The Co-operative Group

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"The Co-op" redirects here. This is commonly used in the UK to refer to a federation of consumers' co-operatives which share a common branding and which are often mistakenly understood to be a single business - of which the largest is The Co-operative Group. For more information see see British co-operative movement.
"Cooperative Wholesale Society" redirects here. For general information on organisations of this name, see Co-operative Wholesale Society.
Co-operative Group Limited
Consumer cooperative
Industry Retailing
Founded December 13, 1844 (December 13, 1844)[1][2]
Headquarters One Angel Square,
NOMA, Manchester
, United Kingdom
Number of locations
4,900 stores
Key people
Allan Leighton
(Group Chair)
Richard Pennycook
(Chief Executive)
Services Grocery retailing
Financial services
Travel agency
Funeral services
Legal services
Electrical
Revenue Increase£9,746. million (2014)
Number of employees
Over 70,000 (2015)
Subsidiaries Manx Co-operative Society (Est. 1920)[3]
The Co-operative Bank (20%)
The Co-operative Electrical
The Co-operative Food
The Co-operative Funeralcare
The Co-operative Insurance
The Co-operative Legal Services
The Co-operative Travel (30%)
Website co-operative.coop

The Co-operative Group is a British consumer cooperative with a diverse family of retail businesses including: Food, Insurance, Funeralcare, Legal Services and Electricals. It is owned by its members who are democratically involved in setting the strategy of the business, deciding how its social goals are achieved and who share in its profits. With approximately 8 million [4] members it is the largest organisation of this type in the UK and membership is open to everyone aged 16 and over, provided they share the values and principles upon which the group was founded. The Co-operative Group has adopted The Co-operative brand which is used by many consumers' co-operatives in the UK to provide a consistent experience for customers using the majority of co-operative stores in the UK. The Co-operative Group is by far the largest of the consumers' co-operatives which collectively are often referred to in the UK as The Co-op. The business operates over 3,500 outlets and its slogan is "Here for you for life".

The Co-operative Group has over 70,000 employees across the UK. The group has headquarters in Manchester on a listed eight-building estate which includes the CIS Tower, Hanover Building, New Century House and Redfern Building.[5] The group's head office is One Angel Square which opened in 2013. The Group manages the Co-operative brand and The Co-operative Federal Trading Services, formerly the Co-operative Retail Trading Group (CRTG), which sources and promotes goods for food stores of the co-operative movement.[6]

The Co-operative Group can be traced back to the original Rochdale Pioneers Society which was formed in Rochdale in 1844 and whose success proved a catalyst for co-operative development in the UK over the following years. Owing to the rapid growth of co-operatives during the 1840s and 1850s, many co-ops grouped together and established a wholesaling operation to assist in sourcing quality unadulterated produce in 1863, with this new business eventually becoming known as the Co-operative Wholesale Society (CWS). Over the following 100 years the CWS developed into a highly successful and innovative business, expanding significantly into manufacturing and in sourcing produce from right across the world. The CWS is also credited with developing the first national grocery distribution network and some of the first own brand products (which both later became standard features of supermarket businesses). Later the CWS expanded into banking and insurance by first providing these services for co-operative societies and later to the general public, paving the way for its current insurance business and The Co-operative Bank. Following the Second World War the CWS, along with the entire UK co-op movement, entered a period of long decline and lost much of its business to the emerging supermarket chains. By the 1990s it looked as if the business's future was in doubt.

Following a botched hostile takeover attempt in 1997 the CWS led a series of significant mergers with other co-operative societies (notably the CRS) in order to drive business efficiency and following these mergers the business was renamed to 'The Co-operative Group'. During this period the co-op attempted to modernise itself by selling many of its older and less profitable businesses and expanding heavily into its core convenience store operation. It was hoped that by expanding, and gaining the economies of scale associated with this, then the business's future could be assured. It was under this climate that the then chief executive, Peter Marks, established a bold attempt to rapidly expand the business further by acquiring the Somerfield supermarket chain, by merging its bank with the Britannia Building Society and by attempting to buy a further 600 bank branches from the Lloyds Bank. Ultimately the latter of these failed and the business suffered from the huge debt gained by the Somerfield acquisition which was completed just as the 2008 Financial Crisis was impacting on consumer spending. This debt, coupled with a £1.5bn 'black hole' in the accounts of The Co-operative Bank (resulting from bad loans gained through the Britannia merger) and an unfit governance arrangement led to the near collapse of the Group in 2013. Following the sale of its Farmcare and pharmacy businesses and through an ambitious plan to recapitalise its bank the co-op was able to secure its future. In 2014 the Group outlined plans to rebuild the business through once again focussing on its core chain of convenience stores, redefining its membership scheme to encourage member engagement and in relaunching its once significant campaigning activity (by joining forces with the British Red Cross to tackle social isolation).

The business has long established itself as an ethical retailer. Alongside being the only national retailer to share its profits with its staff and customers it was the first major UK retailer to champion Fairtrade, it invests significant funds in community projects, it pioneered providing useful nutritional information on its own brand food, it was the first to launch a range of environmentally friendly household products, it invested millions of pounds in renewable energy generation and it won awards for driving up animal welfare standards. For more information on this work, see The_Co-operative_Group#Ethical_trading_and_campaigning

History[edit]

The Co-operative Group developed over 165 years from the merger of co-operative wholesale societies and many independent retail societies, changing from purely a wholesale operation to a major retailer. The group's roots are traced to the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers which was established in 1844 [7] and to the eight Rochdale Principles which they founded - which notably introduced the idea of distributing a share of profits according to purchases through a scheme which became to be known as 'the divi'. Though The Co-operative Group incorporates the original Rochdale Pioneers' society, the business's core operation for much of its history was its wholesaling operation.

An advert for CWS candles

This began in 1863 when the North of England Co-operative Wholesale Industrial and Provident Society Limited was launched in Manchester by 300 individual co-operatives in Yorkshire and Lancashire. By 1872, it was known as the 'Co-operative Wholesale Society' (CWS) and it was wholly owned by the co-operatives which traded with it.[8][9][10] The CWS grew rapidly and supplied produce to co-operative stores across England, though many co-ops only sourced around a third of their produce through the CWS. It was this continued and fierce competition with other non-co-operative wholesalers which led to the CWS becoming highly innovative. By 1890 the CWS had established significant branches in Leeds, Blackburn, Bristol, Nottingham and Huddersfield alongside a number of factories which produced biscuits (Manchester), Boots (Leicester), Soap (Durham) and textiles (Batley). In an attempt to drive down the significant cost of transportation for produce the CWS even began its own shipping line which initially sailed from Goole docks to parts of continental Europe. One of the CWS's steamships, the Pioneer, was the first commercial vessel to use the Manchester Ship Canal. This rapid expansion continued so that by the outbreak of World War One the CWS had major offices in the USA, Denmark, Australia and a tea plantation in India.[9]

The head offices for The Co-operative Bank and the CIS in Manchester's 'co-op quarter'.

There was a great deal of consideration on the role of the CWS in the British co-operative movement around the turn of the nineteenth century. Many, fiercely local, societies saw the CWS as a valuable supplier but did not want to exclusively purchase produce from them owing to perceptions of high cost (mostly transport costs) and unreliable quality - some things the CWS were at pains to resolve. In contrast to this, the CWS had its aim to be the centrepoint for the whole co-operative movement in the UK and lobbied hard for loyalty from co-ops. To this end, they started to assist the local retail societies in more ways than simply as a wholesaler. The CWS Bank, the precursor to The Co-operative Bank, financed loans for societies to use for expansion through purchasing new buildings, land or new equipment. After the acquisition of the Co-operative Insurance Society in 1913, the CWS also provided insurance services to members and the CWS also began providing legal services - all business which remain today. It was hoped that these financial tie, as well as the CWS corporate dividend, would increase loyalty to the CWS.[9]

Post-war decline[edit]

During the second world war rationing led to an effective pause in any major changes to the co-operative movement in the UK with the CWS becoming highly involved in sourcing overseas goods for UK consumers and manufacturing wartime goods. During this time the CWS began planning for the future as even then those which ran the business could see the potential disruption to the retail market that the new multiple grocers could have. In 1944 the CWS published a report entitled 'Policy and Programme for Post War Development' which focused on methods for revitalising the co-op movement after the war had ended. The report suggested merging the CWS with the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society (SCWS), reducing the number of co-operative societies through mergers, beginning the of manufacturing into the production of white goods and the expansion of The Co-operative Bank. This report received much criticism from the fiercely local co-operative societies and the proposals of the report were only partly and slowly implemented. There was some attempt to modernise the co-operative stores around this time. After the London Co-operative Society opened its first self-service shop in 1942 the co-operative movement led the way on the development of self-service stores to the point where, by the 1950s, 90% of self-service shops in the UK were run by co-operatives.[11] Despite this the market share and the number of members of the society began to dwindle and - importantly - so did the member share capital which societies used to invest.[9]

The Co-operative Independent Commission (1958) was tasked with investigating the decline in the co-op movement and for making recommendations for revitalising the movement in the future. Its recommendations had two main thrusts: that a strong response to the emerging multiple-store supermarket chains (including the appointment of professional managers[10]) was needed and that the co-op needed to come to terms with the rise in consumerism and to move away from its association with the 'working poor' rather than a more prosperous working class. This was not to say that the co-op had not been modernising, notably through opening self-service stores and supermarkets. However, the report suggested that the co-op needed to become more responsive to the grocery market by being more competitive on price, by rationalising on unprofitable stores and by recruiting professional managers. The CWS responded with operation facelift in 1968 which introduced the first national co-operative branding, the 'CO-OP' cloverleaf. Though operation facelift led to some improvements the the movement (including the CWS) remained largely unreformed with its grocery market share continuing its downward trend.[10] Again, it was suggested that societies merge to form regional societies to improve their competitiveness through the economies of scale. Many local co-op societies strongly resisted such mergers but, as their financial situation declined, many were forced to merge to create regional societies or with either the CRS or the SCWS to avoid failing. Consolidation within the movement was considerable and in 1973 serious financial mismanagement of the SCWS Bank led to the SCWS and the CWS merging to form a single UK-wide wholesale society. The merger did highlight the potential of The Co-operative Bank as it was building a sizeable base of customers (notably local authorities, mutuals and local groups alongside co-operative societies) and became an increasingly significant proportion of the CWS's annual profits. The growth in the bank largely related to its aggressive expansion into the personal banking market and with the pioneering of free banking (1972) in the UK nine years before any of its larger rivals.[9]

The Co-op superstore Lisburn Road, Belfast, shown here in 1996.

The co-operative movement's market share and profitability continued to decline during the 1970s and 80s in part due to a number of reasons. Firstly the process of de-industrialisation which characterised the period led to serious economic difficulties in many of the movements heartlands (notably the northern industrial towns) which disproportionally impacted on the societies through a decrease in consumer spending despite the British economy seeing a rise in consumer disposable income overall. This was largely due to the strong increase in inequality in the UK at this time and the co-operative movement was not well placed to tap into this increase in middle class spending due to the geographic spread of its stores and the co-op's historic association as the shop for the 'working poor'. Secondly redevelopment projects in many cities between the 1950s and 1970s often moved people from rows of terraced housing (which featured co-op stores dotted throughout) to newer purpose-built estates, with around 18,000 co-op stores closing as they become redundant in this way. Thirdly the time was a period of notable inflation and a strong pound which led to a wave of cheap imported goods - this devastated much of the UKs manufacturing businesses (including the CWS). By the 1980s it became clear that the trend in the retail sector was towards large (often out of town) supermarkets and hypermarkets with hundreds of them appearing across the UK. The co-operative movement did build some superstores, having 74 by 1986, but often their development and competitiveness was hindered by the lack of a national distribution network and price competitiveness. In order to try and improve the collective buying power of the movement the CWS acted to reposition itself from a wholesaler (from which societies can choose to buy) to a 'buying group' (where the CWS buys on behalf of) as a further attempt to increase the proportion of produce sold through co-operative stores which was sourced through the CWS. Though this did work to increase loyalty, it was not until the 2000s with the development of the Co-operative Retail Trading Group that the CWS became the de-facto wholesaler for co-operative stores.[9]

During the 1980s the CWS began to merge with a number of failing co-operative societies (after the CRS began to struggle financially from the number of failing co-ops that it had merged with), the CWS having returned to direct retailing after its merger with the SCWS the decade before. It was these mergers with consumers' co-operatives which led to the co-op having both corporate (co-op societies) and individual members and hence making it both a primary and secondary co-operative.[10] The CWS's expansion into direct retailing (especially after the mergers of the 2000s) led to the CWS becoming a such a highly visible business in the UK. The legacy of this was that many people consider the British co-operative movement to be one business, The Co-operative Group.[9]

Modernisations attempts and hostile takeovers[edit]

By the start of the 1990s the co-operative movement's share of the UK grocery market had declined to the point where the entire business model was under question. This was at a time where many building societies were demutualising as many of the public preferred the short term financial gain of the windfall payment over the perceived lack of benefits from the mutual model. For a time it seemed as though the mutual or co-op model was almost dead - though around the 2008 financial crisis almost all of the demutualised building societies either failed or were forced to merge with a larger bank for support reigniting much debate on the virtues of the mutual and co-op models. The co-op's reputation was not helped in this respect by the factions within the movement, notably the strong rivalry between the CRS and the CWS, acting in a manner which exacerbated the belief held by many members of the public that, rather than working for the interests of all members, co-ops were largely acting in the self-interests of a dominant 'clique' of members within each society. Together these crises meant that the 1990s would become a crucial decade if 'The Co-op' was to survive. In order to raise capital to invest in its food stores (and also the increasingly successful The Co-operative Bank) the CWS sold many of its factories to Andrew Regan in 1994 for £111 million in what initially appeared to be a highly beneficial arrangement for the CWS, however later it appeared that those involved in this deal did so without the CWS Board's permission and had been also handing confidential CWS files to Mr Regan. Notably, one Sunday newspaper printed the CWS's annual report before it had been officially released. This would later pose a huge threat to the CWS when in 1997 Mr Regan posed a highly ambitious £1.2bn hostile takeover attempt of the CWS.[12] This shocked many in the movement and consolidated support for the CWS as the 'linchpin' of the movement in a way that many had previous opposed. The CWS, under the leadership of Graham Melmoth, was able to defend itself from this takeover bid largely by informing Mr Regan's creditors that his hostile takeover was based upon dubiously sourced data and bad business practices. The deal also failed because Mr Regan had greatly misunderstood the CWS's complicated ownership structure, assuming that by paying off the 500,000 'active members' he could gain control of the CWS. Though this strategy worked for the carpetbaggers working to demutualise UK building societies at the time, it failed to recognise that the ownership actually lay with millions of ordinary members and that many of these 'active members' were staunch co-operators and who would be unlikely to back the bid. After investigations by a private detective and a subsequent criminal court case, Regan's bid was rejected and two senior CWS executives were dismissed and imprisoned for fraud. An arrest warrant was issued for Andrew Regan in 1999 however he had already emigrated to Monaco.[9][13]

The shock that Mr Regan's bid sent through the co-operative movement has been attributed with sowing the seeds for the reduced hostilities between the CWS and CRS factions which eventually ended with the CRS becoming a member of the CRTG before fully merging with the CWS in 1999.[14] The merger took two years to complete and the launch of the newly combined business, named The Co-operative Group, was timed with the release of the 2001 Co-operative Commission report, chaired by John Monks, which proposed a strategy of modernisation.[15] The report focused on improving store design and building a consistent branding whilst also driving for efficiency savings to make the food business more competitive - the similarity in conclusions between the 1919, 1958 and 2001 reports highlights the distinct lack of progress within the movement during this time. The 2001 report also highlighted the need to market what it called 'The Co-operative Advantage', a favourite idea of Graham Melmoth, which suggested that commercial success would provide the funding for the social goals of the movement which (when the public saw a tangible benefit to their own lives) would provide a competitive advantage to the co-op which would further its commercial success - a virtuous cycle. Unlike Gaitskell Commission's 1958 report the recommendations of the report, notably the major update to "The Co-operative brand" and the re-launch of the membership dividend scheme, were largely adopted by the co-operative movement including The Co-operative Group. These changes to the business are largely credited with the successes in profitability and the achievement in social goals which improved in the years after the Co-operative Commission report.[16]

As a part of the CWS-CRS merger, new governance arrangements were designed with the 'independent societies' becoming part owners of the new Group and their representatives were elected to the group's national board. The largest change, however was the much stronger representation for the individual members of the retailing operation with a string of regional boards and area committees designed to facilitate a clear democracy and representation on a local and national level. The composite nature of The Group as both a primary and a secondary co-operative led to the business having both individual members and corporate members (independent co-operative societies) which had to be included in any democratic structure. This led to a governance arrangement which was complicated and not understood by many individual members and which led to relatively few members becoming democratically engaged with the business. During 2007 the then chief executive Martin Beaumont was critical of the lack of commercial expertise on the board, foreshadowing the conclusions drawn from later Myners review into the near failure of the business during 2013 which was (in part) due to an unfit governance arrangement.[10] In 2014 the governance arrangements were completely redesigned to reflect the recommendations of the Myners review - for more information see the governance section.

Establishing the 'co-operative difference'[edit]

Though the modernisation of the business was most noticeable after the 1997 takeover attempt, this is not to say that modernisation of the CWS had not been under way for some time. Since 1993 the CRTG had been working to switch the role of the CWS from 'selling to' to 'buying for' co-operative societies as a way of maximising the economies of scale to become more competitive to the major supermarkets. Since the 1960s the co-op had been following retail trends after they had occurred, always having to catch up, in a way that it led the changes before the second world war. Many leaders in the movement were began to appreciate that this 'me too' approach to retailing was not working, for example expanding into hypermarkets after Tesco and Sainsburys had already developed a dominant position but without the resources to compete on price. After the 1997 strategic review the business suggested that it close the majority of its hypermarkets and department stores and instead focus on its core chain of convenience stores.[9] As a further attempt to differentiate itself from its larger competitors The Co-operative Bank had introduced an ethical policy in 1992 and this, along with its technical innovation, was well received with customers. The CWS decided that, though it had always aimed to trade responsibly (for example though the working conditions in its factories and plantations as well as its boycott of South African produce during the years of Apartheid[17]), by cementing its 'ethical' credentials in a series of strong and clear policy commitments it could work to convince the public of the 'co-operative difference'. This move posed a bold step for the CWS leadership as this was a wholly new approach for such a large business. As a part of this, the co-op worked with The Fairtrade Foundation to help introduce the Fairtrade Mark in the UK, it was an early adopter of the RSPCA's 'Freedom Foods' animal welfare certification, it introduced the first supermarket range of 'environmentally friendly' household products and the first range of toiletries certified by Cruelty Free International as not tested on animals. This new adoption of an ethical strategy was only part of the CWS's changes. The co-op had been pioneering on notable changes to its packaging with nutritional labelling on food (1985) and later introduced Braille on its packaging. Many own brand products were also reformulated to reduce the amount of salt, sugar and fat in order to make the product range more healthy. So successful was this initiative that competitors such as Sainsburys and Marks and Spencer began to follow aggressively on these initiatives.

Example of the 'Co-Op Welcome' branding from Stansted Mountfitchet.
Example of the 'Late Shop' branding on the co-op store in Whitnash.

In an attempt to build upon the success which was being felt around the increasing public perception of the co-op as an ethical retailer and to implement what was a core recommendation of the 2001 Co-operatives Commission, The Co-operative Group launched a brand panel which was tasked with developing a single consistent national branding standard for the movement. For decades marketing by co-ops was confusing for many customers with different societies adopting different store names (notably 'Co-op Welcome and 'Co-op Late Shop'), various shop fascia designs and inconsistent marketing. Also the cloverleaf design of the CO-OP logo was seen by many as too associated with the years of neglect and decline within the movement and hence The Co-operative Group aimed to launch a totally new brand. The new "The Co-operative" branding was first displayed at the 2005 co-operative congress and became the first brand which could bring together all of the co-operative businesses (both those of The Group and the independent societies) under a single consistent brand. With the brand came a set of standards which any outlet using the brand must adhere to - to maintain a high standard of impression with customers. A twelve month pilot of the new branding followed and these suggested that a significant growth in sales followed the re-branding of stores, largely understood to result from a major impact on public perceptions. Not all of the independent societies joined this new branding however, with United Co-operatives (prior to its merger with the Group), the Scottish Midland Co-operative Society and the Lincolnshire Co-operative Society not adopting the new brand design. In combination with the new "The Co-operative" redesign, the co-op sought to relaunch the co-operative membership scheme using a single consistent national standard and featuring the re-introduction of the member dividend.[9]

Together this renewed focus on responsible trading, the redesign of "The Co-operative" brand and the reintroduction of the member dividend helped to build the start of a renewed relationship with the British public. In 2006 a survey found the co-op to be the most trusted major retailer in the UK and almost six million people joined the membership scheme over the following five years. Even after The Co-operative Group's financial crisis of 2013 the 'Have Your Say' survey found that more than 70% of the public agreed that the co-op 'tries to do the right thing'.[18]

Expansion after 2000[edit]

Following the integration of the CRS and CWS into the new Group structure it became evident that the business required significant modernisation and rationalisation of its businesses. The co-op followed by selling its loss-making footwear and milk processing businesses as well as some aspect of its agricultural production. The business also sold many of its larger supermarkets and hypermarkets using the funds to expand further into the convenience store sector, notably through adding 600 stores following the acquisition of the Alldays chain.[19] The co-op's distribution facilities were significantly invested in, notably by opening a purpose built national distribution centre in Coventry during 2006.[20] As a result of their steady expansion after 2000 the pharmacy and Funeralcare businesses were performing well, however the farming business was poorly aligned with the needs of the food stores and so was significantly reorganised in 2007 to focus the farmland on producing produce for the businesses food stores. The co-op also moved into new business opportunities during this period adding a legal services (providing conveyancing, will writing and probate services) and an Energy generation business, the latter included significant investment in renewable energy generation which formed another key aspect of the co-ops drive towards its ethical image. This period was successful for the co-op in increasing its profitability and in beginning to rationalise what had been a sprawling but rather unsuccessful conglomerate. Many however believed that for the co-op to survive in the long term it would need to merge with other large co-operative societies.

At the start of 2007, the group began discussions with United Co-operatives, then the UK's second-largest co-operative, about a merger of the societies.[21] Such a merger was expected to lead to significant efficiency savings owing to the large duplication of services which the two societies provided. On 16 February 2007, the boards announced they were to merge subject to members' approval, and on 28 July 2007 the newly enlarged Co-operative Group was launched. At the same time, the group transferred the engagements of the Scottish Nith Valley Co-operative Society which, while trading profitably, was suffering a burden with its pension fund commitments.[22]

Before the United merger was complete the chief executive, Peter Marks, was already preparing another significant acquisition as he believed that only though significant growth could the co-operative become truly sustainable in the long term. In July 2008, the group announced a deal to purchase the Somerfield chain of 900 supermarkets and convenience stores.[23][24] The sale was completed on 2 March 2009, costing £1.57 bn.[23] Also in 2008, the group bought ten convenience stores trading as Bell's and Jackson's in the north and east of England from J Sainsbury.[25] In autumn 2008, Lothian, Borders & Angus Co-operative Society members voted to transfer of engagements to the Co-operative Group. The transfer came into effect on 13 December 2008.[26] The group announced in November 2008 that despite the economic downturn, half year profits had risen by 35.6 percent to £292.6 million for the six months to June 2008.[27] In January 2009, Co-operative Financial Services and the Britannia Building Society announced their intention to merge, subject to regulatory and member approval. Members of the Plymouth & South West Co-operative Society joined the Co-operative Group in September 2009.[28][citation needed]

The group's reputation suffered a blow in 2007 after it was fined £250,000 because 38 of its 41 stores in Sussex failed fire safety inspections.[29] It was fined £210,000 in 2010 after an investigation at one of its Southampton stores.[30]

CIS Tower and One Angel Square in Manchester.

In May 2010, the Co-operative Group unveiled plans to build a new headquarters in Manchester. The initial phase of construction commenced on Miller Street near the existing estate where the Group has been based since 1863. The project, entitled NOMA, aims to reflect ethical values of the organisation in its design, construction and its relationship with employees and the surrounding communities. The centrepiece of the initial development is One Angel Square, one of the largest in Europe to have a BREEAM outstanding distinction as a result of its high sustainable energy credentials. Occupation of the new building began in early 2013.[31]

2013 financial crisis[edit]

In May 2013, after recognising inadequate capital levels in its banking group, Euan Sutherland took over from Peter Marks as chief executive.[32] That month Moody's downgraded the bank's credit rating by six notches to junk status (Ba3) and the bank's chief executive Barry Tootell resigned.[33] The difficulties stem largely from the commercial loans of the Britannia Building Society, acquired in the 2009 merger.[34] The Co-operative Insurance sold its life insurance and pensions business to Royal London releasing about £200m in capital, and planned to dispose of its general insurance business. Further financial restructuring was expected.[32]

On 5 June 2013 Richard Pennycook, former finance director of Morrisons, was named Co-operative Group's finance director, and Richard Pym, former chief executive of Alliance & Leicester, as chair of the Co-operative Banking Group and the Co-operative Bank.[35] The group lost £2.5 billion in 2013,[36] and debt stood at £1.4 billion at the end of 2013.[37][38]

In May 2014 a special members meeting agreed to restructure the way members elected the board, largely along the lines suggested in a governance report by Lord Myners.[39][40] The Myners review was very critical of the co-operative movement's (and especially the Group's) lack of response to the 1958 commission report and for the failure of the Group's governance since the merger of CWS and CRS in 2000. The review also underlined the requirement to focus on making and retaining annual profits which can be invested in the long-term future of the business and to avoid the risks of over-expansion and 'empire-building' as had nearly destroyed the business in 2013.[10]

During 2014 the group sold a series of businesses to reduce debt.[41] The Co-operative Pharmacy was sold for £620 million to the Bestway Group, Co-operative Farms was sold for £249 million to the Wellcome Trust, and Sunwin (the group's cash transportation business) was sold for £41.5 million to Cardtronics.[42]

In April 2015 The Co-operative Group announced that it had reduced its debt levels by approximately 40% (to £808m) and had made a small profit during 2014 but will not pay a dividend to members until 2018.[43][44]

Businesses[edit]

Current[edit]

The Co-operative Food in Tilehurst, Berkshire

The group has 85% of the co-operative retail business in the UK and substantial shares in wider markets, including travel and funerals.

The group's food retailing business, which trades using ""The Co-operative Food"" brand, is the largest division of the group with over 2,700 stores of various sizes and the biggest geographical spread of any retailer. The stores are mainly in the convenience and medium-sized supermarket sector, with some larger superstores.

The Co-operative Group operates the UK's largest funeral director with over 800 funeral homes, many of which retain their private names whilst others operate using the The Co-operative Funeralcare brand.

The society owns The Co-operative Insurance.

The Co-operative Legal Services is a national legal services provider. Services cover writing wills, probate, conveyancing, legal assistance with accidents and personal injuries and employment law. The group announced the formation of this division, based in Bristol, in April 2006.[45]

The Co-operative Electrical sells electrical products, from kitchenware and white goods to home entertainment. In 2015, the co-op became the first electrical retailer to sell its extended warranty insurance products at cost price.[46] In the previous decades extended warranties had gained a reputation for being poor value for money, but for being heavily promoted by retailers owing to their high profitability. The business is also unusual in providing a 60 minute delivery time slot, confirmed by SMS on the day of delivery.[47]

The Co-operative Travel is a joint venture with Thomas Cook and the Central England Co-operative of which The Co-operative Group owns a 30% share. The venture operates 450 travel agencies and constitutes the largest travel agent network in the UK.[48] The merger was referred to the Office of Fair Trading as a result of monopoly concerns.[49] Before the joint venture with Thomas Cook, the branch network was previously branded as either 'Travelcare' or 'Co-op Travel'. The business has direct sales channels through telephone, home workers, and the internet. In July 2009 the business launched its own tour operation as a joint venture with Cosmos Holidays.

Currently, the group owns a 20% stake in The Co-operative Bank, which was a wholly owned subsidiary until 2014 when the group was forced to sell the majority of its holding to investors to raise funds for the bank. The Co-operative Bank also includes the internet bank Smile, and the former building society Britannia.

The Group has interests in retail site management, property investment and land development which are managed through its business, The Co-operative Estates.[50] The Co-operative Estates is involved in the £800m 20 acre NOMA development in Manchester and operates a large-scale energy buying group for co-operatives.[51]

Former[edit]

Former CWS warehouse by the Gateshead Millennium Bridge, Newcastle upon Tyne.

Syncro was the rebranded engineering and building services business of the Co-operative Group, based in Salford. Syncro was sold in 2006.

Associated Co-operative Creameries (ACC) was the group's milk processing and distribution division. ACC handled logistics of the retail business but this responsibility was transferred to Co-operative Retail Logistics before it was sold to Dairy Farmers of Britain, a farmers co-operative, on 10 August 2004.

The group withdrew from the department store business after many years of increasing losses, with several stores being acquired by the Anglia Regional Co-operative Society, and the remainder closed. Many shops had been in poor locations and had suffered from under-investment. Initially, two stores were to be retained in Perth and Tunbridge Wells to trial of a new style of department store but were closed in 2006.

The Co-operative Motor Group ceased trading following the disposal of Albert Farnell and its last remaining dealerships in 2013. However, Central England Co-operative continues to operate dealerships as The Co-operative Motor Group.[52]

Shoefayre, established in 1959, as Society Shoes was co-owned by several co-operative societies and became owned and managed by the Co-operative Group. In 2006, it reported operating losses of £6 million and in 2007 was sold to Shoe Zone.[53]

The Co-operative Pharmacy was the third largest community pharmacy group in the UK with nearly 800 branches giving a nationwide presence. In 2014 it was sold for £620 million to the Bestway Group.[54]

The Co-operative Farms manages land across Great Britain, producing soft fruit, potatoes, flour and cider, and is the largest lowland farmer in the UK. In 2014 it was sold for £249 million to the Wellcome Trust and now trades under its former Farmcare name.[41]

Governance[edit]

The Co-operative Group is unusual as a co-op because it is owned by millions of UK consumers and also a number of other UK co-operatives, making the business a hybrid of a primary consumers' co-operative and a co-operative federation. This is largely a function of the group resulting from the merger between the Co-operative Wholesale Society (a co-operative federation) and the Co-operative Retail Services in 2000. Since 2015 The Co-operative Group has operated a 'one member one vote' system whereby any of the co-op's millions of members can vote to elect board members, to guide strategic decisions and their own propose their own motions for voting on.

The current governance structure of the business was established in 2014 and comprises an Executive Management Team, a Group Board and a Members Council. The Executive Management Team are the highest level of management in the business and are responsible for its day-to-day operations. The Group Board is a team of between seven and twelve people who are responsible for overseeing the strategy of the business and for holding the Executive Management Team to account. The Group Board is made up of: a group chair; either one or two executive directors appointed from the Executive Management Team; up to five Independent Non-Executive Directors who are not affiliated with the group; and up to four 'Member Nominated Directors'. Member Nominated Directors are any people from within the membership group who nominate themselves and have the required level of commercial experience. The Members Council is a group of up to 100 people who hold the Group Board to account with regards to the group's Purpose, Values and Principles. Members of the co-op, its employees and representatives of the 'independent societies' make up the Members Council.[55]

Former structure[edit]

Between the creation of The Co-operative Group in 2000 and the major governance changes of 2014-2015, the Group had a complex governance arrangement which consisted of the business executive, the Group Board of 20 people, a series of regional boards and numerous area committees. The Group Board was made up of 15 'lay' member directors elected from Regional Boards, another five which came from the 'independent societies' and, though there was the option to appoint up to three 'independent professional non-executive directors (IPNEDs) to the Group Board at any one time, only one was every appointed. All Group Board members (excluding IPNEDs) were appointed by competitive regional election - in contrast, most building societies and PLCs have a nominations committee which recommends potential board for election members based on a number of strict criteria. A series of Regional Boards, consisting of 12-15 people elected from Area Committees, were responsible for holding the Group Board and for block-voting at the Annual General Meeting. There were 48 Area Committees which were responsible for representing member interests and promoting membership within their constituency. Out of the millions of members that the Group had, only Area Committee members are able to vote in the elections for the Regional Committees and 'lay' director seats on the Group Board and the votes were weighted depending on the GBP value of sales within individual areas.

One of the justifications for this complex governance arrangement was that it took a number of years to reach Regional Board level, which helped to minimise the influence of single-issue campaigners and carpet-baggers. In the 1990s it was these issues, notably the failed take-over by Andrew Regan in 1997, which caused significant problems for the, then, CRS and CWS. The Myners Review noted that "the primary source of power within the Group [was] firmly entrenched at the level of the Regional Boards" and the review concluded that it was this 'labyrinthine' structure, where Group Board members need to remain elected to Area Committees and Regional Boards, which led to the governance problems at The Group and it's Financial Crisis of 2013.[10]

Marketing and brands[edit]

The Co-operative Bank head office building at 1 Balloon Street, Manchester.

CWS became Co-operative Group (CWS) Limited on merger with CRS in 2001. CWS Retail was formed in 1933 and demerged in 1957 as CRS, with the purpose of opening shops in co-operative deserts and to take over failing retail societies. The combined Group merged with United Co-operatives, based in Yorkshire and North West England, in 2007, reinforcing its position as the largest consumer co-operative in the world.[56] At this time the current name, Co-operative Group Limited, was adopted.[57]

Following the mergers of the 90s and 00s, the modern Co-operative Group was formed of a large range of different independent societies with separate brand identities which led to a lack of consistency and gave an incoherent message to consumers. The four-leaf clover "Co-op" brand, introduced in 1967 and adjusted in 1993, was seen by many in the co-operative movement as a hindrance to public perception of the movement. This problem was affecting the whole co-operative sector in the UK and following the report from the Co-operative Commission in 2001,[58] The Co-operative Group was heavily involved with the process of developing a single updated version of The Co-operative brand for use by many consumers' co-operatives in the UK.

In 2007, the group began a re-brand of its estate to this new unified identity with its other business names, including Travelcare and Funeralcare, phased out in favour of the newThe Co-operative business names. With more than 4,000 stores and branches to convert to the new identity the process has been cited as the "largest rebranding exercise in UK corporate history."[59] The Co-operative Group launched its largest television advertising campaign in 2009. The two and a half minute advertisement aired for the first time during Coronation Street on ITV. The advertisement, created by McCann Erickson, features the Bob Dylan track "Blowin' in the Wind", a rare occasion that he has allowed his music to be used for commercial purposes.

Dividend and membership scheme[edit]

The idea of co-operative trading revolutionised food retailing with the dividend, often known as "divi", and the "divi number" became a part of British life. The way in which co-operative retail societies are run for the benefit, and on behalf of their members sets them apart from their modern-day competitors. The dividend is a financial reward to members based on each member's level of trade with the society. The distribution of profits on the basis of turnover rather than capital invested is a fundamental difference between a co-operative and most private sector enterprises.

Historically, members' sales would be recorded in ledgers in society's stores and at the end of the collection period a proportional payment would be made to the member. As the societies grew, and the number of members increased, the method of using ledgers became cumbersome. As a solution, some societies, including Co-operative Retail Services, issued stamps to members for qualifying transactions. Members collected stamps on a savings card and, when the card was complete, would use it as payment for goods or deposit into their share account.

By the late 20th century the group's predecessors and then the Co-operative Group no longer paid true dividend as it had become a drain on limited resources, although several independent societies (such as Anglia Regional) continued to do so. In the mid-1990s a loyalty card scheme, in the style of the Tesco Clubcard, was introduced which used the dividend brand.[60] These loyalty cards were inspired by the co-operative dividend but were little more than marketing exercises and a way to gather useful customer information. Co-operative customers, not just members, could sign up and receive a swipe card to record purchases with vouchers sent out twice a year which could be exchanged for cash or goods.

In September 2006 the Co-operative Group relaunched "true" dividend whereby a proportion of the profits of the Co-operative Group is returned to members. To emphasise the change, the scheme is now called the Co-operative Membership and members earn a "share of the profits". New members are recruited by allowing them to deduct the refundable subscription for a £1 share from their first dividend. Members can collect points to increase their share of the profits by using the services provided across the whole family of businesses. In 2008, the dividend almost doubled to £38 million, equivalent to 2.63p per point (one point being earned for each £1 food purchase), reflecting an 8% increase in underlying profit.[61]

Group membership increased sharply in the first year after the relaunch, to 2.5 million with many more young people who have an affinity with the co-operative values and principles attracted to join.[62][63][64]

In 2007, the Oxford-based Midcounties Co-operative joined the group's membership scheme allowing its members to earn dividend at Co-operative Group stores and vice versa. It was the first independent co-operative to adopt the new Co-operative branding. Since then, other independent co-operatives have joined the reciprocal membership dividend scheme, including Anglia Regional Co-operative Society (2008), Southern Co-operatives (2009), Chelmsford Star Co-operative Society (2009) and Midlands Co-operative (2010).

Executive remuneration[edit]

The Annual Report cites a number of factors in determining executive pay, including "attracting, retaining and motivating senior Executives of the appropriate calibre to further the success of the Group" and "ensuring that the interests of Executives are aligned with those of the Group and its members".

Former CEO Peter Marks was paid a basic salary of £1,014,000 in 2012, with a performance-related bonus of £103,000. The basic salaries of the thirteen executives adds up to £4,836,000, with their performance related bonuses adding up to £240,000.[65]

In March 2014, "private and confidential" documents seen by The Observer newspaper detailed proposals put before The Co-operative's board to double the wage bill for senior management to £12 million a year, whereby the chief executive Euan Sutherland would earn a base salary of £1.5 million and a "retention bonus" of £1.5 million.[66] The Observer also reported that Rebecca Skitt, the Co-op's chief human resources officer, who joined in February 2013, left 12 months later "with a proposed pay-off totalling more than £2m".

Co-operative practices[edit]

Seal of the Co-operative Wholesale Society.

As a co-operative, the group places importance on ethical and transparent trading and reporting, and democratic accountability and participation. Retail trading areas are overseen by area committees of twelve members, which have annual elections and meetings for all members. The Area Committees also distribute, via the 'Community Fund', sums of up to £2000 per recipient, to various good causes. The Community Fund is made up of donations from members "share of the profits" which are put into this central pot.[67] The Area Committees also elect members onto regional boards, there are 7 regional boards throughout the United Kingdom, the most northerly of these is the Scotland and Northern Ireland Regional Board. A national board includes directors elected from regional boards, plus representatives of other societies, the corporate members. Individual stores may have member forums. Unlike a pure consumer co-operative, voting rights are shared between the corporate members and the individual consumer members, as described in an annual report:

Voting for corporate members is in proportion to trade with the society. Each individual member has one vote in the appropriate region of the society and each region has voting rights calculated on the same basis as a corporate member.[68]

Purpose, values and principles[edit]

As a co-operative, The Group has a series of values and principles which guide how the business operate and these have remained relatively unchanged from the Rochdale Principles from which they originate. In 2014 The Group launched its revised 'group purpose' - a sentence designed to encapsulate what the business stands for and how it operates. The business's purpose is to:

"Championing a better way of doing business for you and your communities"

Here are The Group's underlying values and principles:

Co-operative Values:

  • Self-help – we help people to help themselves.
  • Self-responsibility – we take responsibility for, and answer to our actions.
  • Democracy – we give our members a say in the way we run our businesses.
  • Equality – no matter how much money a member invests in their share account, they still have one vote.
  • Equity – we carry out our business in a way that is fair and unbiased.
  • Solidarity – we share interests and common purposes with our members and other co-operatives.

Ethical Values:

  • Openness – nobody’s perfect, and we won’t hide it when we’re not
  • Honesty – we are honest about what we do and the way we do it
  • Social responsibility – we encourage people to take responsibility for their own community, and work together to improve it
  • Caring for others – we regularly fund charities and local community groups from the profits of our businesses.

Principles:

  • Voluntary and open membership – membership is open to everyone
  • Democratic member control – all members have an equal voice in making policies and electing representatives
  • Member economic participation – all profits are controlled democratically by members and for their benefit
  • Autonomy and independence – co-operatives are always independent, even when they enter into agreements with the Government and other organisations
  • Education, training and information – co-operatives educate and develop their members as well as their staff
  • Co-operation amongst co-operatives – co-operatives work together with other co‑operatives to strengthen the co-operative movement as a whole
  • Concern for community – co-operatives also work to improve and develop the community, both locally and internationally.

[69]

Ethical trading and campaigning[edit]

As the UK's largest co-operative, the group plays a key part in the co-operative movement. In the 1840s the original co-op shops were set up to protect consumers from adulterated food and profiteering shopkeepers. Since then the co-operative movement has campaigned on a number of issues which they thought were key consumer interests. As a part of this, The Co-operative Group has long been campaigning for consumer rights legislation, researching into new food labelling initiatives, a major sponsor of new co-operative ventures, a notable donor to community initiatives, directly involved in the development of animal welfare standards and in championing Fairtrade in the UK.

The co-op has traded on its 'ethical' credentials for many years and in 2014 a survey suggested that 70% of the British public believed that it was a business that 'tried to do the right thing'.[70] The co-op is particularly known for its work in championing the introduction of Fairtrade in the UK, investing heavily in renewable energy and in reducing its carbon emissions, in maintaining high standards of animal welfare, in being a leading retailer of responsible fish, for reinvesting its profits in local communities and for campaigning on a range of social issues. The following section will discuss many of these activities in more detail.

Fairtrade[edit]

The Co-operative Group was the first major UK retailer to stock Fairtrade products and was the first UK supermarket to sell fairtrade coffee (1992), bananas (2000), own-brand chocolate (2000), own-brand wine (2001), pineapples (2002), sugar (2005) and blueberries (2010).[71] Since then, all own brand block chocolate (2002), coffee (2003), sugar (2008), bananas (2012), winter blueberries (2012) has been converted to fairtrade. The Co-operative Food is also the largest UK retailer of fairly traded wine and has the largest range of fairtrade products in the UK. The business has also been recognised for working with many co-operative and smallholder farmers, including providing investment funding to enable farming co-operatives who supply them to convert to fairtrade certification. In 2014 its fairtrade sales were £133m.[72][73]

Renewable Energy and Energy Saving Measures[edit]

Since 2005 98% of the co-op's electricity has been sourced through renewable sources, notably wind power, hydro and anerobic digestion. This relates to 12.3% of the business's total energy usage being sourced from renewable sources (2014). The business has also been significantly investing in constructing its own renewable energy generation facilities and currently operates three wind farms with a fourth given planning permission in 2014. When the fourth wind farm is complete, it is expected that The Co-operative Group will generate almost 25% of their own electricity consumption. When combined with improvements in its supply chain, notably a reduction in fuel used in its vehicle fleet, and the fitting of doors to its store refrigerators(a measure which reduces their energy consumption by 40%)[74] this has led to a 39% reduction in its carbon emissions since 2006.[75]

Animal welfare[edit]

In 1994 The Co-operative Group became the first retailer to support the development of the then new RSPCA Freedom Food scheme with the aim of improving welfare standards for animals at all stages of the food chain. Their range of "freedom foods" certified products began from around this time.[76]

Responsible fish sourcing[edit]

The Co-operative is one of the leading retailers of responsible fish in the UK having launched its Responsible Fish Sourcing Policy in 2008 after commissioning research in association with NGOs, academics and its suppliers. This report was subsequently updated in 2014.[77] The Co-operative Food was commended by the Marine Conservation Society with a 'gold award' (2011) and a 'silver award' (2013) and, for its sourcing policy, The Co-operative was one of five organisations accredited with the 2010 Seafood Champion Award.[78]

Since 2011 all own-brand tuna has been caught using the pole and line method and does not use "Fish Aggregation Devices", a method with a significantly lower by-catch rate when compared with conventional tuna fishing. Since 2012, all farmed salmon has been certified by the RSPCA Freedom Foods accrediation scheme.[79] In 2008 the co-op committed £200,000 to enable fisheries which would struggle to fund the certification process to become accredited by the Marine Stewardship Council.[80]

In 2015 the co-op became one of the first retails to join the 'Ocean Disclosure Project' which requires the business to report transparently on the geographic locations, fishing methods and sustainaility characteristics of all of the fisheries from which they source. [81][82] This move confirmed an ongoing commitment by The Co-operative Food in promoting transparent and responsible fishing in the UK.

Community dividend[edit]

Like many co-operatives, The Co-operative Group runs a community dividend scheme where each year a share of the businesses profits are re-invested into the communities where they trade. In 2002 the group gave 5.4 percent of their annual operative profits to communities as their community dividend for the year - a total figure of £10.7m.[76]

Co-operative development[edit]

The Co-operative Group, like most co-operatives, has supported the development of co-operative businesses in many sectors of the economy through its "Enterprise Hub". This has provided financial and business management help to small and start-up co-operatives, notably including FC United of Manchester, public service mutuals and a number of community pub ventures.

"Clean energy" campaigning[edit]

For a number of years the group campaigned on the issue of climate change under its banner of "The Clean Energy Revolution".[83] There were three main aspects to this campaigning: (1) campaigning to increase awareness of climate change generally; (2) campaigning specifically around contentions associated with fossil fuel extraction; and (3) assisting the development of community renewable energy projects in the UK. Since the group's financial crisis of 2013, campaigning of this nature has largely been discontinued owing to financial constraints and because many of the public were not aware of what the co-op was doing. The business has, however, retained its focus on targets to reducing its own environmental impact.

As a part of its attempts to highlight the problem of climate change and specific issues relating to fossil fuel extraction, the group campaigned against tar sands oil extraction and fracking. To this end, The Co-operative Group part-funded the UK release of films including Chasing Ice, Gasland and H2Oil[84] to raise awareness of the cause and, as a part of this, local members organised screenings in various communities.[85] In 2011 the co-op wrote an open letter to the Defra which was signed by 190 large organisations and businesses calling upon the government to introduce mandatory carbon emissions reporting[86] - a measure introduced for "businesses listed on the Main Market of the London Stock Exchange" in 2013.[87]

The Toxic Fuels campaign was launched to combat the proposed expansion of the Canadian tar sands and proposals to begin fracking at sites in the UK. In 2008 they joined with the WWF-UK to publish a report which concluded that exploiting the Canadian tar sands to their full potential would be sufficient to bring about what they described as 'runaway climate change'.[88] The Co-operative Bank were also vocal supporters of the Beaver Lake Cree Nation’s legal action against expanding oil extraction in Alberta, raising and donating over C$400,000 to support the BLCN legal case and focusing media attention in the UK - which led to a protest outside the Canadian Embassy in London.[89][90][91][92] Colin Baines, Campaigns Manager at The Co-operative Group described the Beaver Lake Cree Nation legal action as "perhaps the best chance we have to stop tar sands expansion".[93] In 2013, the court ruled in favour of the Beaver Lake Cree on appeal.[94] The co-op were also involved in a shareholder resolutions at BP and Shell's 2010 AGM over this issue of tar sands extraction.[95][96] A further report published with the WWF was critical of the prospect of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology being used to reduce the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to a level comparable to that of other methods of oil extraction.[97] In the report they claimed that it was this belief in CCS that the oil industry were suing to justify their continued investment in the tar sands.

In 2011, The Co-operative Group called for a moratorium on fracking in the UK "at least until all the associated risks are fully exposed and understood".[98][99] This position was based upon a report which the co-op commissioned and which was produced by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.[100] The report concluded that the implementation of fracking in the UK posed three potential problems: (1) the likelihood of increased greenhouse gas emissions; (2) the potential for contamination of groundwater by heavy metals and chemicals used in the hydraulic fracturing process; and (3) the diversion of investment funds away from renewable energy research and development.[100] Another co-op funded report concluded that the hypothesised emissions benefits from converting from coal to gas (from fracking) had been overstated.[101] As a part of their attempts to increase public awareness of fracking in the UK, the co-op encouraged members to organise screenings of the film Gasland across the UK.[102] This move received some criticism, notably from The Daily Telegraph due to perceptions of bias in the film Gasland.[103]

The Co-operative Group has been a vocal supporter of community-owned renewable projects for a number of years as a way to combat climate change and fuel poverty. In 2012, the co-op launched its "Community Energy Manifesto" in association with Co-operatives UK which contained research into the possibility for significant growth in the UK's community renewable sector and it provided a number of case studies.[104] The Co-operative Group, notably through The Co-operative Bank and The Co-operative Enterprise Hub, has provided almost £100m in loans and grants to community-run energy efficiency and renewable energy generation co-operatives (including the Baywind Energy Co-operative and Torrs Hydro).[105] In 2014 the co-op launched its Community Energy Challenge which worked to encourage community energy schemes across the UK by actively supporting the groups for 18 months to raise awareness of community renewables and to create co-operatively and community-owned and schemes of over 500 kW in size that could be replicated across the country.[106] However, since the problems at The Co-operative Bank the funding for new projects has largely been discontinued.

Food labelling[edit]

The rear nutritional information panel for a pack of own brand sausages.

In 1984/5 research commissioned by the co-op showed that consumers had a preference for food labelling schemes which presented the content of fat, sugar and salt within a product as either "high", "medium" or "low". The co-op implemented this labelling system on own-brand products the same year. Further research in 1993 suggested that many consumers were confused by the nutritional labelling schemes used at the time. Both of these findings were supported by evidence gathered by the Food Standards Agency in 2002 and the Institute for Grocery Distribution proposed a new labelling system based upon the guideline daily amount principle.

As a consequence of this research, the co-op trialled a new greatly labelling extended format which went above the legal requirement for what should be included at the time (energy, protein, carbohydrate, of which sugars, fat, of which saturates, fibre and sodium) by including reference values for "guideline daily amounts", displaying whether each item constitutes 'high', 'medium' or 'low', providing information regarding recommended quantities of fruit and vegetables, using the word "calories" rather than "energy" and for displaying salt rather than sodium. Overall this new design was endorsed by 89% of those customers asked. As a part of this change, the co-op was also the first to introduce a graphic on the front of all own-brand products which highlighted the key nutritional information. The choice of the word "salt" over "sodium" was made because their research suggested that most consumers did not understand the difference between the two words and hence significantly underestimated the salt content of processed foods. Because of this, the co-op also called for the government to legislate so that salt rather than sodium should be displayed on the packing of products.[107]

In 2013 The Co-operative Group published further research which they had conducted into front-of-pack labelling schemes and have modified their own front-of-pack labelling scheme to combine both the traffic light and guideline daily amount schemes into one simple system.[108] In 2009 the co-op also introduced a 'green dot' scheme where additional specifically defined nutritional benefits in products (e.g. >6 g of fibre per 100 g) were included on the front of the pack.[109] Since 2003, the co-op has been using a similar system to highlight products which count towards your '5 a day' fruit and veg - also listing the quantity of the product which required to reach the required serving size.

Since 1997 the group has not used "per-cent fat free" health claims. The co-op introduced calorie labelling for alcoholic drinks in 2002 and they also list the caffeine content of products which contain more than 1.6 mg in a single serving.

Starting in 1995 the co-op conducted a survey of the views of over 31,000 customers which suggested that customers wanted to make more informed buying decisions. Consequently, in 1997 the Co-operative Wholesale Society, forerunner to The Co-operative Group, published a report titled "The Lie of the Label" which presented a number of techniques which the co-op accused the food industry of using to mislead the consumer. These included: (1) hiding key information from consumers about a product (e.g. "products called 'mince' and 'onion', where the main ingredient was mechanically recovered chicken"); (2) using meaningless terms like 'wholesome' or 'natural' to make the product seem better; (3) using unrealistic photographs to make the product seem better on the label than what is achievable with what is actually sold; (4) using claims which make something normal seem special (e.g. dried pasta which is free from preservatives, a legal requirement); (5) framing claims to make a products characteristics seem better (e.g. 80% fat free crisps, when they would have been only 20% fat anyway); and (6) using very small fonts or text colours to make the label difficult to read. Since 1995, the co-op has clearly labelled the country of origin and percentage content of key ingredients, even when not required to by law.[110]

The follow-up report, "The Lie of the Label II" (2002), specifically urged improvements in the legislation to provide consumers with better nutritional information on all foods (especially those foods which disproportionally contribute to consumers' fat, salt and sugar intake) and a new, clearer, format for presenting this information which is intuitive to consumers. The report also warned about the prevalence of advertising for sugary, fatty and/or salty foods which are aimed at children and how this will likely impact on the overall public heath of young people the UK.[107]

The group- has campaigned against many misleading nutritional and 'health' claims which have appear on food packaging over the years. Those cited included a chocolate spread which is high in both fat and sugar, but which was marketed as "rich in calcium, magnesium and vitamins". Other such claims have included products which are advertised as "low cholesterol" when saturated fat is thought to be a larger control on blood cholesterol than direct cholesterol consumption.[107] The Co-op operates a self imposed ban on such health claims. In 2003 the European Commission introduced legislation which defined many health claims such as "fat free" and "high fibre" to reduce the prevalence of meaningless claims on food packaging, a move welcomed by the co-op movement.[111]

In 2001 the group became the first retailer to include Braille writing on its range of medicines and alcoholic drinks, a move which received three industry awards.[110] In 2015 Braille can also be found on many products, including breakfast cereals.[112][113]

The Co-operative Group became the first retailer to list the ingredients in its own-brand wines on the label in 1999 in a move that was illegal at the time. They justified their move by stating that they "believe it's in the consumer's interest" to know what is in their wine - as many ingredients, including charcoal and fish finings, have been used to give wines distinctive flavours. Ten years later the UK government pushed for labelling of this kind.[110][114]

Israeli settlement boycott[edit]

At the end of April 2012 The Co-operative Group announced that it was "no longer engaging with any supplier of produce known to be sourcing from Israeli settlements." This involved the ending of contracts amounting to around £350,000 with a number of companies sourcing products from settlements built on Palestinian territories, but not Israeli companies in general.[115]

Pesticides and toxic chemicals[edit]

The group's strict pesticide policy bans, restricts and monitors pesticide use at farms which supply its own brand products. The policy aims to minimise the use of chemicals, and the residues which remain on crops, whilst providing safe food but without notably increasing the cost of products.[110] Their pesticide policy was launched with a report titled "Green and Pleasant Land" (2000) which formally banned over 20 pesticides which were still in use at the time on human health and environmental concerns and called upon the EU to legislate for a ban, a move which was endorsed by consumer and environmental groups.[116][117][118] This move resulted from research that the business, then the CWS, conducted which demonstrated that two thirds of those asked were either concerned or very concerned about the health and environmental effects of pesticides and their residues on foods.[119] The Co-op was the first supermarket to publicise all monitoring pesticide results on the business's website so that members could access the data. The Co-op's pesticide policy was applauded by the Pesticide Action Network in 2011 for their "pioneering" and "pro-active" approach and was noted as the (joint) best in the UK.[120] The co-op publish the results of their monthly pesticide monitoring on their website[121][122] and this indicates that between 2009 and 2015 on average approximately 40% of tested foods had no traces of any of the 449 monitored pesticides and that since 2012 none of the banned pesticides have been observed.[123]

When determining which pesticides should be banned the toxicology of each substance, its potential for bioaccumulation and its persistency within the environment are all considered. Those chemicals which are restricted can only be used by growers and suppliers with specific written permission from The Co-operative Group which will only be granted if the grower or supplier has provided supporting evidence that no other alternative is available. In 2013 restricted pesticides were allowed in 123 cases.[123] Research was conducted by The Co-op's farmcare business investigated biological and cultural controls which could be used to reduced the influence of pests and also investigated more benign chemical alternatives to those which were restricted - The Co-op could then suggest viable alternatives to restricted pesticides. For example, trials conducted on their UK farms investigated alternative methods of farm management which could reduce reliance on fungicides and pesticides by 40-50%.[110] Following this, a series of Product Advisory Sheets were created to provide growers and suppliers with solutions for common pests which minimise as previously the most used source of information used by suppliers was that distributed by the agrochemical companies which sell pesticides, a perceived conflict of interest.

Lindane was banned from use on crops destined for Co-op own-brand products in 1999 after mounting health concerns, ten years before it was outlawed under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. The Co-operative Food became the first supermarket (2003) to ban a number of toxic chemicals (but which were still legal in the UK) from its own brand range of household products including washing up liquid and fabric conditioners. After recognising the potential for bioaccumulation of the toxic chemicals used in manufacturing and agriculture, the group joined with the WWF-UK on a campaign called DETOX which called for research into new safer chemicals which do no bioaccumulate.[124]

The Co-operative became the first UK supermarket to ban the use of neonicotinoid pesticides in any of their own brand products or on their farms in 2009, after Germany, Italy and Slovenia banned the chemicals in 2008 in response to a sharp decline in their country's bee population.[125] The business invested over £300,000 in funding peer-reviewed research on the impact of neonicotinoids on bee populations, campaigned for a ban of neonicotinoids and called on the UK government to support the proposed EU ban in 2013.[126][127] They suggested that if they, then the UK's largest farmer, had banned neonicotinoids in their products and on their farms four years earlier then it would be possible for the ban to be successfully implemented without significant impact on European farming.[128] As a part of their 'Plan Bee' policy they also funded the UK release of the documentary film Vanishing of the Bees to raise awareness of the issue, gave away 300,000 packets of wildflower seeds to members, offered discounted bee boxes for sale to members and under-used urban areas into colourful community meadows.[129][130]

Genetic modification[edit]

In 1994 The Co-operative Group began labelling own brands food which contained genetically modified (GM) ingredients and, five years later, they banned the use of GM ingredients in its own-brand products including GM animal feed.[110] Since 2003 the co-op has banned the growing of GM crops on their own land (at the time they were the largest lowland UK farming business). The group also published a report on genetic modification which suggested that the majority of customers and members did not support GM crops.[131] In 2013 the co-op dropped its objection to GM chicken and turkey feed and allowed its suppliers to use such feeds, owing to the increasing difficulty in sourcing guarenteed non-GM feeds.[132]

Waste reduction and carrier bags[edit]

In 2002 the co-op launched its degradable carrier bags, however these were later withdrawn in favour of recyclable and reusable bags. However, with the increasing prevalence of council refuse collection services across the UK which compost food and garden waste, the co-op launched a new carrier bag in 2014 which could be used to by the customer to line their food waste bin once they had used the bag to get their shopping home.[133]

Supply chain efficiency[edit]

The Co-operative Food Supply Chain Logistics business makes 35,000 deliveries per week and it has invested heavily in increasing the efficiency of its supply and distribution networks with the aims of reducing its costs and environmental impact. Between 2006 and 2013 the co-op reduced its fuel consumption by 29% and its emissions from supply chain activities by 31%. In 2013 the society closed six "legacy" distribution centres and opened two new sites which won awards for their low environmental impact.[134] By switching much of its England to Scotland traffic from road to electric train in 2010 it has taken more than 10,000 tonnes of good from the road network and making a significant greenhouse gas emission savings. The business has also started collecting goods from its suppliers itself using lorries returning from store deliveries which would otherwise have travelled empty. By 2013 30% of all such collections from UK suppliers. The business became the first major business to trial an aerodynamic truck, 'the dolphin' in 2013 which was specifically designed to maximise fuel efficiency and reduce costs.[135] The business has also expanded its road fleet into double-decker and 15 metre semi-trailers to reduce the number of lorry journeys required. [136]

Political ties[edit]

The Co-operative Group, the largest business in the UK Cooperative movement, is a major affiliate and supporter of the Co-operative Party, which fields candidates in elections on joint tickets with the Labour Party as Labour and Co-operative Party. It is a substantial funder of the Co-operative Party.[137] In addition to core aims of furthering cooperative values and mutualism in Parliament and on the national stage cooperative party members, activists and representatives (MPs, MSPs, AMs and councillors) campaign on wider social issues, including "The Feelings Mutual" campaign. The Co-operative Group facilitates, takes part in or owns services provided for other UK Consumer Cooperative Societies, supports community concerns and projects and runs ethical and social campaigns and advertising and events which correspond to the interests and values of the democratic society and the wider community.

Under new rules introduced in 2015, the annual general meeting voted to continue funding the Co-operative Party by a vote of 48,579 for, to 39,479 against.[138]

List of corporate members[edit]

As of 2011, 22 independent consumer co-operatives are corporate members or customer owners, of the group. They invested share capital to found or join the group's wholesaler predecessors, such as the North of England Co-operative Wholesale Industrial and Provident Society and the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society. These co-operatives are represented alongside the regional boards at annual meetings and in the board of directors, and are entitled to dividends based on the amount of their purchases from the group.

Society Website Founded Members Activities

(number of outlets)

Allendale allendalecoop.co.uk Food retail (1)
Central England centralengland.coop 1854[139] and 1876[140] 329,000 Food (255), Funerals (118), Travel (21), Non-food (44),[141] Petrol (25), Florist (10), Opticians (2) [142]
Chelmsford Star chelmsfordstar.coop 1867 52,937[143] Food (36), Non-food (2), Travel (2), Funerals (6)
Channel Islands ci-cooperative.com 1919 Food (16), Non food (3: two 'Homemaker' stores and one 'Totalsport' store), Travel (2)
Clydebank www.realco-op.co.uk 1881 Food (6), Non-food, Funerals, Post Offices
Coniston conistonco-op.co.uk 1896 Food (1)
East of England eastofengland.coop 1858[144] ≈350,000 Food (133), Non-food (14), Travel (12), Funeral (30), Pharmacy (8), Optician (3), Motors (3), Jewellery (2), Education Centre (1)
Grosmont[145][146] None 1867[147] Food (1)
Heart of England heartofengland.coop 1832[148] 179,657[149] Food (33), Non-food (21), Funeral (9), Travel (3), Post Offices (4)
Hawkshead[150] None 1881[151] Food (1)
Langdale[152][153] http://web.archive.org/
web/20061005102000/http://
www.langdaleco-op.co.uk/
[154]
1884 Food (1)
Lincolnshire lincolnshire.coop 1861[155] 228,000 (2013) Food (84), Bakery (1), Filling Stations (10), Pharmacies (48),

Post Offices (40), Travel (13), Funeral (17), Coffee Shops (2).

Midcounties midcounties.coop Energy, Food (244) Funerals (78) Travel (58) Pharmacies (46) Childcare (47) Post Offices (74) and Co-operative Flexible Benefits [156]
Radstock www.radstockcoop.co.uk 1867 Food (14) Food and non-food (1) [157]
Scotmid scotmid.coop Food (129)
Seaton Valley www.seatonvalleyco-op.co.uk Food (1)
Southern southern.coop Food (197) Funerals (16)
Tamworth tamworth.coop Food (14) Non-Food (1) Funerals (7)
Wooldale wooldale.coop Food (3)

Awards[edit]

Queen Elizabeth II at the opening of an office declared the "most environmentally-friendly building in the world", November 2013

In 2002 the society gained Worldaware's 2002 Shell Award for Sustainable Development for its use of Fairtrade goods.[158] and in 2007 it won a Queen's Award for Enterprise in the Sustainable Development category, in recognition of its business practices, including its pioneering stance on Fairtrade and the environment.[159] In January 2010, the society appeared on the shortlist for the Transform Awards for rebranding and brand transformation in a number of categories [160] A 2011 Which? survey claimed that the Co-operative was the least favourite grocer with only 46% satisfaction among customers compared to Waitrose which achieved 85%.[161]

The Co-operative Bank has consistently been one of the highest rated banks in the UK for customer satisfaction.[162]

Controversies[edit]

Paul Flowers[edit]

On 17 November 2013, Labour Party advisor and the former The Co-operative Bank Chairman, The Rev. Paul Flowers, was caught by the Mail on Sunday buying crack cocaine and methamphetamine.[163][164] The former Labour Councillor served as Bank's Chairman from April 2010 until June 2013 and it was under his chairmanship that in March 2013 the bank reported losses of £600m. In May Moody's downgraded its credit rating by six notches to junk (Ba3) and the chief executive Barry Tootell resigned.[165] Flowers has been suspended by both the Labour Party and the Methodist Church. On 19 November it was discovered that Flowers had previously resigned as a Labour Party Councillor for Bradford Council after "inappropriate" content was discovered on his computer.[166]

On 19 November 2013, the group's Chairman Len Wardle, who led the board which appointed Flowers to his position, resigned "with immediate effect" over the Flowers scandal.[167]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Our History". The Co-operative Group. 
  2. ^ The present Co-operative Group was founded as a wholesale co-operative in 1863, by a movement which had flourished after the success of the Rochdale Pioneers co-operative, founded in 1844. By 2007, the Rochdale Pioneers, who had been co-founders of the wholesale society, had fully merged with the group, and in 2008, an older co-operative, Lothian, Borders & Angus (1839 or earlier), also merged with the group.
  3. ^ Belchem, J. (2000). A New History of the Isle of Man: The modern period 1830-1999. Liverpool University Press. p. 299. ISBN 9780853237167. 
  4. ^ "About Us". The Co-operative Group. 
  5. ^ "Site history". Co-operative. Retrieved 28 November 2011. [dead link]
  6. ^ "About Us". Co-operative Retail Trading Group. 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  7. ^ "Our History". The Co-operative Group. 
  8. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/aboutus/ourhistory/1862/
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wilson, J. F., Webster, A. and Vorberg-Rugh, R. (2013) "Building Co-operation: A business history of The Co-operative Group", Oxford University Press, Oxford
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Myners, Paul (7 May 2014). "Report of the Independent Governance Review" (PDF). Co-operative Group. 
  11. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/aboutus/ourhistory/19011950/
  12. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/coop-rejects-regans-advance-1271324.html
  13. ^ http://www.thenews.coop/34792/news/consumer/regan039s-out-court-settlement-co-op-group/
  14. ^ "Co-op merger approved". BBC. 8 March 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  15. ^ http://www.uk.coop/newsroom/ten-years-co-operative-commission
  16. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20071031044419/http://www.cooperatives-uk.coop/News/newsArchive/2005/commissionSuccess
  17. ^ http://www.thenews.coop/40332/news/social-enterprise/my-story-how-co-operators-led-south-african-boycott-support-mandela/
  18. ^ http://www.haveyoursay.coop/
  19. ^ http://www.foodanddrinkeurope.com/Retail/Co-op-comes-to-the-rescue-of-Alldays
  20. ^ http://www.talkingretail.com/category-news/supermarket/co-op-opens-new-ndc/
  21. ^ "Co-op boards back merger plan" (Press release). Boards of the Co-operative Group and United Co-operatives. 16 February 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2007. [dead link]
  22. ^ "Mutuals Public Register, Nith Valley Co-operative Society Limited, number 2325RS". Financial Services Authority. Retrieved 15 July 2008. [dead link] (as of 2008)
  23. ^ a b "Co-op buys Somerfield for £1.57bn". BBC News. 16 July 2008. 
  24. ^ "Co-op Group bids to buy Somerfield chain". Co-operative News. 17 April 2008. The Co-operative Group has confirmed for the first time that is trying to buy the Somerfield chain of food stores in a deal worth at least £1.5 billion. 
  25. ^ "Co-operative Group buys 10 c-stores from Sainsbury's". Talking Retail (Nexus Business Media). 28 March 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2008. 
  26. ^ "Transfer announcement". Lothian Co-op. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  27. ^ Members' payout 2008[dead link]
  28. ^ Plymouth & South West Co-operative Society
  29. ^ "Co-op fined over safety breaches". BBC News. 19 September 2007. 
  30. ^ "The Co-op receives near-record fine for fire safety failings | Wire-Free Protection Limited". web.archive.org. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  31. ^ "The Co-operative - Page could not be found". co-operative.coop. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  32. ^ a b Anne-Sylvaine Chassany and Jennifer Thompson (2 June 2013). "Co-op weighs up banking arm rescue plan". Financial Times. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  33. ^ Rupert Neate and Jill Treanor (10 May 2013). "Co-operative Bank rushes to reassure customers after downgrade". The Guardian. 
  34. ^ Rebecca Clancy (5 June 2013). "Crisis-hit Co-op hires ex-Morrisons finance chief Richard Pennycook and banker Richard Pym for restructuring". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  35. ^ Adam Jones (5 June 2013). "Co-op makes fresh changes at the top". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  36. ^ Anthony Murray (17 April 2014). "Co-operative Group reports 'disastrous' loss of £2.5bn". Co-operative News. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  37. ^ Paul Gosling (8 May 2014). "Debt has the potential to tear the Co-operative Group apart". Co-operative News. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  38. ^ James Quinn (9 November 2013). "Co-op Group plans asset sales to reduce 1.3bn debt". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  39. ^ Kamal Ahmed (30 April 2014). "What went wrong at the Co-op Bank?". BBC. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  40. ^ Joe Miller (17 May 2014). "Co-op Group members approve governance shake-up". BBC. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
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  42. ^ Sean Farrell (2 September 2014). "Co-operative Group sells Sunwin security business". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  43. ^ Co-operative Group returns to annual profit
  44. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/press/press-releases/headline-news/results-2014/
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  46. ^ http://www.coopelectricalshop.co.uk/eStore/Content/Warranties/
  47. ^ http://www.coopelectricalshop.co.uk/eStore/Content/Delivery-and-Returns/
  48. ^ Co-operative Travel to form Thomas Cook venture Co-operative News, 12 October 2010
  49. ^ "Thomas Cook and Co-op Travel merger faces OFT probe". BBC News. 7 January 2011. 
  50. ^ "Our Businesses". The Co-operative Group. 
  51. ^ http://noma-manchester.com/noma-story/
  52. ^ "Used cars in Lincoln". Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  53. ^ Atherton, Jayne (11 September 2007). "Business Bites". Metro. p. 41. 
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  55. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/aboutus/our-democracy/
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  57. ^ Mutuals Public Register[dead link]
  58. ^ http://www.uk.coop/document/co-operative-advantage
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  62. ^ "Press release: Merger delivers strong profit growth, preliminary results". The Co-operative Group. 17 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008. [dead link]
  63. ^ "Press release: Co-operative Membership smashes three million barrier". The Co-operative Group. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008. [dead link]
  64. ^ "Co-operative Group sees surge in younger members". Talking Retail (Nexus Business Media). 5 November 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2008. 
  65. ^ The Co-operative Group: Annual Report 2012', p. 46
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  67. ^ Area Committees[dead link]
  68. ^ "Annual Report 2007" (PDF). The Co-operative Group. p. 113 note 31. Retrieved 30 June 2008. 
  69. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/aboutus/The-Co-operative-Group-Values-and-Principles/
  70. ^ http://haveyoursay.coop
  71. ^ http://www.fairtrade.org.uk/en/buying-fairtrade/tea/cooperative
  72. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/our-ethics/fairtrade/beyond-fairtrade/
  73. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/blog/co-operative-ethical-plan-fairtrade
  74. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/dec/25/co-op-supermarkets-extend-fridge-door-scheme
  75. ^ http://www.co-operativefood.co.uk/food-matters/reducing-our-impacts/reducing-our-impacts-energy/
  76. ^ a b https://www.co-operative.coop/Corporate/PDFs/Shopping%20With%20Attitude%20Report.pdf
  77. ^ http://www.co-operativefood.co.uk/globalassets/policy/sustainability/pdfs/fish-policy-v1-14.07.14.pdf
  78. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/press/press-releases/headline-news/The-Co-operative-named-worldwide-seafood-champion/
  79. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140808070645/http://www.co-operativefood.co.uk/food-and-drink/food/Own-brand-fish/
  80. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/Press/Press-releases/Food/Co-operative-commits-funding-for-more-sustainable-UK-fisheries/
  81. ^ http://cmsdevelopment.sustainablefish.org.s3.amazonaws.com/2015/07/21/ODP_COOP-3873e6c2.pdf
  82. ^ http://www.co-operativefood.co.uk/responsible-fish/
  83. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/our-ethics/our-plan/protecting-the-environment/clean-energy-revolution/
  84. ^ http://dogwoof.com/films/h2oil
  85. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/our-ethics/our-plan/protecting-the-environment/clean-energy-revolution/chasing-ice-screening-near-you/
  86. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/upload/ToxicFuels/docs/businessandngo_openletter_mandatoryghgreporting.pdf
  87. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/news/leading-businesses-to-disclose-greenhouse-gas-emissions
  88. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/upload/ToxicFuels/docs/WWF_CFS_Unconventionals_report.pdf
  89. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/our-ethics/our-plan/protecting-the-environment/clean-energy-revolution/tar-sands/supporting-the-beaver-lake-cree/
  90. ^ http://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/eij/article/fighting_spirit
  91. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/feb/26/activism-carbon-emissions
  92. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00plh8c
  93. ^ http://raventrust.com/about/testimonials/
  94. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/environment/keep-it-in-the-ground-blog/2015/apr/08/life-above-alberta-tar-sands-why-were-taking-government-to-court?CMP=share_btn_tw
  95. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/upload/ToxicFuels/docs/toxic_fuels_report_web.pdf
  96. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/business/2010/jan/18/shell-shareholders-fury-tar-sands
  97. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/upload/ToxicFuels/docs/CCS-in-the-Alberta-oil-sands-a-dangerous-myth.pdf
  98. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/Corporate/ethicsinaction/1/shale_gas_moratorium_position_statement.pdf
  99. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/our-ethics/our-plan/protecting-the-environment/clean-energy-revolution/fracking/what-is-shale-gas/
  100. ^ a b http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/files/coop_shale_gas_report_update_v3.10.pdf
  101. ^ http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/communication/news-archive/2012/us-shale-gas-drives-coal-exports-tyndall-manchester-research
  102. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/Corporate/Fracking/1/Organise%20a%20Gasland%20Screening_.pdf
  103. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environment/10223936/Shale-gas-Co-op-is-major-corporate-backer-of-anti-fracking-movement.html
  104. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/Corporate/CSR/downloads/community_energy_manifesto_2012_the_co-operative.pdf
  105. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/our-ethics/our-plan/protecting-the-environment/supporting-community-energy/supporting-community-energy-case-studies/
  106. ^ http://www.cse.org.uk/projects/view/1178
  107. ^ a b c https://www.co-operative.coop/Corporate/PDFs/Lie%20of%20the%20Label%20II%20Report.pdf
  108. ^ http://www.retailtimes.co.uk/co-operative-food-research-champions-traffic-lights-and-new-front-of-pack-labelling/
  109. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/magazine/foodanddrink/healthy-eating/green-dots-explained/
  110. ^ a b c d e f http://www.co-operative.coop/Corporate/PDFs/Responsible%20Business%20Report.pdf
  111. ^ http://www.thenews.coop/34328/news/business/co-ops-back-labelling-crackdown/
  112. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/aboutus/ourhistory/2001present/
  113. ^ http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/article/216426/co-op-extend-braille-labelling-food-range
  114. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/5027710/Wine-ingredients-including-fish-and-charcoal-should-be-listed-on-the-bottle-say-regulators.html
  115. ^ McVeigh, Tracy; Sherwood, Harriet (29 April 2012). "Co-op boycotts exports from Israel's West Bank settlements". The Guardian (London). 
  116. ^ http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/press_releases/0702coop
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  127. ^ http://www.pan-uk.org/news/coop-and-pan-uk-call-for-review-of-neonicotinoid-risk-assessment
  128. ^ http://www.pan-uk.org/news/pan-uk-applauds-the-co-op-support-for-european-commission-proposed-neonicotinoid-suspension
  129. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20100324033246/http://www.co-operative.coop/ethicsinaction/takeaction/planbee/what-The-Co-operative-is-doing-for-bees
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  131. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/Corporate/PDFs/Genetic%20Modification%20Report.pdf
  132. ^ http://www.thegrocer.co.uk/fmcg/fresh/sainsburys-ms-and-the-co-op-follow-tescos-lead-on-gm-feed/238400.article
  133. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/Press/Press-releases/Food/The-Co-operative-is-first-to-offer-compostable-carriers-in-hundreds-of-stores/
  134. ^ http://www.thegrocer.co.uk/channels/supermarkets/the-co-operative-group/co-op-group-unveils-22m-avonmouth-distribution-centre/234213.article
  135. ^ http://www.commercialmotor.com/big-lorry-blog/the-co-op-streamlines-its-deliveries-with-g-a-s-wind-cheating-dolphin-duo--biglorryblog-has-the-news
  136. ^ http://www.co-operative.coop/Corporate/CSR/Banners/407069%20Carbon%20Reduction%20Brochure_LR.pdf
  137. ^ BBC News "Co-op Group to continue funding political parties" 16 May 2015
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  139. ^ As Derby Co-operative Provident Society, which became Midlands Co-operative Society in 1995
  140. ^ As Peterborough Equitable Industrial Co-operative Society, which became Anglia Regional Co-operative Society in 1987
  141. ^ 38 from Anglia Regional, 6 from Midlands Co-operative
  142. ^ http://centralengland.coop/assets/site/documents/Annual-Review-1415.pdf
  143. ^ "Annual Report and Financial Statements" (PDF). Chelmsford Star Co-operative Society. 27 January 2007. p. 5. Retrieved 11 January 2008. [dead link]
  144. ^ As Norwich Co-operative Society
  145. ^ "Grosmont". Co-op Online Directory. Co-operatives UK. Retrieved 12 August 2008. [dead link]
  146. ^ "Grosmont Co-operative Society Limited". uk.coop. Synergy arm of Co-operatives UK. Retrieved 23 August 2008. [dead link]
  147. ^ "Grosmont Co-operative Society Limited, number 992R". Mutuals Public Register. FSA. Retrieved 12 August 2008. [dead link]
  148. ^ As Lockhurst Lane Industrial Co-operative Society
  149. ^ "Annual Report and Financial Statements" (PDF). Heart of England Co-operative Society. 20 January 2007. p. 8. Retrieved 11 January 2008. [dead link]
  150. ^ "Hawkshead & District Co-op Society Limited". Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
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  153. ^ "Langdale & Neighbourhood Industrial Co-op Society". Shop directory. Village Retail Services Association. Retrieved 23 August 2008. 
  154. ^ Website not accessible 23 August 2008. See http://www.langdaleco-op.co.uk at the Wayback Machine (Latest Internet Archive version is October 2006 [1])
  155. ^ "History: 1864". Lincolnshire Co-operative. Retrieved 4 August 2008. 
  156. ^ http://www.midcounties.coop/PageFiles/2364/AGM1415.pdf
  157. ^ "Stores". Radstock Co-op. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  158. ^ "2002 Shell Worldaware Business Award". Worldaware. Retrieved 18 February 2007. 
  159. ^ "Winners 2007". Queen's Awards for Enterprise. Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  160. ^ "Shortlist announced for the Transform Awards for rebranding". Communicate magazine. January 2010. 
  161. ^ "Which Survey 2011". Which. February 2011. 
  162. ^ "Which Survey 2011". 
  163. ^ Co-op bank boss Paul Flowers suspended in Labour drugs scandal Daily Mail, November 2013
  164. ^ Co-op Bank ex-boss Paul Flowers 'filmed buying drugs' BBC, 19 November 2013
  165. ^ Rupert Neate and Jill Treanor (10 May 2013). "Co-operative Bank rushes to reassure customers after downgrade". The Guardian. 
  166. ^ Co-op Group chairman Len Wardle resigns scandal Guardian, 19 November 2013
  167. ^ Co-op Group chair quits over Paul Flowers drugs claims BBC, 19 November 2013

References[edit]

External links[edit]