Close-mid back unrounded vowel
|Close-mid back unrounded vowel|
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The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ɤ⟩, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, ⟨ɣ⟩, which has a descender.
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists,[who?] perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was ⟨⟩, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top. The symbol was revised to be ⟨⟩, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gamma ⟨ɣ⟩. Unicode provides only U+0264 ɤ latin small letter rams horn (HTML
ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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- Its vowel height is close-mid, also known as high-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel (a high vowel) and a mid vowel.
- Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|Chinese||Mandarin||喝/hē||[xɤ˥] (help·info)||'to drink'||See Standard Chinese phonology|
|Taiwanese Hokkien||蚵/ô||[ɤ˧]||'oyster'||Mostly southern Taiwanese speech.|
|English||Received Pronunciation||long ago||[lɒŋ ɤ̟ˈɡəʊ̯]||'long ago'||Near-back. Allophone of /ə/ between velar consonants. See English phonology|
|Irish||Uladh||[ɤlˠu]||'Ulster'||See Irish phonology|
|Kaingang||[ˈᵐbɤ]||'tail'||Varies between back [ɤ] and central [ɘ].|
|Korean||Gyeongsang dialect||거기/geogi||[ˈkɤ̘ɡɪ]||'there'||See Korean phonology|
|Scottish Gaelic||doirbh||[d̪̊ɤrʲɤv]||'difficult'||See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
- Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
- Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685
- Tingsabadh, M. R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1): 24–28, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746