alù, March 2013.
- New Journal of Physics, Experimental verification of three-dimensional plasmonic cloaking in free-space , by D Rainwater, A Kerkhoff, K Melin, J C Soric, G Moreno and Andrea Alù, January 2012.
- Physical Review X, Do Cloaked Objects Really Scatter Less, by Francesco Monticone and Andrea Alù, October 2013.