Close central unrounded vowel

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For the use of /ɨ/ on Wikipedia, see Help:IPA for English.
Close central unrounded vowel
ɨ
ï
ɯ̈
IPA number 317
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɨ
Unicode (hex) U+0268
X-SAMPA 1
Kirshenbaum i"
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
Sound

The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i. In American tradition this symbol (and the name "barred i") denote a slightly different sound, that of the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosa's;[1] see also near-close central unrounded vowel.

Occasionally, this vowel is transcribed ⟨ï⟩ (centralizedi⟩) or ⟨ɯ̈⟩ (centralized ⟨ɯ⟩).[2]

The close central unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the rare post-palatal approximant [j̈].[3]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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Occurrence[edit]

/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, occurring most commonly as an allophone in some Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (such as Proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although that is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese tupeue [tupɨə] 'to know' Asyik[4] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[5] describe this sound as such while Durie[6] describes it as closer to [ɯ]
Angor hüfᵻ [xɨβə] 'hot'
Czech Some dialects byl [bɨɫ] 'he was' Found in some eastern Moravian, Lach and Silesian dialects. See Czech phonology
Chinese Mandarin rì About this sound [ɻɨ̹˥˩] 'day' See Mandarin phonology
English Southeastern English[7] rude [ɹɨːd] 'rude' May be rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Guaraní yvy [ɨʋɨ] 'earth'
Hausa[8] [example needed] Allophone of /i/.[8]
Irish Munster[9] caora [kɨ̟ːɾˠə] 'sheep' Somewhat fronted;[9] allophone of /i/ between broad consonants.[9] See Irish phonology
Kaingang fy [ɸɨ] 'seed'
Kashinawa [example needed]
Kashmiri[10] teer [ˈt̪ɨːr] 'cold'
Latgalian[11] dyžan [ˈd̪ɨʒän̪] 'very much' See Latgalian phonology
Mongolian[12] хүчир [xutʃʰɨɾɘ̆] 'difficult'
Muisca Hycha[13] hycha [hɨʂa] 'I'
Romanian înot [ɨˈn̪o̞t̪] 'I swim' See Romanian phonology
Russian[14] ты About this sound [t̪ɨ] 'you' (singular) Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[15] [kʼsɨt] 'cold' Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent
Sama Sibutu[16] [pɨˈnɨt̪] 'beard'
Sema[17] sü [ʃɨ̀] 'to hurt' Also described as near-close [ɨ̞].[18]
Shipibo[19] tenaitianronki [ˈt̪ɨnɐi̞ti̞ɐ̃ɽõ̞ɣi̞] [translation needed] Possible realization of /ɯ/ after coronal consonants.[19]
Sirionó[20] [eˈsɨ] 'dry wood'
Swedish bi [bɨː] 'bee' Found in dialects in Närke and Bohuslän and in sociolects in Stockholm and Gothenburg. See Swedish phonology
Tamil[21] ஆனால் [äːnäːlɨ] 'but' Epenthetic vowel inserted in colloquial speech after word-final liquids; can be rounded [ʉ] instead.[21] See Tamil phonology
Tera[22] zu [zɨ] 'said'
Udmurt[23] ургетэ, ыргетэ[24] [ɨrgete] 'it growls'
Uzbek qiz [qɨz] 'girl' Allophone of /i/.
Vietnamese trưa [ʈɨə˧] 'noon' See Vietnamese phonology
Võro sysar [sɨsarʲ] 'sister'
Welsh Northern dialects[25] llun [ɬɨːn] 'picture' See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[26] nɨ [nɨ] 'be sour'

The sound of Polish ⟨y⟩ is often represented as /ɨ/, but actually it is a close-mid advanced central unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed [ɘ̟].[27] Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed ⟨e⟩, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel,[28] more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] (mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] (fronted) and [ʊ̜] (less rounded i.e. unrounded).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flemming, E., Johnson, S. (2007), "Rosa’s roses: reduced vowels in American English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37/1, pp. 83–96.
  2. ^ See e.g. Gimson (2014:133), who transcribes the unrounded central realization of the English GOOSE vowel /uː/ with the symbol [ɯ̈ː].
  3. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar".
  4. ^ Asyik, Abdul Gani (1982), "The agreement system in Acehnese" (PDF), Mon-Khmer Studies, 11: 1–33, retrieved 9 November 2012 
  5. ^ Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities, 15: 9–21 
  6. ^ Mid-vowels in Acehnese
  7. ^ Lodge (2009:174)
  8. ^ a b Schuh & Yalwa (1999:90)
  9. ^ a b c Ó Sé (2000)
  10. ^ "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription". Retrieved 16 January 2016. 
  11. ^ Nau (2011:9–10)
  12. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  13. ^ González de Perez (2005:50)
  14. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:33)
  15. ^ Hargus & Beavert (2002)
  16. ^ Allison (1979:198)
  17. ^ Teo (2014:28)
  18. ^ Teo (2012:368)
  19. ^ a b Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001:283)
  20. ^ Firestone (1965:?)
  21. ^ a b Keane (2004), p. 114.
  22. ^ Tench (2007:230)
  23. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:64, 68)
  24. ^ ургетыны [Udmurt-Russian dictionary] (in Russian) 
  25. ^ Ball (1984:?)
  26. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  27. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  28. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)

Bibliography[edit]