Coal mining in India
Coal mining in India began in 1774 when John Sumner and Suetonius Grant Heatly of the East India Company commenced commercial exploitation in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of Damodar river. Growth remained slow for nearly a century due to low demand. The introduction of steam locomotives in 1853 boosted demand, and coal production rose to an annual average of 1 million metric tons (1.1 million short tons). India produced 6.12 million metric tons (6.75 million short tons) of coal per year by 1900 and 18 million metric tons (20 million short tons) per year by 1920. Coal production rose steadily over the next few decades, and was boosted by demand caused by World War I. Production slumped in the interwar period, but rose to 30 million metric tons (33 million short tons) by 1946 largely as a result of World War II.
In the regions of British India known as Bengal, Bihar and Odisha, the Indians pioneered Indian involvement in coal mining from 1894. They broke the previous monopolies held by British and other Europeans, establishing many collieries. Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra was the first Indian to break the British monopoly in the Jharia Coalfields. Other Indian communities followed the example of the Kshatriyas in the Dhanbad-Jharia-Bokaro fields after the 1930s. These included the Punjabis, Kutchis, Marwaris, Gujaratis, Sindhis and Hindustanis. Following independence, the Government of India introduced several 5-year development plans. Annual production rose to 33 million metric tons (36 million short tons) at the beginning of the First Five Year Plan. The National Coal Development Corporation (NCDC) was established in 1956 with the aim of increasing coal production efficiently by systematic and scientific development of the coal industry.
The Indira Gandhi administration nationalized coal mining in phases – coking coal mines in 1971–72 and non-coking coal mines in 1973. With the enactment of the Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act, 1973, all coal mines in India were nationalized on 1 May 1973. This policy was reversed by the Narendra Modi administration four decades later. In March 2015, the government permitted private companies to mine coal for use in their own cement, steel, power or aluminium plants. The Coking Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act, 1972 and the Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act, 1973 were repealed on 8 January 2018. In the final step toward denationalization, on 20 February 2018, the government permitted private firms to enter the commercial coal mining industry. Under the new policy, mines will be auctioned to the firm offering the highest per tonne price. The move broke the monopoly over commercial mining that state-owned Coal India has enjoyed since nationalisation in 1973.
India has the fifth largest coal reserves in the world, and is the fourth largest producer of coal in the world, producing 662.79 million metric tons (730.60 million short tons) in 2016–17. As on 31 March 2017, India had 315.14 billion metric tons (347.38 billion short tons) of the resource. The estimated total reserves of lignite coal as on 31 March 2017 was 44.70 billion metric tons (49.27 billion short tons). Due to high demand and poor average quality, India is forced to import high quality coal to meet the requirements of steel plants. India's coal imports have risen from 49.79 million metric tons (0.05488 billion short tons) in 2007–08 to 190.95 million metric tons (0.21049 billion short tons) in 2016–17. India's coal exports rose from 1.63 million metric tons (1.80 million short tons) in 2007–08 to 2.44 million metric tons (2.69 million short tons) in 2012–13, but subsequently declined to 1.77 million metric tons (1.95 million short tons) in 2016–17. Dhanbad city is the largest coal producing city
- 1 History
- 2 Reserves
- 3 Production
- 4 Consumption
- 5 Coal mafia
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
Commercial exploitation of coal in India began in 1774 with John Sumner and Suetonius Grant Heatly of the East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of Damodar river. The growth of Indian coal mining remained slow for nearly a century due to low demand. The introduction of steam locomotives in 1853 boosted demand, and coal production rose to an annual average of 1 million metric tons (1.1 million short tons). India produced 6.12 million metric tons (6.75 million short tons) of coal per year by 1900 and 18 million metric tons (20 million short tons) per year by 1920. Coal production received another boost during the First World War due to increased demand, but slumped again in the early 1930s. Production reached a level of 29 million metric tons (32 million short tons) by 1942 and 30 million metric tons (33 million short tons) by 1946.
In the regions of British India known as Bengal, Bihar and Odisha, the many Indians pioneered Indian involvement in coal mining from 1894. They broke the previous monopolies held by British and other Europeans, establishing many collieries at locations such as Khas Jharia, Jamadoba, Balihari, Tisra, Katrasgarh, Kailudih, Kusunda, Govindpur, Sijua, Sijhua, Loyabad, Dhansar, Bhuli, Bermo, Mugma, Chasnala-Bokaro, Bugatdih, Putki, Chirkunda, Bhowrah, Sinidih, Kendwadih, and Dumka.
The East Indian Railway in 1894–95 extended its line from Barakar to Dhanbad via Katras and Jharia. Messrs. Khora Ramji in 1894 was working on railway lines contract of Jharia branch line and with his brother Jetha Lira was also building Jharia Railway Station, when he discovered coal in Jharia belt. The location of his three collieries named Jeenagora, Khas Jherria, Gareria is mentioned also in 1917 Gazetteers of Bengal, Assam, Bihar and Odisha.
Other Indian communities followed the example of the him in the Dhanbad-Jharia-Bokaro fields after the 1930s. These included the Punjabis, Kutchis, Marwaris, Gujaratis, Bengalis and Hindustanis.
Following independence, the Government of India introduced several 5-year development plans. Annual production rose to 33 million metric tons (36 million short tons) at the beginning of the First Five Year Plan. The National Coal Development Corporation (NCDC), a Government of India Undertaking, was established in 1956 with the collieries owned by the railways. The NCDC aimed to increase coal production efficiently by systematic and scientific development of the coal industry. The Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. (SCCL) which was already in operation since 1945 and which became a Government company under the control of Government of Andhra Pradesh in 1956. The coal industry in India was thus controlled by state-owned companies in the 1950s. Today, SCCL is a joint undertaking of Government of Telangana and Government of India sharing its equity in 51:49 ratio.
Nationalisation of coal mines
Right from its genesis, the commercial coal mining in modern times in India has been dictated by the needs of the domestic consumption. India has abundant domestic reserves of coal. Most of these are in the states of Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Telangana and Madhya Pradesh. On account of the growing needs of the steel industry, a thrust had to be given on systematic exploitation of coking coal reserves in Jharia coalfield. Adequate capital investment to meet the burgeoning energy needs of the country was not forthcoming from the private coal mine owners.
Unscientific mining practices adopted by some of them and poor working conditions of labor in some of the private coal mines became matters of concern for the Government. On account of these reasons, the Central Government took a decision to nationalize the private coal mines. The nationalization was done in two phases, the first with the coking coal mines in 1971–72 and then with the non-coking coal mines in 1973. In October, 1971, the Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1971 provided for taking over in public interest of the management of coking coal mines and coke oven plants pending nationalization. This was followed by the Coking Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act, 1972 under which the coking coal mines and the coke oven plants other than those with the Tata Iron & Steel Company Limited and Indian Iron & Steel Company Limited, were nationalized on May 1, 1972 and brought under the Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL), a new Central Government Undertaking. Another enactment, namely the Coal Mines (Taking Over of Management) Act, 1973, extended the right of the Government of India to take over the management of the coking and non-coking coal mines in seven States including the coking coal mines taken over in 1971. This was followed by the nationalization of all these mines on May 1, 1973 with the enactment of the Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act, 1973 which determined the eligibility of coal mining in India.
All non-coking coal mines were nationalized in 1973 and placed under Coal Mines Authority of India. In 1975, Eastern Coalfields Limited, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited, was formed. It took over all the earlier private collieries in Raniganj Coalfield. Raniganj Coalfield covers an area of 443.50 square kilometres (171.24 sq mi) and has total coal reserves of 8,552.85 million metric tons (9,427.90 million short tons). Eastern Coalfields puts the reserves at 29.72 billion metric tons (32.76 billion short tons). That makes it the second largest coalfield in the country (in terms of reserves).
The North East Indian states enjoys special privileges under constitution of India. The Sixth Schedule of constitution and article 371 of constitution allows state governments to formulate its own policy in order to recognize customary tribal laws. For example, Nagaland has its own coal policy which allows its natives to mine coal from their respective lands. Similarly, coal mining in Meghalaya was rampant till imposition of ban on coal mining by National Green Tribunal. The Nagaland Coal and Meghalaya Coal has large buyers in North India, Central India and Eastern India.
Denationalisation of coal mines
Parliament enacted the Coal Mines (Special Provisions) Act, 2015 in March 2015 containing provisions enabling the government to allocate coal mines through auctions. The law also permitted private players to mine coal for use in their own cement, steel, power or aluminium plants. On 20 February 2018, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) permitted private firms to enter the commercial coal mining industry in India. Under the new policy, mines will be auctioned to the firm offering the highest per tonne price. The move broke the monopoly over commercial mining that state-owned Coal India has enjoyed since nationalisation in 1973.
India has the fifth largest coal reserves in the world. As on 31 March 2018, India had 319.04 billion metric tons (351.68 billion short tons) of the resource. The known reserves of coal rose 1.23% over the previous year, with the discovery of an estimated 3.88 billion metric tons (4.28 billion short tons). The estimated total reserves of lignite coal as on 31 March 2018 was 45.66 billion metric tons (50.33 billion short tons), a decrease of 0.96% from the previous year.
Coal deposits are primarily found in eastern and south-central India. Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra accounted for 98.26% of the total known coal reserves in India. As on 31 March 2018, Jharkhand and Odisha had the largest coal deposits of 26.06% and 24.86% respectively.
The energy derived from coal in India is about twice that of the energy derived from oil, whereas worldwide, energy derived from coal is about 30% less than energy derived from oil.
Distribution of coal reserves by states
(in billion metric tonnes)
|Type of Coalfield|
Distribution of lignite reserves by states
The following table shows the estimated lignite reserves in India by state as on 31 March 2018.
(in billion metric tonnes)
|Jammu and Kashmir||0.03|
The production of coal was 675.40 million metric tons (744.50 million short tons) in 2017–18, a growth of 2.66% over the previous year. The production of lignite was 46.26 million metric tons (50.99 million short tons) in 2017–18, a growth of 2.27% over the previous fiscal. India is ranked 2nd in world coal production.
Coal washing is an integral part of the coal production process in which raw coal from mines is washed to remove the ash content to make it fit for feeding into boilers such as those in steel plants. Coal washeries are generally not a part of coal mines in India, with some exceptions.
There were 52 coal washeries in India as on 31 March 2018 with a total installed capacity of 127.56 million tonnes per year.
Industries in India consumed 896.34 MT of raw coal in 2017–18. The largest consumers of coal in India are electricity generation (576.19 MT), the steel and washery industries (58.50 MT), the sponge iron industry (8.51 MT) and the cement industry (7.70 MT). Consumption of lignite stood at 45.82 MT in 2017–18. Electricity generation alone accounts for 83.7% of the total lignite consumption.
Due to high demand and poor average quality, India is forced to import high quality coal to meet the requirements of steel plants. India's coal imports have risen from 49.79 million metric tons (0.05488 billion short tons) in 2007–08 to 208.27 million metric tons (0.22958 billion short tons) in 2017–18. India's coal exports rose from 1.63 million metric tons (1.80 million short tons) in 2007–08 to 2.44 million metric tons (2.69 million short tons) in 2012–13, but subsequently declined to 1.66 million metric tons (1.83 million short tons) in 2017–18.
Coal is the primary source of electricity generation in India and accounted for 70.69% of the total electricity produced in 2017–18, while lignite accounted 3.64% of electricity generation. As on 31 October, the installed capacity of coal power in India was 186,492.88 MW, accounting for 60.7% of the total installed capacity. India's electricity sector consumed about 72% of the coal produced in the country in 2013.
A large part of Indian coal reserve is similar to Gondwana coal. It is of low calorific value and high ash content. The carbon content is low in India's coal, and toxic trace element concentrations are negligible. The natural fuel value of Indian coal is poor. On average, the Indian power plants using India's coal supply consume about 0.7 kg of coal to generate a kWh, whereas United States thermal power plants consume about 0.45 kg of coal per kWh. This is because of the difference in the quality of the coal, as measured by the Gross Calorific Value (GCV). On average, Indian coal has a GCV of about 4500 Kcal/kg, whereas the quality elsewhere in the world is much better; for example, in Australia, the GCV is 6500 Kcal/kg approximately. India imported nearly 95 Mtoe of steam coal and coking coal which is 29% of total consumption to meet the demand in electricity, cement and steel production.
The state-owned coal mines of Bihar (now Jharkhand after the division of Bihar state) were among the first areas in India to see the emergence of a sophisticated mafia, beginning with the mining town of Dhanbad. It is alleged that the coal industry's trade union leadership forms the upper echelon of this arrangement and employs caste allegiances to maintain its power. Pilferage and sale of coal on the black market, inflated or fictitious supply expenses, falsified worker contracts and the expropriation and leasing-out of government land have allegedly become routine. A parallel economy has developed with a significant fraction of the local population employed by the mafia in manually transporting the stolen coal for long distances over unpaved roads to illegal mafia warehouses and points of sale.
The coal mafia has had a negative effect on Indian industry, with coal supplies and quality varying erratically. Higher quality coal is sometimes selectively diverted, and missing coal is replaced with stones and boulders in railway cargo wagons. A human corpse has been discovered in a sealed coal wagon.
In June 2012, the Bollywood epic Gangs of Wasseypur was released portraying the coal mafia in the area of Dhanbad. The movie received overwhelming response and was declared a hit. Another Bollywood movie Gunday was also loosely based upon coal mafia.
- Ministry of Coal
- Indian Coal Allocation Scam
- 1965 Dhanbad coal mine disaster
- Mining scams in India
- Carr, Tagore and Company
- "Coal Mining in India: The Past". Ministry of Coal, Indian government. Archived from the original on 31 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- Diary of Golden Days at Jharia – A Memoir and History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia – written by Natwarlal Devram Jethwa of Calcutta (1998).
- Census of India, 1981: Bihar. Series 4. Controller of Publications – Bihar. 1981. p. 22.
It was the existence of coal that first attracted the railway authority to extend the railways and with them came the Gujrati people as an expert railway contractor with an experience of railway construction work at Thana. They then met Raja of Jharia and purchased some having underneath wast wealth in shape of coal.
- Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa by British Authority (1920)
- "Gazetteers of Bengal, Assam, Bihar and Orissa 1917 Khora Ramji Colliries". Archive.org. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Khora Ramji Mines capsized in 1938. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Jharia Coalfields: Khora Ramji, Narayan Chowra, etc. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- India at a Glance: A comprehensive reference book on India by T. V. Rama Rao, G. D. Binani. Published by Orient Longmans in 1954 (Coal Mines Section)
- Indigenous Enterprise in the Indian Coal Mining Industry c. 1835–1939, C.P. Simmons. Published in 1976.
- Report on the production and consumption of coal in India of 1921 India. Dept. of Statistics (Superintendent Government Printing, 1921 – Technology and Engineering).
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2011-07-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Coal India Limited – About Us".
- "CoalDunia – Nagaland Coal".
- "CoalDunia – Meghalaya Coal".
- India, Press Trust of (20 February 2018). "Govt allows pvt firms to mine coal for commercial use". Business Standard India. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
- "Energy Statistics 2019" (PDF). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- "Inventory of Coal Resources of India – Ministry of Coal".
- Statistical Review of World Energy 2015
- "From Adani to Ambani, How Alleged Over Invoicing of Imported Coal has Increased Power Tariffs". Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "All India Installed Capacity of Utility Power Stations" (PDF). Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "Key World Energy Statistics" (PDF). International Energy Agency. International Energy Agency. 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Economics of Coal and Gas Based Energy". Third Wave Solutions. 2012.
- "Statistical Review of world energy 2014 workbook". Archived from the original on 22 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- Indu Bharti, "Usurpation of the State: Coal Mafia in Bihar", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24, No. 42, pg. 2353. 21 October 1989.
- S. Venugopala Rao, Crime in Our Society: A Political Perspective, Vikas Publishing House, 1983, ISBN 0-7069-1209-8: "Using the vast money, muscle and caste power, trade union leaders have built up a Mafia-like empire which totally controls the life and economy of Dhanbad ... workers who constitute about 40 percent of Dhanbad districts population are mainly tribals, adivasis, Harijans and backward castes, while the trade union musclemen are mostly Rajputs of Bhojpur and Rohtas districts."
- Ajeet N. Mathur, Asian Regional Team for Employment Promotion, World Employment Programme, Industrial Restructuring and Union Power: Micro-economic Dimensions of Economic Restructuring and Industrial Relations in India, International Labour Organization, 1991, ISBN 92-2-107494-3: "According to many workers, it is not possible for genuine trade unionism to flourish in Dhanbad because of illicit trading and profiteering in the garb of trade unionism and the protective umbrella such an institution holds out."
- "Coal theft and vote". Frontline Magazine, The Hindu Newspaper Group. 26 Feb – 11 March 2005. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-29. Check date values in:
- D. K. Mittal, Coal Industry, Anmol Publications Private Limited, 1994, ISBN 81-7041-863-1. Snippet: "Default on quality, quantity and timely supply of coal have taken their toll on the Indian industry and come in their way in acquiring international competitiveness ... coal ministry officials have themselves observed boulders and dust being loaded in wagons supposed to be carrying steam coal ... checking officials even found the dead body of a person."
- Trippi, M.H. and S.J. Tewalt. (2011). Geographic Information System (GIS) Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in India and Bangladesh. Reston, Va.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.