Close-mid back unrounded vowel
|Close-mid back unrounded vowel|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2015)|
The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close-mid back-central unrounded vowel. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ɤ⟩, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, ⟨ɣ⟩, which has a descender.
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists,[who?] perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was ⟨⟩, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top. The symbol was revised to be ⟨⟩, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gamma ⟨ɣ⟩. Unicode provides only U+0264 ɤ latin small letter rams horn (HTML
ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
|This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]|
IPA help • IPA key • chart • chart with audio • view
- Its vowel height is close-mid, also known as high-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel (a high vowel) and a mid vowel.
- Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|Chinese||Mandarin||喝/hē||[xɤ˥] (help·info)||'to drink'||See Standard Chinese phonology|
|Taiwanese Hokkien||蚵/ô||[ɤ˧]||'oyster'||Mostly southern Taiwanese speech|
|English||Received Pronunciation||long ago||[lɒŋ ɤ̟ˈɡəʊ̯]||'long ago'||Near-back. Allophone of /ə/ between velar consonants. See English phonology|
|Irish||Uladh||[ɤlˠu]||'Ulster'||See Irish phonology|
|Kaingang||[ˈᵐbɤ]||'tail'||Varies between back [ɤ] and central [ɘ]|
|Korean||Gyeongsang dialect||거기/geogi||[ˈkɤ̘ɡɪ]||'there'||See Korean phonology|
|Scottish Gaelic||doirbh||[d̪̊ɤrʲɤv]||'difficult'||See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
- Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
- Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685
- Tingsabadh, M. R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1): 24–28, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746