Close-mid back unrounded vowel

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Close-mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ
IPA number 315
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɤ
Unicode (hex) U+0264
X-SAMPA 7
Kirshenbaum o-
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Sound

The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close-mid back-central unrounded vowel.[1] Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is 〈ɤ〉, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, 〈ɣ〉, which has a descender. Despite that, some writings[2] use this symbol for the voiced velar fricative, anyway.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists,[who?] perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".[citation needed]

Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was 〈Baby gamma.svg〉, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top. The symbol was revised to be 〈Ram's horns.svg〉, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gammaɣ〉.[3] Unicode provides only U+0264 ɤ LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN (HTML ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Alekano gamó [ɣɑmɤʔ] 'cucumber'
Chinese Mandarin /hē About this sound [xɤ˥]  'to drink' See Standard Chinese phonology
Southern Taiwanese /ô [ɤ˧] 'oyster'
English Cape Flats dialect[4] foot [fɤt] 'foot' Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be [u] or [ʉ] instead.[4]
Indian South African[5] Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be a weakly rounded [ʊ] instead.[5]
Received Pronunciation[6] long ago [lɒŋ ɤ̟ˈɡəʊ̯] 'long ago' Near-back; possible allophone of /ə/ between velar consonants.[6] See English phonology
White South African[7] pill [pʰɤ̟ɫ] 'pill' Near-back; allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/.[7] Also described as close [ɯ̟].[8]
Irish Ulster[9] Uladh [ɤ̟l̪ˠu] 'Ulster' Near-back.[10] See Irish phonology
Kaingang[11] [ˈᵐbɤ] 'tail' Varies between back [ɤ] and central [ɘ][12]
Korean Gyeongsang dialect 거기/geogi [ˈkɤ̘ɡɪ] 'there' See Korean phonology
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ˌmã̀ˑˈpɤ̄u̯mã̄] 'it was squeezed' May be central [ɘ] instead. See Taos phonology
Önge önge [ˈɤŋe] 'man'
Scottish Gaelic doirbh [d̪̊ɤrʲɤv] 'difficult' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sundanese ieu [iɤ] 'this'
Thai[13] ธอ/thoe [tʰɤ̟ː] 'you' Near-back[13]
Xumi Upper[14] [Htsɤ] 'crown of a head' Occasional realization of /o/.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  3. ^ Nicholas, Nick (2003). "Greek-derived IPA symbols". Greek Unicode Issues. University of California, Irvine. 
  4. ^ a b Finn (2004), p. 970.
  5. ^ a b Mesthrie (2004), p. 956.
  6. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 138.
  7. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 617.
  8. ^ Bowerman (2004), p. 936.
  9. ^ Ní Chasaide (1999:114–115)
  10. ^ Ní Chasaide (1999:114)
  11. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677 and 682.
  12. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676 and 682.
  13. ^ a b Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 25.
  14. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.

Bibliography[edit]