Coalition Avenir Québec
|Founded||4 November 2011|
|Merger of||Action démocratique du Québec|
|Split from||Parti Québécois|
|Headquarters||1260, rue Mill|
|Seats in the National Assembly|
74 / 125
|This article is part of a series on|
|Conservatism in Canada|
|Canada portal Conservatism portal|
The Coalition Avenir Québec (CAQ; French: [kɔ.a.li.sjɔ̃ av.niʁ ke.bɛk], "Coalition for Quebec's Future") is a Quebec nationalist, autonomist and conservative provincial political party in Quebec.
It was founded by former Parti Québécois (PQ) cabinet minister François Legault and businessman Charles Sirois; Legault also serves as the party leader. The party membership includes both Quebec nationalists and federalists. Legault has said it will never endorse a referendum on sovereignty, but will seek more autonomy if necessary.
Not long after its formation, the party gained nine sitting Members of the National Assembly of Quebec (MNAs) who had been elected as members of the PQ and of the Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ); the ADQ later merged with the CAQ in January 2012. The party is registered with the Director-General of Elections in Quebec under the name Coalition Avenir Québec – L'équipe François Legault (Coalition for Quebec's Future – Team François Legault).
Members and supporters of the party are referred to as "caquistes", derived from the French pronunciation of the party's initials. However, the party has requested that the term "coalisés" be used instead.
Foundation and 2012 provincial election
In February 2011, François Legault and Charles Sirois held a press conference to announce the formation of a movement to be known as the "Coalition pour l'avenir du Québec", literally Coalition for Quebec's Future.
In September 2011, the CAQ began discussions with the ADQ on the possibility of a merger between the two groups. The two parties were very similar ideologically.
On 14 November 2011, Legault held a press conference to launch the movement as a political party under the slightly modified name of Coalition Avenir Québec, unveiling a new logo at the same time. The actual registration of the party with the Chief Electoral Officer of Quebec had already taken place on 4 November.
On 13 December 2011, the CAQ and the ADQ announced an agreement in principle to merge, pending final approval with the ADQ membership.
On 19 December 2011, two former PQ MNAs (Benoit Charette and Daniel Ratthé) and two former ADQ MNAs (Éric Caire and Marc Picard) who had earlier left their respective parties to sit as independents announced that they were joining the CAQ, becoming the new party's first sitting members.
On 21 January 2012, the results of the ADQ's mail-in vote were announced: of the 54% of members who voted, 70% approved the merger with the CAQ. The ADQ's four remaining MNAs—Sylvie Roy of Lotbinière, Janvier Grondin of Beauce-Nord, François Bonnardel of Shefford, and leader Gérard Deltell of Chauveau—joined the CAQ, boosting its caucus to nine.
On 23 January 2012, the CAQ announced its first president, Dominique Anglade, who would also be a candidate for the party in the next election. She left the party in 2015, cited objections to the CAQ's positions on ethnic identity and immigration and ran for the Quebec Liberal Party.
On 5 August 2012, Jacques Duchesneau, the whistleblower behind Quebec's anti-corruption unit, announced his candidacy for the riding of Saint-Jérôme in the 2012 provincial election. He won the MNA seat.
2014 provincial election
In the 2014 provincial election held on 7 April, the CAQ won 22 seats, a gain of three seats. The TVA-sponsored second televised debate was noted as a turning point in the campaign and party leader François Legault's performance reflected positively on the CAQ's standing. Therefore, early voting results revealed a disastrous outcome for the party, while ballots cast on Election Day were much more favourable.
Also, overall returns marked a significant geographic shift in the CAQ electoral base. In the Capitale-Nationale area, reputed for its conservative leanings and the influence of its talk-radio hosts, the Quebec Liberal Party won four of the six seats previously held by the CAQ. A strategic vote of the anti-PQ electorate, as well as a pledge by Legault to spend no public money on projects dear to Mayor Régis Labeaume, such as the construction of a $97.5 million covered ice rink, the completion of the $60 million theatre Le Diamant, promoted by Robert Lepage, and the $20 million revitalization of the French colonial era new barracks, are possible causes for the backlash.
The CAQ losses in the Capitale-Nationale area were largely compensated with a significant breakthrough in the "450 area" (Laurentides, Lanaudière and Montérégie), where it ended up with seven more seats.
After 2014 provincial election
Following much speculation, Gérard Deltell announced on 7 April 2015, that he would be running for the federal Conservative Party of Canada in the riding of Louis-Saint-Laurent in the upcoming 2015 federal election. His resignation as MNA for Chauveau took effect the same day.
On 26 August 2015, CAQ MNA Sylvie Roy resigned to sit as an independent following personal issues with party leadership.
2018 Quebec provincial election
On 1 October 2018 the CAQ won 74 seats, a gain of 53 seats when compared to their performance in 2014. propelling them from third place to a strong majority government. The CAQ won 37.4 percent of the vote, four percentage points fewer than what the Liberals tallied four years earlier, and the lowest vote share on record for a party winning an outright majority. However, the CAQ dominated its traditional heartlands and also scored sweeps or near-sweeps in Mauricie, Estrie, Lanaudière, Montérégie the Laurentides and northern Quebec. Historically, Quebec elections have seen very large disparities between the raw vote and actual seat count.
This marked the first time since the 1966 election, which was won by the now defunct Union Nationale, that a party other than the Quebec Liberals or the Parti Québécois would form government in Quebec. It was also the first time since then that a centre-right party had won government in the province.
The CAQ picked up support from a number of former PQ supporters who had come to believe there was no realistic chance of breaking off from Canada. For instance, Patrick Légaré, a longtime PQ supporter from the longstanding sovereigntist stronghold of Terrebonne, told The Guardian that he decided to vote for the CAQ because he believed "the dream of a separate Quebec is dead." For him, his main concern was finding "someone who can beat the Liberals–and it isn't the PQ." As it turned out, most of the CAQ's gains came at the expense of the PQ, with several ridings that had been in PQ hands for four decades or more falling by landslide margins.
The CAQ then took the seat vacated by the resignation of former premier Philippe Couillard in a by-election held December 10, 2018, increasing its total to 75 seats.
In December 2019 the party won the by-election in Jean-Talon, a Liberal stronghold since 1966, raising its seat total to 76.
Ideology and policies
This section needs to be updated.(September 2019)
The party long described itself as being neither of the left nor the right: it is not particularly economically conservative, with economic policies similar to the Quebec Liberal Party and social policies to their right. However, its politics have been described in the press as centre-right and populist by Quebec standards, and Legault himself considers the CAQ to be a conservative party. However, it defies labels and has moved steadily toward the centre. The party includes former federal Conservatives, provincial Liberals and ex-péquistes. Although it is often described as conservative, the CAQ does not consider itself either right- or left-leaning.
The party proposes government investment in education and partial decentralization of the healthcare system. They promise "to further develop the entrepreneurial culture in Québec" and provide government resources for the private sector. The party also supports austerity "to provide the government with the flexibility it needs to adapt to the ongoing changes in the economy"; one measure specifically mentioned is leaving 6,000 open Hydro-Québec employment positions unfilled.
The party supports abolishing school boards and increasing the autonomy of principals and their governing boards.
The CAQ contends that the near half-century debate over sovereignty has hampered Quebec's economic and political progress. While the party does not support independence, it does identify as nationalist; it believes Quebec can thrive in Canada if the federal government is willing to grant more powers to the province. On 10 April 2014, Legault, previously a staunch sovereignist, stated that a CAQ government would never hold a referendum on leaving Canada: "[There] will never be a referendum for the life of the coalition even after 10 years, even after 20 years, so that's clear. And I was clear but people understood something else." François Legault added, "Once it is clear that there will never be a referendum with the Coalition Avenir Québec, the anglophones and allophones, who don't want a referendum, have to understand that we offer an alternative to the Liberals."
According to the party, Quebec is defined by "its historical heritage, the French language, its democratic ideals and the principles of the secularity of the State, and equality among men and women". The Party supported the Quebec ban on face covering but also argue the ban is not extensive enough. They propose to prohibit the wearing of religious symbols by personnel in a position of authority, including teachers. The party supports to interculturalism to "integrate newcomers". This includes limiting immigration and promoting the use of French without creating new barriers. However, they want to except Quebec from the requirements of multiculturalism. In 2018, it proposed cutting the number of immigrants by 20 per cent, to 40,000 annually. However, it plans to bring back numbers up to 52,000 a year in 2022.
|Election||Leader||Votes||% of popular vote||# of seats won||Change +/–||Position||Government|
19 / 125
22 / 125
74 / 125
|MNA||Years of service|
|MNA||Years of service|
|President||Years of service|
|Stéphane Le Bouyonnec||2014–2018|
- 2012: C'est assez, faut que ça change ! (Enough, things have to change!)
- 2014: On se donne Legault (Let's give ourselves Legault) (Play on words with "go ahead")
- 2018: Maintenant. (Now.)
- "Coalition avenir Québec". Directeur général des élections du Québec. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Combien de membres dans les partis ?". Le Soleil (in French). 23 January 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
- Dominique Auzias; Jean-Paul Labourdette; Collectif (2013). Québec 2013–2014 Petit Futé (avec cartes, photos + avis des lecteurs). Petit Futé. p. 35. ISBN 978-2-7469-6808-0.
- Sirma Bilge (2014). "Reading the Racial Subtext of Quebecois Accommodation Controversy: An Analytics of Racialized Governmentability". In Amanda Gouws; Daiva Stasiulis (eds.). Gender and Multiculturalism: North-South Perspectives. Routledge. p. 283. ISBN 978-1-317-66753-7.
- Kristin M. Bakke (2015). Decentralization and Intrastate Struggles: Chechnya, Punjab, and Québec. Cambridge University Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-316-30043-5.
- Philippe Van Parijs; Yannick Vanderborght (2017). Basic Income: A Radical Proposal for a Free Society and a Sane Economy. Harvard University Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-674-05228-4.
- Martin Croteau (5 April 2014). "Une "vague arc-en-ciel" lundi, avance Legault". La Presse. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- . Le Soleil
- "La CAQ change d'identité". Le Devoir (in French). Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- Kirkey, Christopher (15 December 2017). "The Quebec Election of April 2014: Initial Impressions". London Journal of Canadian Studies. 32 (1): 87–97. doi:10.14324/111.444.ljcs.2017v32.007.
- "Quebec election: CAQ victory proves separatism is no longer a major issue". The Guardian
- Tom Lansford, ed. (March 2015). Political Handbook of the World 2015. SAGE Publications. p. 1061. ISBN 978-1-4833-7155-9.
- Gilbert Lavoie (3 November 2011). "Coquetterie caquiste..." Cyberpresse.ca. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Quebec elects a CAQ majority government, CBC News projects | CBC News". CBC. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- "Francois Legault unveils Coalition for the Future". CTV. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Lessard, Denis (7 September 2011). "Fusion de l'ADQ et de la CAQ: Deltell pressé par son parti". La Presse (in French). Québec. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- "New Quebec political party makes statement with logo". CTV. 14 November 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- "CAQ officially merging with ADQ". CTV. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- "Quatre élus indépendants se rallient à la CAQ". Radio-Canada (in French). 19 December 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- White, Marianne (19 December 2011). "New party boots its ranks with four new members". Canada.com.[permanent dead link]
- Philip Authier (13 January 2012). "Pauline Marois blasts former PQ MNA Francois Rebello". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Canadian Press (22 January 2012). "Coalition for Quebec's Future, ADQ finalize merger". CTV News. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- Biggs, XiBit (22 January 2012). "Merger uniting new Coalition for Quebec's Future with ADQ a done deal". Global News. Archived from the original on 1 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- Kevin Dougherty (23 January 2012). "CAQ leader François Legault shows off party executive, 'ideal candidate'". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Hicks, Ryan (25 September 2015). "Dominique Anglade abandons CAQ over identity, immigration views". CBC News.
- Canadian Press (5 August 2012). "Quebec anti-corruption crusader Duchesneau confirms run for CAQ". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- "La CAQ désormais "incontournable", selon Legault". lapresse.ca/. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- "La CAQ blâme le mouvement "anybody but Pauline"". lapresse.ca/le-soleil. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- "La CAQ paie pour avoir refusé d'endosser les projets de Québec, dit Labeaume". lapresse.ca/le-soleil. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Authier, Philip (15 August 2014). "CAQ heavyweight Christian Dubé leaving politics". The Gazette. Archived from the original on 16 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- Vendeville, Geoffrey (21 October 2014). "CAQ holds the fort in Lévis byelection". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Gérard Deltell jumps into federal politics with Conservatives". CBC News. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Sylvie Roy quits CAQ to sit as independent". CTV News. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "Coalition for Quebec's Future captures Louis-Hebert riding in byelection". The Chronicle-Journal. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- Benjamin Shingler (1 October 2018). "Quebec elects CAQ majority government, Liberals see historic losses". CBC News.
- "Francois Legault's CAQ wins majority in Quebec election, ends nearly 50 years of two-party rule". National Post. 2 October 2018. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- Keating, Cecilia (2 October 2018). "What just happened in Quebec? Seven things you need to know about François Legault's historic victory". National Observer. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- Martin Patriquin (30 September 2018). "Canada: holdout of Quebec separatism faces end of the dream". The Guardian.
- Jonathan Montpetit The Canadian Press (10 August 2012). "How right-wing is the Coalition Avenir Quebec?". Retrieved 30 July 2017.
- "Francois Legault unveils Coalition for the Future". CTV Montreal. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Ljunggren, David (14 November 2011). "New Quebec party could marginalize separatists". Reuters. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- Ljunggren, David (14 June 2011). "The PQ falls on its separatist message". National Post. Retrieved 16 December 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "Quebec unites its right". Winnipeg Sun. QMI Agency. 22 January 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Legault's Coalition Avenir Quebec absorbs ADQ". CTV Montreal. 22 January 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Jean Charest: Quebec Premier Eyeing 2013 Election". Huffingtonpost.ca. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "CAQ not a tonic for economic conservatives". CBC. 10 August 2012.
- Les Perraux (1 October 2018). "Coalition Avenir Québec wins historic majority as voters soundly reject old-line Liberals, PQ". The Globe and Mail.
- "La CAQ se dit nationaliste mais pas a gauche ni a droite" (consulted March 2021)
- "TAKING ACTION FOR THE FUTURE — Action plan presented by the Coalition pour l'avenir du Québec" (PDF). 14 November 2011. Cite journal requires
- "La CAQ relance sa promesse d'abolir les commissions scolaires | Hugo Pilon-Larose | Politique québécoise". La Presse (in French). 17 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- "Francois Legault says CAQ would 'never' hold a referendum". ctvnews.ca. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "François Legault finds that Bill 101 and business don't (...) – Vigile.Québec". vigile.net. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- "How would proportional representation have shaped this election's results?". ICI Radio-Canada.ca. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Quebec without equalization? – Macleans.ca". Macleans.ca. 22 November 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- "Quebec's ban on face-coverings risks inflaming inter-communal tensions". The Economist.
- "What we've learned so far about the incoming CAQ government – CBC News". Cbc.ca. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
- ICI.Radio-Canada.ca, Zone Politique-. "Un logo tout bleu pour le virage nationaliste de la CAQ". Radio-Canada.ca (in French). Retrieved 10 November 2019.
- "Here are the priorities of Quebec's new CAQ government | CBC News". CBC. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- "Legault Year One: How the CAQ has transformed Quebec so far". Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- Sucar, Daniel; August 16, Montreal Gazette Updated; 2019 (17 August 2019). "CAQ keeps its promise of reducing immigration: study | Montreal Gazette". Retrieved 11 November 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Kestler-D'Amours, Jillian (22 August 2018). "What's in a slogan? Quebec's 4 main parties try to entice voters with one word or more". CBC News. Retrieved 31 August 2018.