Coal mining in the United Kingdom
- This article covers deep pit, underground mining, for surface mining of coal in the UK see Open-pit coal mining in the United Kingdom
Coal mining in the United Kingdom probably dates to Roman times and took place in many different parts of the country. Britain's coalfields are associated with Northumberland and Durham, North and South Wales, Yorkshire, Scotland, Lancashire, the East and West Midlands and Kent. During the 1980s and 1990s the industry was scaled back considerably.
Almost all onshore coal resources in the UK occur in rocks of the Carboniferous age some of which extend under the North Sea. Bituminous coal makes is present in most of Britain’s coalfields and is 86% to 88% carbon. In Northern Ireland there are extensive deposits of lignite which is less energy-dense.
Extent and geology
The United Kingdom's onshore coal resources occur in rocks of the Carboniferous age some of which extend under the North Sea. The carbon content of the bituminous coal present in most of the coalfields is 86% to 88%. Britain's coalfields are associated with Northumberland and Durham, North and South Wales, Yorkshire, Scotland, Lancashire, the East and West Midlands and Kent.
Stone and Bronze age flint axes have been discovered embedded in coal, showing that it was mined in Britain before the Roman invasion. Early miners first extracted coal already exposed on the surface and then followed the seams underground.
It is probable that the Romans used outcropping coal when working iron or burning lime for building purposes. Evidence to support these theories comes mostly from ash discovered at excavations of Roman sites.
There is no mention of coal mining in the Domesday Book of 1086 although lead and iron mines are recorded. In the 13th century there are records of coal digging in Durham and Northumberland, Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Lancashire, the Forest of Dean and North and South Wales. At this time coal was referred to as sea cole a reference to coal washed ashore on the north east coast of England from either the cliffs or undersea outcrops. As the supply of coal on the surface became used up, settlers followed the seam inland by digging up the shore. Generally the seam continued underground, encouraging the settlers to dig to find coal, the precursor to modern operations.
The early mines would have been drift mines or adits where coal seams outcropped or by shallow bell pits where coal was close to the surface. Shafts lined with tree trunks and branches have been found in Lancashire in workings dating from early 17th century and by 1750 brick lined shafts to 150 foot depth were common.
Coal production increased dramatically in the 19th century as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace, as a fuel for steam engines such as the Newcomen engine, and later, the Watt steam engine. To produce firewood in the 1860s equivalent in energy terms to domestic consumption of coal would have required 25 million acres of land per year, nearly the entire farmland area of England (26 m. acres).
A key development was the invention at Coalbrookdale in the early 18th century of coke which could be used to make pig iron in the blast furnace. The development of the steam locomotive by Trevithick early in the 19th century gave added impetus, and coal consumption grew rapidly as the railway network expanded through the Victorian period. Coal was widely used for domestic heating owing to its low cost and widespread availability. The manufacture of coke also provided coal gas, which could be used for heating and lighting. Most of the workers were children and men.
UK coal production peaked in 1913 at 287 million tonnes. Until the late 1960s, coal was the main source of energy produced in the UK, peaking at 228 million tonnes in 1952. Ninety-five per cent of this came from roughly 1,334 deep-mines that were operational at the time, with the rest from around 92 surface mines.
In the 1950s and 1960s around a hundred North East coal mines were closed. In March 1968, the last pit in the Black Country closed and pit closures were a regular occurrence in many other areas. In early 1984, the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher announced plans to close 20 coal pits which led to the year-long miners' strike which ended in March 1985 with the miners defeated. Numerous pit closures followed, and in August 1989 coal mining ended in the Kent coalfield. Since 1981 production fell sharply from 128 to 17.8 million tonnes in 2009.
In 1994 John Major privatised British Coal after announcing closures, with the majority of operations transferred to the new company UK Coal. Nevertheless, by this time British Coal had closed all but the most economical of coal pits.
The miners strike caused coal production to slump to an all-time low, further declining towards the end of the 1980s and into the 1990s. This coincided with initiatives for cleaner energy generation as power stations switched to gas and biomass. A total of 100 million tons was produced in 1986, but by 1995 the amount was around 50 million tons. The last deep mine in South Wales closed when the coal was exhausted in January 2008. The mine was closed by British Coal in the privatisation of the industry 14 years earlier and re-opened after being bought by the miners who had worked the pit.
Following the limitations to the National Union of Mineworkers' power, British coal-dependent industries have turned to cheaper imported coal. Three times more coal is now imported than mined, despite large resources in the country. In 2001, production was exceeded by imports for the first time.
In 2009, companies were licensed to extract 125 million tonnes of coal in operating underground mines and 42 million tonnes at opencast locations. This suggests that the industry will still exist for a long time, although 293 million tonnes of licensed reserves were located in closed operations.
Coal mining employed 4,000 workers at 30 locations in 2013, extracting 13 million tonnes of coal. The three deep-pit mines were Hatfield and Kellingley Collieries in Yorkshire and Thoresby in Nottinghamshire. There were 26 opencast sites in 2014, mainly in Scotland. British coal mines, achieve the most economically produced coal in Europe, with a level of productivity of 3,200 tonnes per man year. Most coal is used for electricity generation and steel-making, but its use to heat homes has decreased due to pollution concerns. The commodity is also used for fertilisers, chemicals, plastics, medicines and road surfaces. Thoresby Colliery closed in July 2015.
The demand for coal is likely to fall with increasing focus on renewable energy or low-carbon sources and loss of industry due to globalisation. Oil and gas reserves are predicted to run out long before coal, so gas could be produced from coal by gasification.
- Mines Act of 1842
- Mines (Prohibition of Child Labour Underground) Act 1900
- National Coal Board
- Three-Day Week
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Earlier this month Maltby colliery in South Yorkshire closed down for good. At the end of a winter that saw 40% of our energy needs met by coal – most of it imported – we witnessed the poignant closing ceremony
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