Coalition of the Gulf War

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Coalition of the Gulf War
1990–1991
Flag of Coalition of the Gulf War
  Coalition countries
TypeMilitary coalition
MembershipPrimary countries:
Other contributors:
Historical eraGulf War
2–4 August 1990
• Adoption of UNSC Resolution 678
29 November 1990
14 January 1991
• Beginning of Gulf War air campaign
17 January 1991
24 February 1991
• Adoption of UNSC Resolution 686
2 March 1991

On 29 November 1990, the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 678 authorized the assembly of a multinational military coalition to fight against Iraq in the Gulf War. The coalition's purpose was to liberate Iraqi-occupied Kuwait by "all necessary means" if Iraq did not withdraw by 15 January 1991. Iraq failed to relinquish control over Kuwait by the deadline specified in Resolution 678, leading to the commencement of combat operations with the Gulf War aerial bombardment campaign on 17 January 1991. At this time, the coalition consisted of 42 countries and was spearheaded by the United States: the central command was led by the United States, Saudi Arabia, and the United Kingdom; the marine command was led by the United States; the Joint Forces East Command was led by Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Morocco, Kuwait, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Poland, and Czechoslovakia; and the Joint Forces North Command was led by the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Italy, Australia, Japan, and Turkey. On 23 February 1991, the aerial bombardment campaign came to an end as the coalition began a large-scale ground offensive (the Liberation of Kuwait campaign) into Iraqi-occupied Kuwait and parts of Iraq. The Iraqi military was devastated in the fighting, and Kuwait was declared completely free of occupying Iraqi troops on 28 February 1991.

Multinational group (Qatari F1 Mirage & Alpha Jet, French F1 Mirage, U.S. F-16, and Canadian CF-18 Air Forces) of fighter jets during Operation Desert Shield

Member states[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Argentina had 500 troops, two corvettes, a destroyer, two cargo planes and three helicopters.[1] It led the Operation Alfil.

Australia[edit]

Australia contributed at least one guided missile frigate, one destroyer and one supply ship.[2]

Bahrain[edit]

Bahraini forces were about 400 with base guards.

Bangladesh[edit]

Bangladeshi personnel was around 2,300.[3] Their codenamed Operation Moruprantar and Security Personnel including two field Ambulance teams. Bangladeshi commander was Zubayr Siddiqui.

Belgium[edit]

Belgian forces had about 400 troops and base engineers, two minesweepers, one squadron of fighters to Turkey.[2]

Canada[edit]

Canada's personnel was around 4,600 and Canadian forces participated in Operation Friction.

Czechoslovakia[edit]

200-man chemical defence unit and 150 medical personnel.[2] Prominent Czechoslovak commander was Ján Való.

Denmark[edit]

Denmark provided HDMS Olfert Fischer (Niels Juel-class Corvette) along 100 personnel.[2]

Egypt[edit]

Egypt's personnel was around 35,000 soldiers. Egyptian leaders included Muhammad Tantawi, Mohammed Ali Bilal and Sami Anan.

France[edit]

The French personnel was around 18,000 and participated in Opération Daguet. It provided LTG Michel Roquejeoffre: 20,000 troops, 14 ships, one CV, more than 75 aircraft, 350 tanks, & 6th Armored Division.[2] The prominent Michel Roquejeoffre was a leader in the Gulf War.

Germany[edit]

Germany gave one squadron of fighters to Turkey.[3]

Greece[edit]

Greek forces included Hellenic Air Force pilots and ground support staff, one frigate in Red Sea.[2]

Honduras[edit]

Honduras gave 150 personnel with Washington Post reporting Honduras might send 350 more.[2]

Hungary[edit]

The Hungarian personnel was about 40 people. It provided a medical team.[4]

Italy[edit]

Italian personnel was around 1,950 and Italian forces participated in the Operazione Locusta and deployed eight Panavia Tornado strike attack aircraft, Naval deployment (Operazione Golfo 2). Four ships, eight Tornado fighters, six F-104 fighters to Turkey. Italian commander was Mario Arpino.

Kuwait[edit]

Kuwaiti resistance included around 9,900 personnel.

Luxembourg[edit]

Luxembourg provided financial support as well as peacekeeping to assist civilians.[5][6]

Morocco[edit]

Moroccan personnel was around 13,000 and they reportedly provided security personnel.

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand provided two Lockheed C-130 Hercules transporter aircraft and 100 personnel.[7]

Netherlands[edit]

Netherlands had naval deployment; Air Force deployments of Surface-to-Air Missiles to Turkey and Israel.

Niger[edit]

Niger had about 680 personnel and Patroller group. At least 480 troops guarding shrines in Mecca and Medina.[2]

Norway[edit]

Norway had 280 personnel with naval vessel and field hospital + intelligence information.

A Royal Saudi Air Force Tornado F3 during Operation Desert Storm.

Oman[edit]

Omani personnel was around 6,300.

Pakistan[edit]

Mirza Aslam Beg, the Chief of Army Staff, endorsed the campaign against Iraq. In a briefing given to president Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Beg maintained the assessment that once the ground battle with the Iraqi Army was joined, the Iraqi Army would comprehensively defeat and repel the American Army.[8] Pakistani personnel was around 4,900–5,500. Ironically, Beg accused the Western countries for encouraging Iraq to invade Kuwait, though he kept his armed forces fighting against Iraq in support to Saudi Arabia.[9][10] In 1990, he held state dinner for United States Central Command (SCENTCOM) commander General Norman Schwarzkopf where, together with Chairman Joint Chiefs Admiral Iftikhar Sirohey, brief the USCENTCOM on Pakistan Armed Forces battle preparations and military operational capabilities of Pakistan armed forces in Saudi contingent.[11] The war was a polarizing political issue in Pakistan and Beg carefully commanded and deployed the Pakistan Armed Forces' contingent forces during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.[10][12] Beg calculated that the popular opinion would be in favor of Iraq, as the anti-American sentiment in the Middle East began to grow at that time.[8] But, neither did Beg's strategic prediction come true nor did he get an extension.[8] Soon after the end of Gulf war, Beg proceeded towards his retirement on 18 August 1991.[8]

Philippines[edit]

The Philippines sent around 200 medical personnel to assist coalition forces in the liberation of Kuwait.

Poland[edit]

Polish forces participated in Operation Simoom and had naval and medical deployment. Their personnel was 319.

Portugal[edit]

Logistic support with one Military Logistic Ship and 2 Lockheed C-130 Hercules transporter aircraft.[13][14] Portuguese personnel was estimated to be 52.

Qatar[edit]

Qatar gave around 2,600 personnel. Qatari forces participated in the Battle of Khafji.

Romania[edit]

Romania participated with 363 medical personnel and 21 soldiers from February 1991. As part of Operation Granby, the medical team with a field hospital were deployed to al-Jubayl.[15][16][17]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Saudi personnel was estimated to be 60,000 to 100,000. Saudi leaders were Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya and Sultan Al-Mutairi.

Senegal[edit]

Senegal had about 500 and base guards.[2]

Singapore[edit]

Singapore sent 30 military personnel to provide medical and humanitarian services under Operation Nightingale and nine military support teams in 1991, with 990 military personnel, electronic intelligence, naval and aerial assets during Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 until 2008.[18]

South Korea[edit]

South Korean personnel was 314 with medical and transportation support,

Spain[edit]

Spain had 500 on the field and 3,000 off the coast. Engineers, 2 corvettes and one destroyer patrolling near Bab al Mandeb[2]

Syria[edit]

Coalition troops from Egypt, France, Oman, Syria, and Kuwait stand for review during Operation Desert Storm.

Syria's personnel was around 14,500 and participated in the Operation Desert Storm. Syrian military officer was Mustafa Tlass.

Sweden[edit]

Swedish personnel was about 525 and included a field hospital.[19]

Turkey[edit]

Turkey played a role in the air assault against Iraq.[20]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Emirati forces were around 4,300 personnel.

United Kingdom[edit]

The United Kingdom participated in Operation Granby and Battle of Norfolk. It reportedly gave 16 ships, 58 aircraft, 1st Armd Div HQ, 7th Armd Bde, 4th Armd Bde.[2] British soldiers in the war were reportedly 53,462.[21] British leaders included Patrick Hine, the joint commander of all British forces, Michael Graydon, Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief RAF Strike Command, Peter de la Billière - Commander-in-Chief of British Forces and John Chapple, Chief of the General Staff.

United States[edit]

The United States led the war with a personnel number of 697,000.[22] It led the Operation Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm, Battle of Khafji, Battle of 73 Easting, Battle of Al Busayyah, Battle of Phase Line Bullet, Battle of Medina Ridge, Battle of Wadi al-Batin, Battle of Norfolk and others. American commanders included Colin Powell, Calvin Waller, Charles Horner, Walt Boomer, Stan Arthur, Frederick Franks, Buster Glosson and others. Leading commander Norman Schwarzkopf led all coalition forces in the battle against Iraq.

Afghan and Kurdish militias[edit]

According to sources, 300 members of the anti-communist militias, Afghan mujahideen, joined the coalition towards the end of the war on 11 February 1991.[23][24] Iraqi Kurdish rebel groups also reportedly rebelled against Saddam.[25]

Member states by equipment[edit]

United States[edit]

Tanks[edit]

Armored vehicles[edit]

  • M2A2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle)
  • M3A2 Bradley CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle)
  • AAVP7A1 Assault Amphibian Vehicle Personnel (USMC)
  • LAV-25 Light Armored Vehicle (USMC)
  • LAV-AT Light Armored Vehicle (Anti-Tank) (USMC)
  • M113A2/A3 APC (Armored Personnel Carrier)
  • TPz Fuchs APC NBC and EW variants (UOR acquisition from Germany)
  • M901A1 ITV (Improved TOW Vehicle)

Self-propelled artillery/mortars/rockets[edit]

  • LAV-M Light Armored Vehicle (Mortar) (USMC)
  • M106A2 Self-Propelled Mortar Carrier
  • M109A2/A3/A4 155 mm SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer)
  • M110A2 8 inch SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer)
  • M270 MLRS Multiple Launch Rocket System

Anti-aircraft[edit]

Artillery and mortars[edit]

Engineering and recovery vehicles

Command vehicles[edit]

  • M577A2 ACP (Armored Command Post) Carrier
  • AACV7A1 (Assault Amphibian Vehicle Command) (USMC)
  • LAV-25C2 Light Armored Vehicle (Command & Control) (USMC)
  • M981 FISTV (Fire Support Team Vehicle)

Other vehicles[edit]

Helicopters[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

Aircraft carriers[edit]

Battleships[edit]

Submarines[edit]

Amphibious assault ships[edit]

Guided missile cruisers[edit]

Destroyer tenders[edit]

Destroyers[edit]

Guided missile destroyers[edit]

Frigates[edit]

Amphibious transport docks[edit]

Ammunition ships[edit]

Dock landing ships[edit]

Tank landing ships[edit]

Fast sealift ships[edit]

  • SL-7 Type (USS Algol, USNS Bellatrix, USS Denebola, USS Pollux, USNS Altair, USS Regulus, USS Capella)

Fleet oilers[edit]

  • Neosho class (USS Neosho, USS Hassayampa, USS Ponchatoula)
  • Cimarron class (USS Platte)
  • Henry J. Kaiser class (USS Joshua Humphreys, USNS Andrew J. Higgins, USS Walter S. Diehl)

Combat stores ships[edit]

Fast combat support ships[edit]

Replenishment oiler ships[edit]

  • Wichita class (USS Kansas City, USS Kalamazoo)

Minesweepers[edit]

Repair ships[edit]

  • Vulcan class (USS Vulcan, USS Jason)

Rescue and salvage ships[edit]

  • Edenton class (USS Beaufort)

Sealift ships[edit]

  • Wright class (USS Wright, USS Curtiss)

Hospital ships[edit]

Amphibious cargo ships[edit]

  • Charleston class (USS Durham, USS Mobile)

Mine countermeasure ships[edit]

Survey ships[edit]

  • Chauvenet class (USS Chauvenet)

Light watercraft[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Tanks[edit]

Armoured vehicles[edit]

Self-propelled artillery/mortars/rockets[edit]

Anti-aircraft[edit]

Artillery and mortars[edit]

Engineering and recovery vehicles[edit]

Command vehicles[edit]

Other vehicles[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

Destroyers[edit]

Frigates[edit]

Submarines[edit]

Mine countermeasure vessels[edit]

Fleet support vessels[edit]

Hospital ship[edit]

  • RFA Argus - "Primary casualty reception vessel"

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Tanks[edit]

Armoured vehicles[edit]

Self-propelled artillery/mortars/rockets[edit]

  • M109A2 155 mm SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer)
  • AMX-GCT 155 mm SPH (Self-Propelled Howitzer)
  • ASTROS-II MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System)
  • M106A2 Self-Propelled Mortar Carrier
  • Cadillac Gage V-150 Commando (Mortar 81 mm)
  • Cadillac Gage V-150 Commando (Mortar 90 mm)

Artillery and mortars[edit]

Anti-aircraft[edit]

  • M163 VADS Vulcan Air Defence System
  • AMX-30SA Shahine Self-Propelled SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher
  • AMX-30SA SPAAA (Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery)
  • MIM-23 Improved Hawk SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher
  • Shahine Stationary SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) Launcher
  • Bofors 40 mm L/70 AAA (Anti-Aircraft Artillery)
  • Oerlikon-Buhrle Twin 35 mm GDF AAA (Anti-Aircraft Artillery)

Other vehicles[edit]

Helicopters[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

Frigates[edit]

Corvettes[edit]

Patrol ships[edit]

  • Al Sadiq class (Al-Siddiq, Al-Farouq, Abdul-Aziz, Faisal, Khalid, Amr, Tariq, Ouqbah, Abu Obadiah)

Replenishment ships[edit]

Kuwait[edit]

Tanks[edit]

  • M-84AB MBT (Main Battle Tank) Cheiftain MBT (Main Battle Tank)

Armoured vehicles[edit]

  • BMP-2 IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle)
  • M113A1 APC (Armored Personnel Carrier)

Helicopters[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

Fast attack craft[edit]

  • Lürssen FPB-57 (unknown number)
  • Lürssen TNC-45 (unknown number)

France[edit]

Tanks[edit]

Other armoured vehicles[edit]

  • GIAT AMX-10RC armoured car
  • Panhard AML-90 armoured car
  • Panhard ERC-90F4 Sagaie armoured car
  • GIAT VAB (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé) wheeled troop carrier
  • GIAT VAB-PC (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé - Poste de Commandement) command vehicle
  • GIAT VAB-VCAC/HOT (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé - Véhicule de Combat Anti-Char) ATGM (Anti-Tank Guided Missile) launch vehicle
  • GIAT VAB-VTM (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé - Véhicule Tracteur de Mortier) mortar tractor

Artillery and mortars[edit]

  • TR-F1 155 mm towed howitzer
  • MO-81-61C 81 mm mortar
  • MO-120-RT-61 120 mm mortar

Anti-aircraft[edit]

  • GIAT 20 mm 53T2 towed AAA (Anti-Aircraft Artillery)
  • Mistral SAM (Surface-To-Air Missile) launcher

Other vehicles[edit]

  • Peugeot P4 4WD
  • VLRA (Vehicle de Liaison et Reconnaissance de L'Armee) truck

Helicopters[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

Aircraft carriers[edit]

Amphibious transport docks[edit]

Cruisers[edit]

Destroyers[edit]

Corvettes[edit]

Minehunters[edit]

Replenishment ships[edit]

Support ships[edit]

Qatar[edit]

Tanks[edit]

  • AMX-30S MBT (Main Battle Tank)

Italy[edit]

Fighter jets[edit]

Destroyers[edit]

Frigates[edit]

Replenishment ships[edit]

Poland[edit]

Hospital ship[edit]

Salvage ship[edit]

Czechoslovakia[edit]

Other vehicles[edit]

  • Tatra T-815 (Heavy truck)
  • UAZ-4629 (All-terrain vehicle mounted with chemical reconnaissance probes)
  • ARS-12M (De-contamination truck based on Praga V3S)
  • POP (Mobile field medical truck based on Praga V3S)

Canada[edit]

Destroyers[edit]

Fighter aircraft[edit]

Transport aircraft[edit]

Helicopters[edit]

Patrol, surveillance aircraft[edit]

Supply/replenishment ship[edit]

Argentina[edit]

[27]

Destroyers[edit]

  • 1 MEKO 360 (Almirante Brown class): ARA Almirante Brown (D-10) (CF A. Tierno). ARA Almirante Brown navigated 25.000 NM in the designated area for operations, as part of GT 88, together with ARA Spiro. Returned to Argentina on 25 April, 1991.

Frigates[edit]

  • 2 MEKO 140 A16 (Espora class): ARA Spiro (P-43) (CF O. Gonzalez), ARA Rosales (P-42) (CC Tebaldi / CC Rossi). ARA Spiro returned to Argentina on 23 May 1991, together with ARA Almirante Brown (D-10). It had navigated 23000 NM in the operations area during the conflict.

Amphibious cargo ships[edit]

  • 1Costa Sur class: ARA Bahia San Blas (B-5). Loaded with medicine and food, for humanitarian aid. This ship along with ARA Rosales (P-42) formed GT 88.1, and replaced GT 88.0 formed by ARA Almirante Brown and ARA Spiro.

Helicopters[edit]

  • 2 Alouette III (3-H-109 and 3-H-112), from 1° Esc. Aeronaval de Helicopteros (EA1H) (C.C. Alomar). Totalling 67 flights. Operated initially with P-43 and D-10. One of the Alouette suffered an accident, with no casualties.

Transport aircraft[edit]

Australia[edit]

HMAS Sydney during January 1991

Destroyers[edit]

Frigates[edit]

Replenishment ships[edit]

Transport aircraft[edit]

Norway[edit]

Patrol ships[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Corvettes[edit]

Greece[edit]

Frigates[edit]

Spain[edit]

Destroyers[edit]

Corvettes[edit]

  • Descubierta-class corvettes, Descubierta, Diana, Infanta Cristina, Cazadora, Vencedora

The Netherlands[edit]

[30]

Frigates[edit]

Minehunters[edit]

Replenishment ships[edit]

Mobile field hospital[edit]

  • 53 medical personnel stationed on site

Maritime patrol aircraft[edit]

Belgium[edit]

[31]

Frigates[edit]

Minehunters[edit]

Support ships[edit]

Turkey[edit]

Destroyers[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time Argentina participated in the (first) war against Iraq (spanish)". Univision. June 5, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Desert Shield and Desert Storm: A Chronology and Troop List for the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf Crisis" (PDF). apps.dtic.mil. 1991-03-25. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  3. ^ a b Hossain, Ishtiaq (April 1997). "Bangladesh and the Gulf War: Response of a Small State". Pakistan Horizon. 50 (2). Pakistan Institute of International Affairs: 42. JSTOR 41393571.
  4. ^ Lieutenant Colonel Joseph P. Englehardt. "DESERT SHIELD AND DESERT STORM A CHRONOLOGY AND TROOP LIST FOR THE 1990–1991 PERSIAN GULF CRISIS" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 21, 2016.
  5. ^ "Luxembourg (09/06)". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2023-08-07.
  6. ^ "OMP". Musée National d'Histoire Militaire (in German). Retrieved 2023-08-07.
  7. ^ "RNZAF - the Post War Years". Archived from the original on 2010-05-22. Retrieved 2010-01-26. Royal New Zealand Air Force website
  8. ^ a b c d Singh, R.S.N. (2008). "Nawaz Sharif and Military". The military factor in Pakistan. New Delhi: Frankfort, IL. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-0-9815378-9-4. Archived from the original on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  9. ^ Hiro, Dilip (2003). Desert shield to desert storm : the second Gulf war. New York: Authors Choice Press. ISBN 0-595-26904-4.
  10. ^ a b Ghareeb, Majid Khadduri, Edmund (2001). War in the Gulf, 1990–91: the Iraq-Kuwait conflict and its implications. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford University Press, Ghareeb. ISBN 0-19-514979-3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Petre, H. Norman Schwarzkopf, written by Peter (1993). It doesn't take a hero : the autobiography (Bantam paperback ed.). New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-56338-6.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Crossette, Barbara (14 August 1990). "Confrontation in the Gulf – Pakistanis Agree to Join Defense of Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  13. ^ "Participação portuguesa na guerra do Golfo" (in European Portuguese). Retrieved 2023-03-22.
  14. ^ "A PARTICIPAÇÃO DE PORTUGAL EM OPERAÇÕES DE PAZ. ÊXITOS, PROBLEMAS E DESAFIOS" (PDF).
  15. ^ Alexandrescu, Grigore; Băhnăreanu, Cristian (2007). Operații militare expediționare (PDF) (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Universității Naționale de Apărare "Carol I". p. 33. ISBN 9789736634994.
  16. ^ "Alte misiuni și operații la care au participat militari români". misiuni.mapn.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 23 April 2023.
  17. ^ Watson, Bruce W. (1993). Military Lessons of the Gulf War. Greenhill Books. p. 222. ISBN 9781853671036.
  18. ^ "MINDEF Singapore". www.mindef.gov.sg. Retrieved 2023-08-21.
  19. ^ http://www.mil.se/sv/i-varlden/Utlandsstyrkan/Truppinsatser/Kuwait/ Archived 2009-05-27 at the Wayback Machine Field hospital deployed as part of Operation Granby (in Swedish)
  20. ^ Haberman, Clyde; Times, Special To the New York (1991-01-20). "WAR IN THE GULF: Turkey; Turkey's Role in Air Assault Sets Off Fear of Retaliation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-06-10.
  21. ^ "1990/1991 Gulf Conflict" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 25 March 2011 "Ministry of Defence"
  22. ^ Hyams, K. C., K. Hanson, F. S. Wignall, J. Escamilla, and E. C. Oldfield, 3rd. "The Impact of Infectious Diseases on the Health of U.S. Troops Deployed to the Persian Gulf During Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm. Archived 2016-12-17 at the Wayback Machine" Reprinted with permission of Clinical Infectious Diseases. Force Health Protection & Readiness Policy & Programs, 20 June 1995. Web. 9 June 2014.
  23. ^ "DESERT SHIELD AND DESERT STORM A CHRONOLOGY AND TROOP LIST FOR THE 1990–1991 PERSIAN GULF CRISIS" (PDF). apps.dtic.mil. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  24. ^ "DESERT SHIELD AND DESERT STORM A CHRONOLOGY AND TROOP LIST FOR THE 1990–1991 PERSIAN GULF CRISIS" (PDF). apps.dtic.mil. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  25. ^ McDowall 2004, p. 373.
  26. ^ OP SCALPEL War Journal
  27. ^ "La Armada Argentina en el Golfo". Archived from the original on 2018-06-24. Retrieved 2010-06-09.
  28. ^ El TC-91, un avión con mucha historia
  29. ^ A 12 AÑOS DEL BOEING UNAG-1 EN LA GUERRA DEL GOLFO I Archived 2011-03-05 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ "The Dutch contribution to the Gulf war - Historical missions - Defensie.nl". 12 September 2017.
  31. ^ "The Operation Southern Breeze".

Works cited[edit]

  • McDowall, David (2004). A modern history of the Kurds (3rd ed.). London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-416-6.

External links[edit]