|Clostridium botulinum stained with gentian violet.|
(Metchnikoff 1908) Bergey et al. 1923
Clostridium sporogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to the genus Clostridium. Like other strains of Clostridium, it is an anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that produces oval, subterminal endospores and is commonly found in soil. Unlike Clostridium botulinum, it does not produce the botulinum neurotoxins. In colonized animals, it has a mutualistic rather than pathogenic interaction with the host.
It is being investigated as a way to deliver cancer-treating drugs to tumours in patients. C. sporogenes is often used as a surrogate for C. botulinum when testing the efficacy of commercial sterilisation.
C. sporogenes colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract, but is only present in a subset of the population; in the intestine, it uses tryptophan to synthesize indole and subsequently 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA) – a type of auxin (plant hormone) – which serves as a potent antioxidant within the human body and brain. IPA is an even more potent scavenger of hydroxyl radicals than melatonin. Similar to melatonin but unlike other antioxidants, it scavenges radicals without subsequently generating reactive and pro-oxidant intermediate compounds. C. sporogenes is the only bacteria known to synthesize 3-indolepropionic acid in vivo at levels which are subsequently detectable in the blood stream of the host.
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Production of IPA was shown to be completely dependent on the presence of gut microflora and could be established by colonization with the bacterium Clostridium sporogenes.
IPA metabolism diagram
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- "3-Indolepropionic acid". Human Metabolome Database. University of Alberta. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
Indole-3-propionate (IPA), a deamination product of tryptophan formed by symbiotic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. 3-Indolepropionic acid has been shown to prevent oxidative stress and death of primary neurons and neuroblastoma cells exposed to the amyloid beta-protein in the form of amyloid fibrils, one of the most prominent neuropathologic features of Alzheimer's disease. 3-Indolepropionic acid also shows a strong level of neuroprotection in two other paradigms of oxidative stress. (PMID 10419516 )
Origin: • Endogenous • Microbial
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[Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA)] has previously been identified in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of humans, but its functions are not known. ... In kinetic competition experiments using free radical-trapping agents, the capacity of IPA to scavenge hydroxyl radicals exceeded that of melatonin, an indoleamine considered to be the most potent naturally occurring scavenger of free radicals. In contrast with other antioxidants, IPA was not converted to reactive intermediates with pro-oxidant activity.
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- Attwood G, Li D, Pacheco D, Tavendale M (2006). "Production of indolic compounds by rumen bacteria isolated from grazing ruminants". J. Appl. Microbiol. 100 (6): 1261–71. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02896.x. PMID 16696673.
- Zhang LS, Davies SS (April 2016). "Microbial metabolism of dietary components to bioactive metabolites: opportunities for new therapeutic interventions". Genome Med 8 (1): 46. doi:10.1186/s13073-016-0296-x. PMC 4840492. PMID 27102537.
Lactobacillus spp. convert tryptophan to indole-3-aldehyde (I3A) through unidentified enzymes . Clostridium sporogenes convert tryptophan to IPA , likely via a tryptophan deaminase. ... IPA also potently scavenges hydroxyl radicals
Table 2: Microbial metabolites: their synthesis, mechanisms of action, and effects on health and disease
Figure 1: Molecular mechanisms of action of indole and its metabolites on host physiology and disease
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