close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of  vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , namely the lower-case ɨ letter with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as i barred i. In American tradition this symbol (and the name "barred i") denote a slightly different sound, that of the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosa's; see also  near-close central unrounded vowel.
Occasionally, this vowel is transcribed ⟨
ï⟩ ( centralized ⟨ i⟩) or ⟨ ɯ̈⟩ (centralized ⟨ ɯ⟩). 
The close central unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the rare
post-palatal approximant [j̈]. 
Features [ edit ]
Occurrence [ edit ]
/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, occurring most commonly as an allophone in some Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (such as Proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although that is not a defining feature of the entire area).
The sound of
Polish ⟨y⟩ is often represented as /ɨ/, but actually it is a close-mid advanced central unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed [ɘ̟]. Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed ⟨e⟩, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] ( mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] ( fronted) and [ʊ̜] ( less rounded i.e. unrounded)
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
^ Flemming, E., Johnson, S. (2007), " Rosa’s roses: reduced vowels in American English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37/1, pp. 83–96.
^ See e.g. Gimson (2014:133), who transcribes the unrounded central realization of the English vowel GOOSE /uː/ with the symbol [ɯ̈ː].
^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar".
^ Asyik, Abdul Gani (1982), "The agreement system in Acehnese" (PDF), Mon-Khmer Studies, 11: 1–33, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2013 , retrieved 9 November 2012
^ Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities, 15: 9–21
^ Mid-vowels in Acehnese Archived 2010-07-14 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Phonological inventory of Paraguayan Guarani". South American Phonological Inventory Database. Berkeley: University of California. 2015.
^ "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription" . Retrieved . 16 January 2016
^ [ ургетыны Udmurt-Russian dictionary] (in Russian)
Bibliography [ edit ]
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