Cloud cover (also known as cloudiness, cloudage or cloud amount) refers to the fraction of the sky obscured by clouds when observed from a particular location. Okta is the usual unit of measurement of the cloud cover. The cloud cover is correlated to the sunshine duration as the least cloudy locales are the sunniest ones while the cloudiest areas are the least sunny places.
The global cloud cover averages around 0.68 when analysing clouds with optical depth larger than 0.1. This value is lower when considering clouds with an optical depth larger than 2 (0.56) and higher when counting subvisible cirrus clouds.
Role in the climate system
Clouds play multiple critical roles in the climate system. In particular, being bright objects in the visible part of the solar spectrum, they efficiently reflect light to space and thus contribute to the cooling of the planet. Cloud cover thus plays an important role in the energetic balance of the atmosphere and a variation of it is a consequence of and to the climate change expected by recent studies.
Cloud cover values only vary by 0.03 from year to year, whereas the local, day to day variability in cloud amount typically rises to 0.3 over the globe. Most data sets agree on the fact that the land is covered by 0.10-0.15 less cloud than the oceans.
Lastly, there is a latitudinal variation in the cloud cover, such that around 20°N there are regions with 0.10 less cloudiness than the global mean. Almost the same variation (0.15 instead of 0.10) is found 20°S. On the other hand, in the storm regions of the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes were found to have with 0.15-0.25 more cloudiness than the global mean at 60°S. On average, about 52% of Earth is cloud-covered at any moment. Some places on Earth are almost always cloudy such as the Amazon Rainforest and some others are almost always clear such as the Sahara Desert. The largest region where the mean annual cloud cover is the lowest comprises whole North Africa, the Sahara Desert, the Arabia; the mean annual cloud cover is lower than 2/10 over this vast zone. There is also a vast area in the eastern Sahara Desert where the mean annual cloud cover drops to 1/10 or even less.
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- Huschke, Ralph E. (1970) . "Cloud cover". Glossary of Meteorology (2nd ed.). Boston: American Meteorological Society. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Stubenrauch, C. J.; Rossow, W. B.; Kinne, S.; Ackerman, S.; Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H; Di Girolamo, L.; Getzewich, B.; Guignard, A.; Heidinger, A.; Maddux, B. C.; Menzel, W.P; Minnis, P.; Pearl, C.; Platnick, S.; Poulsen, C.; Reidi, J.; Sun-Mack, S; Walther, A.; Winker, D.; Zeng, S.; Zhao, G. (2013). "Assessment of global cloud datasets from satellites: Project and Database initiated by GEWEX Radiation Panel" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94: 1031–1049. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00117.1.
- IPCC Third Assessment Report Chapter 7. Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks (Atmospheric Processes and Feedbacks 7.2) (Report). International Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
It has extensive coverage of cloud-climate interactions
- National Geographic Almanac of Geography, ISBN 0-7922-3877-X,page67
- McIntosh, D. H. (1972) Meteorological Glossary, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, Met. O. 842, A.P. 897, 319 p.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cloud cover.|
- NSDL.arm.gov, Glossary of Atmospheric Terms, From the National Science Digital Library's Atmospheric Visualization Collection.
- Earthobersvatory.nasa.gov, Monthly maps of global cloud cover from NASA's Earth Observatory
- International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), NASA's data products on their satellite observations
- NASA composite satellite image.