Clobazam

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Clobazam
Clobazam structure.svg
Clobazam ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Trade namesFrisium, Urbanol, Onfi, others
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa612008
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C
Routes of
administration
By mouth
Drug classBenzodiazepine
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability87% (oral)
Protein binding80–90%
MetabolismLiver
Metabolites
    • N-desmethylclobazam
    • 4′-hydroxyclobazam
Onset of action0.5–4 hours
Elimination half-life
    • clobazam: 36–42 hours
    • N-desmethylclobazam: 59–82 hours
Excretion
Identifiers
  • 7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,5-benzodiazepine-2,4-dione
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.040.810 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC16H13ClN2O2
Molar mass300.74 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • ClC1=CC(N(C2=CC=CC=C2)C(CC(N3C)=O)=O)=C3C=C1
  • InChI=1S/C16H13ClN2O2/c1-18-13-8-7-11(17)9-14(13)19(16(21)10-15(18)20)12-5-3-2-4-6-12/h2-9H,10H2,1H3 checkY
  • Key:CXOXHMZGEKVPMT-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  (verify)

Clobazam, sold under the brand name Frisium among others, is a benzodiazepine class medication that was patented in 1968.[1] Clobazam was first synthesized in 1966 and first published in 1969. Clobazam was originally marketed as an anxioselective anxiolytic since 1970,[2][3] and an anticonvulsant since 1984.[4] The primary drug-development goal was to provide greater anxiolytic, anti-obsessive efficacy with fewer benzodiazepine-related side effects.[2]

Medical uses[edit]

Clobazam is used for its anxiolytic effect, and as an adjunctive therapy in epilepsy.

Clobazam is approved in Canada for add-on use in tonic-clonic, complex partial, and myoclonic seizures.[5] Clobazam is approved for adjunctive therapy in complex partial seizures,[6] certain types of status epilepticus, specifically the mycolonic, myoclonic-absent, simple partial, complex partial, and tonic varieties,[7] and non-status absence seizures. It is also approved for the treatment of anxiety.

In India, clobazam is approved for use as an adjunctive therapy in epilepsy, and in acute and chronic anxiety.[8] In Japan, clobazam is approved for adjunctive therapy in treatment-resistant epilepsy featuring complex partial seizures.[9] In New Zealand, clobazam is marketed as Frisium[10] In the United Kingdom clobazam (Frisium) is approved for short-term (2–4 weeks) relief of acute anxiety in patients who have not responded to other drugs, with or without insomnia and without uncontrolled clinical depression.[11] It was not approved in the United States until October 25, 2011, when it was approved for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients 2 years of age or older.[12]

As an adjunctive therapy in epilepsy, it is used in patients who have not responded to first-line drugs and in children who are refractory to first-line drugs. It is unclear if there are any benefits to clobazam over other seizure medications for children with Rolandic epilepsy or other epileptic syndromes.[13] It is not recommended for use in children between the ages of six months and three years, unless there is a compelling need.[11] In addition to epilepsy and severe anxiety, clobazam is also approved as a short-term (2–4 weeks) adjunctive agent in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders to manage anxiety or agitation.[11]

Clobazam is sometimes used for refractory epilepsies. However, long-term prophylactic treatment of epilepsy may have considerable drawbacks, most importantly decreased antiepileptic effects due to drug tolerance which may render long-term therapy less effective.[14] Other antiepileptic drugs may therefore be preferred for the long-term management of epilepsy. Furthermore, benzodiazepines may have the drawback, particularly after long-term use, of causing rebound seizures upon abrupt or over-rapid discontinuation of therapy forming part of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.

Contraindications[edit]

Clobazam should be used with great care in patients with the following disorders:

Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in the elderly, during pregnancy, in children, alcohol or drug-dependent individuals, and individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders.[16]

Side effects[edit]

In September 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required the boxed warning be updated for all benzodiazepine medicines to describe the risks of abuse, misuse, addiction, physical dependence, and withdrawal reactions consistently across all the medicines in the class.[17]

Common[edit]

Common side effects include fever, drooling, and constipation.[18]

Post-marketing experience[edit]

Warnings and precautions[edit]

In December 2013, the FDA added warnings to the label for clobazam, that it can cause serious skin reactions, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, especially in the first eight weeks of treatment.[19]

Drug interactions[edit]

  • Alcohol increases bioavailability by 50%; compounded depressant effect may precipitate life-threatening toxicity.
  • Cimetidine increases the effects of clobazam.
  • Valproate.

Overdose[edit]

Overdose and intoxication with benzodiazepines, including clobazam, may lead to CNS depression, associated with drowsiness, confusion, and lethargy, possibly progressing to ataxia, respiratory depression, hypotension, and coma or death. The risk of a fatal outcome is increased in cases of combined poisoning with other CNS depressants, including alcohol.[20]

Abuse potential and addiction[edit]

Classic (non-anxioselective) benzodiazepines in animal studies have been shown to increase reward-seeking behaviours which may suggest an increased risk of addictive behavioural patterns.[21] Clobazam abuse has been reported in some countries, according to a 1983 World Health Organisation report.[22]

Dependence and withdrawal[edit]

In humans, tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of clobazam may occur[23] and withdrawal seizures may occur during abrupt or overrapid withdrawal.[24]

Clobazam as with other benzodiazepine drugs can lead to physical dependence, addiction, and what is known as the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Withdrawal from clobazam or other benzodiazepines after regular use often leads to withdrawal symptoms which are similar to those seen during alcohol and barbiturate withdrawal. The higher the dosage and the longer the drug is taken, the greater the risk of experiencing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Benzodiazepine treatment should only be discontinued via a slow and gradual dose reduction regimen.[25]

Pharmacology[edit]

Clobazam is predominantly a positive allosteric modulator at the GABAA receptor with some speculated additional activity at sodium channels and voltage-sensitive calcium channels.[26]

Like other 1,5-benzodiazepines (for example, arfendazam, lofendazam, or CP-1414S), the active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam has less affinity for the α1 subunit of the GABAA receptor compared to the 1,4-benzodiazepines. It has higher affinity for α2 containing receptors, where it has positive modulatory activity.[27][28]

In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial published in 1990 comparing it to clonazepam, 10 mg of clobazam was shown to be less sedative than either 0.5 mg or 1 mg of clonazepam.[29]

The α1 subtype of the GABAA receptor, was shown to be responsible for the sedative effects of diazepam by McKernan et al. in 2000, who also showed that its anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties could still be seen in mice whose α1 receptors were insensitive to diazepam.[30]

In 1996, Nakamura et al. reported that clobazam and its active metabolite, N-desmethylclobazam (norclobazam), work by enhancing GABA-activated chloride influx at GABAA receptors,[31] creating a hyperpolarizing, inhibitory postsynaptic potential.[32] It was also reported that these effects were inhibited by the GABA antagonist flumazenil, and that clobazam acts more efficiently in GABA-deficient brain tissue.[31]

Metabolism[edit]

Clobazam has two major metabolites: N-desmethylclobazam and 4′-hydroxyclobazam, the former of which is active.[33] The demethylation is facilitated by CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP2B6 and the 4-hydroxyclobazam by CYP2C18 and CYP2C19.[34]

Chemistry[edit]

Clobazam is a 1,5-benzodiazepine, meaning that its diazepine ring has nitrogen atoms at the 1 and 5 positions (instead of the usual 1 and 4).[35]

It is not soluble in water and is available in oral form only.[26][20]

History[edit]

Clobazam was discovered at the Maestretti Research Laboratories in Milan and was first published in 1969;[36] Maestretti was acquired by Roussel Uclaf[37] which became part of Sanofi.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Clobazam (T3D4564)". Toxin and Toxin Target Database (T3DB.
  2. ^ a b Humayun MJ, Samanta D, Carson RP (2020). "Clobazam". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID 31082087.
  3. ^ Freche C (April 1975). "[Study of an anxiolytic, clobazam, in otorhinolaryngology in psychosomatic pharyngeal manifestations]". Semaine des Hopitaux. Therapeutique. 51 (4): 261–3. PMID 5777.
  4. ^ "Clobazam in treatment of refractory epilepsy: the Canadian experience. A retrospective study. Canadian Clobazam Cooperative Group". Epilepsia. 32 (3): 407–16. 1991. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1991.tb04670.x. PMID 2044502. S2CID 24420211.
  5. ^ "Clobazam". Epilepsy Ontario. 2020. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
  6. ^ Larrieu JL, Lagueny A, Ferrer X, Julien J (December 1986). "[Epilepsy with continuous discharges during slow-wave sleep. Treatment with clobazam]". Revue d'Electroencephalographie et de Neurophysiologie Clinique (in French). 16 (4): 383–94. doi:10.1016/S0370-4475(86)80028-4. PMID 3103177.
  7. ^ Gastaut H, Tinuper P, Aguglia U, Lugaresi E (December 1984). "[Treatment of certain forms of status epilepticus by means of a single oral dose of clobazam]". Revue d'Electroencephalographie et de Neurophysiologie Clinique. 14 (3): 203–6. doi:10.1016/S0370-4475(84)80005-2. PMID 6528075.
  8. ^ "Frisium Press Kit". Aventis Pharma India. Archived from the original on 2005-03-05. Retrieved 2006-08-02.
  9. ^ Shimizu H, Kawasaki J, Yuasa S, Tarao Y, Kumagai S, Kanemoto K (July 2003). "Use of clobazam for the treatment of refractory complex partial seizures". Seizure. 12 (5): 282–6. doi:10.1016/S1059-1311(02)00287-X. PMID 12810340.
  10. ^ Epilepsy New Zealand (2000). "Antiepileptic Medication". Archived from the original on 11 March 2005. Retrieved 11 July 2005.
  11. ^ a b c sanofi-aventis (2002). "Frisium Tablets 10 mg, Summary of Product Characteristics from eMC". electronic Medicines Compendium. Medicines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 6 December 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2005.
  12. ^ "FDA Approves ONFI™ (clobazam) for the Adjunctive Treatment of Seizures Associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome in Patients Two Years and Older" (Press release). Lundbeck. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
  13. ^ Arya R, Giridharan N, Anand V, Garg SK (July 2018). "Clobazam monotherapy for focal or generalized seizures". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 7: CD009258. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009258.pub3. PMC 6513499. PMID 29995989.
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  17. ^ "FDA expands Boxed Warning to improve safe use of benzodiazepine drug". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  18. ^ "Clobazam label" (PDF). December 2014.
  19. ^ FDA. December 3rd, 2013 FDA Drug Safety Podcast: FDA warns of serious skin reactions with the anti-seizure drug Onfi (clobazam) and has approved label changes
  20. ^ a b Fruchtengarten L Inchem - Clobazam. Created July 1997, Reviewed 1998.
  21. ^ Thiébot MH, Le Bihan C, Soubrié P, Simon P (1985). "Benzodiazepines reduce the tolerance to reward delay in rats". Psychopharmacology. 86 (1–2): 147–52. doi:10.1007/BF00431700. PMID 2862657. S2CID 30614502.
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  23. ^ Loiseau P (1983). "[Benzodiazepines in the treatment of epilepsy]". L'Encephale. 9 (4 Suppl 2): 287B–292B. PMID 6373234.
  24. ^ Robertson MM (1986). "Current status of the 1,4- and 1,5-benzodiazepines in the treatment of epilepsy: the place of clobazam". Epilepsia. 27 Suppl 1: S27-41. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1986.tb05730.x. PMID 3527689. S2CID 23166797.
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  26. ^ a b Ochoa JG (2005). "Antiepileptic Drugs: An Overview. GABA Receptor Agonists". Drugs and Diseases. Medccape. Retrieved 10 July 2005.
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  29. ^ Wildin JD, Pleuvry BJ, Mawer GE, Onon T, Millington L (February 1990). "Respiratory and sedative effects of clobazam and clonazepam in volunteers". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 29 (2): 169–77. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1990.tb03616.x. PMC 1380080. PMID 2106335.
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  31. ^ a b Nakamura F, Suzuki S, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M (August 1996). "Effects of clobazam and its active metabolite on GABA-activated currents in rat cerebral neurons in culture". Epilepsia. 37 (8): 728–35. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1996.tb00643.x. PMID 8764810. S2CID 12628361.
  32. ^ Tolbert D, Larsen F (January 2019). "A Comprehensive Overview of the Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Clobazam". Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 59 (1): 7–19. doi:10.1002/jcph.1313. PMC 6585772. PMID 30285275.
  33. ^ Contin M, Sangiorgi S, Riva R, Parmeggiani A, Albani F, Baruzzi A (December 2002). "Evidence of polymorphic CYP2C19 involvement in the human metabolism of N-desmethylclobazam". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 24 (6): 737–41. doi:10.1097/00007691-200212000-00009. PMID 12451290. S2CID 44444755.
  34. ^ Giraud C, Tran A, Rey E, Vincent J, Tréluyer JM, Pons G (November 2004). "In vitro characterization of clobazam metabolism by recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes: importance of CYP2C19". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 32 (11): 1279–86. doi:10.1124/dmd.32.11.1279. PMID 15483195.
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  37. ^ Zirulia G (2014). L'industria delle Medicine. EDRA LSWR. ISBN 9788821439049.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • "Clobazam". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.