Close central unrounded vowel

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For the use of /ɨ/ on Wikipedia, see Help:IPA for English.
Close central unrounded vowel
ɨ
ï
IPA number 317
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɨ
Unicode (hex) U+0268
X-SAMPA 1
Kirshenbaum i"
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
Sound

The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i. In American tradition this symbol (and the name "barred i") denote a slightly different sound, that of the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosa's;[1] see also near-close central unrounded vowel.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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Occurrence[edit]

/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, but does occur as an allophone in many Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (e.g. proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although this is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese tupeue [tupɨə] 'to know' Asyik[2] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[3] describe this sound as such while Durie[4] describes it as closer to [ɯ]
Angor hüfᵻ [xɨβə] 'hot'
Czech Some dialects był [bɨɫ] 'he was' Found in some eastern Moravian, Lach and Silesian dialects. See Czech phonology
Chinese Mandarin rì About this sound [ɻɨ̹˥˩]  'day' See Mandarin phonology
English Southeastern English[5] rude [ɹɨːd] 'rude' May be rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Guaraní yvy [ɨʋɨ] 'earth'
Hausa[6] [example needed] Allophone of /i/.[6]
Irish Munster[7] caora [kɨ̟ːɾˠə] 'sheep' Somewhat fronted;[7] allophone of /i/ between broad consonants.[7] See Irish phonology
Kaingang fy [ɸɨ] 'seed'
Kashinawa [example needed]
Kashmiri[8] teer [ˈt̪ɨːr] 'cold'
Latgalian[9] dyžan [ˈd̪ɨʒän̪] 'very much' See Latgalian phonology
Mongolian[10] хүчир [xutʃʰɨɾɘ̆] 'difficult'
Muisca Hycha[11] hycha [hɨʂa] 'I'
Romanian înot [ɨˈn̪o̞t̪] 'I swim' See Romanian phonology
Russian[12] ты About this sound [t̪ɨ]  'you' (singular) Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[13] [kʼsɨt] 'cold' Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent
Sama Sibutu[14] [pɨˈnɨt̪] 'beard'
Sema[15] sü [ʃɨ̀] 'to hurt' Also described as near-close [ɨ̞].[16]
Shipibo[17] tenaitianronki [ˈt̪ɨnɐi̞ti̞ɐ̃ɽõ̞ɣi̞] [translation needed] Possible realization of /ɯ/ after coronal consonants.[17]
Sirionó[18] [eˈsɨ] 'dry wood'
Swedish bi [bɨː] 'bee' Found in dialects in Närke and Bohuslän and in sociolects in Stockholm and Gothenburg. See Swedish phonology
Tamil[19] ஆனால் [äːnäːlɨ] 'but' Epenthetic vowel inserted in colloquial speech after word-final liquids; can be rounded [ʉ] instead.[19] See Tamil phonology
Tera[20] zu [zɨ] 'said'
Udmurt[21] ургетэ, ыргетэ[22] [ɨrgete] 'it growls'
Uzbek qiz [qɨz] 'girl' Allophone of /i/.
Vietnamese trưa [ʈɨə˧] 'noon' See Vietnamese phonology
Võro sysar [sɨsarʲ] 'sister'
Welsh Northern dialects[23] llun [ɬɨːn] 'picture' See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[24] nɨ [nɨ] 'be sour'

Polish y is often transcribed as /ɨ/, but actually it is a close-mid advanced central unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed [ɘ̟].[25] Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed e, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] (mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] (fronted) and [ʊ̜] (less rounded i.e. unrounded).[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flemming, E., Johnson, S. (2007), "Rosa’s roses: reduced vowels in American English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37/1, pp. 83–96.
  2. ^ Asyik, Abdul Gani (1982), "The agreement system in Acehnese" (PDF), Mon-Khmer Studies 11: 1–33, retrieved 9 November 2012 
  3. ^ Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities 15: 9–21 
  4. ^ Mid-vowels in Acehnese
  5. ^ Lodge (2009:174)
  6. ^ a b Schuh & Yalwa (1999:90)
  7. ^ a b c Ó Sé (2000)
  8. ^ "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription". Retrieved 16 January 2016. 
  9. ^ Nau (2011:9–10)
  10. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  11. ^ González de Perez (2005:50)
  12. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:33)
  13. ^ Hargus & Beavert (2002)
  14. ^ Allison (1979:198)
  15. ^ Teo (2014:28)
  16. ^ Teo (2012:368)
  17. ^ a b Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001:283)
  18. ^ Firestone (1965:?)
  19. ^ a b Keane (2004), p. 114.
  20. ^ Tench (2007:230)
  21. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:64, 68)
  22. ^ ургетыны [Udmurt-Russian dictionary] (in Russian) 
  23. ^ Ball (1984:?)
  24. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  25. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  26. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Allison, E. Joseph (1979), "The phonology of Sibutu Sama: A language of the southern Philippines" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics 3 (2): 63–104 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-0861-9 
  • Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence; Smith-Stark, Thomas C (1986), "Meso-America as a linguistic area", Language 62 (3): 530–570, doi:10.2307/415477, JSTOR 415477 
  • Firestone, Homer L. (1965), "Description and classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní language.", Janua linguarum, Series Practica (16), London: Mouton & Co 
  • Hargus, Sharon; Beavert, Virginia (2002), "Predictable versus Underlying Vocalism in Yakima Sahaptin", International Journal of American Linguistics 68 (3): 316–340, doi:10.1086/466492 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Nau, Nicole (2011), A short grammar of Latgalian, Munich: Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-86288-055-3 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Schuh, Russell G.; Yalwa, Lawan D. (1999), "Hausa", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–95, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 228–234, doi:10.1017/s0025100307002952 
  • Teo, Amos B. (2012), "Sumi (Sema)", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 42 (03): 365–373, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000254 
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5 
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 31 (2): 281–285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109