Coat (dog)

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Montage showing the coat variation of the dog.

The coat of the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) refers to the hair that covers its body. A dog's coat may be a double coat, made up of a soft undercoat and a tougher topcoat, or a single coat, which lacks an undercoat. Double coats have a top coat, made of stiff hairs to help repel water and shield from dirt, and an undercoat to serve as insulation.[1] The terms fur and hair are often used interchangeably when describing a dog's coat, however in general, a double coat, e.g., like that of the Newfoundland and most mountain dogs, is referred to as a fur coat, while a single coat, like that of the Poodle, is referred to as a hair coat.

Genetics[edit]

Newfoundland lying next to its combed-out seasonal undercoat.

There are a greater variety of coat colors, patterns, lengths and textures found in the domestic dog than in its wolf relations, as is typical of all domestic animals. In the wild, mutations often put animals at some practical disadvantage decreasing survival or reducing their attractiveness to the opposite sex; whereas domestic animals are protected from harm, and bred from specifically due to practical applications of the mutation for human uses, or to the attraction man has for uniqueness.

During evolution of the dog from their wild wolf ancestors, coat colors in dogs were probably the inadvertent outcome of some other selective process (i.e., selection for tameness), and were not likely initially selected for intentionally by humans.[2] Research has found that tameness brings associated physical changes, including coat colouring and patterning.[3] Diversification of the dog into different types and ultimately separate breeds increased colour variation as factors such as camouflage and visibility aided the dogs’ functionality.

Coat types were selected for, both inadvertently and intentionally, in accordance with factors such as climate, vegetation in the dogs’ working environment, and the need to perform tasks in water.

Domestic dogs often display the remnants of countershading, a common natural camouflage pattern. The basic principle of countershading is when the animal is lit from above, shadows will be cast on the ventral side of the body. These shadows could provide a predator or prey with visual cues relating to the movement of the animal. By being lighter colored on the ventral side of the body, an animal can counteract this, and thereby fool the predator or prey. An alternative explanation is that the dorsal and ventral sides of an animal experience different selection pressures (from the need to blend into different backgrounds when viewed from above and below) resulting in differing coloration.[4]

Nomenclature of colors and patterns[edit]

Colors[edit]

The same color may be referred to differently in different breeds. Likewise, a same term may mean different colourations in different breeds.

Brown, chocolate, liver

Brown, chocolate and liver are the most common terms used to refer to the bb-dilution of black pigment to a dark brown. Depending on breed and exact shade, terms such as mahogany, midtone brown, grey-brown, blackish brown are used. Sedge and deadgrass are used to describe the desired Chesapeake Bay Retriever color that resembles "that of its working surroundings" as closely as possible.

Red

Red refers to reddish shades of orange, brown, and tan. Terms used include orange, red-gold, cinnamon, tan, and ruby. Genetically a dog called red is usually a clear sable (with little to no eumelanin tipping on hairs) or a ruddy recessive yellow.

In some breeds, "red" refers to what would usually be called brown, chocolate, or liver. A "red merle" is always a liver-based merle. In Australian Cattle Dogs, blue stands for a densely ticked liver-based colouration with an overall red-grey appearance.

Gold and yellow

Gold refers specifically to a rich reddish-yellow and its variants, whereas yellow can refer to any shade of yellow and tan. Terms used include yellow-gold, lion-colored, fawn, apricot, wheaten, tawny, straw, yellow-red, mustard, sandy, honey, apricot, blond, lemon. Dogs called golden or yellow tend to be recessive yellow, but can also be sable.

Cream

Cream refers to a pale yellowish or tannish colour which can be almost white.

Fawn

Fawn typically refers to a yellow, tan, light brown, or cream dog that has a dark melanistic mask.

With Weimaraners, fawn refers to their typical brownish grey colouration that with other breeds is usually called lilac.

Black

Black is a pure black that can get grizzled as the dog ages, or have a tendency to gain a brownish cast when exposed to the elements.

Blue

Blue is a cool-toned, metallic grey. It typically means a d/d dilution of black pigment, a grey colouration that is grey from birth, but has a wide range of breed-specific meanings.

In Kerry Blue Terriers, Poodles, and Bearded Collies, "blue" refers to colouration that is black at birth and progressively greys out as the dog matures. In Australian Shepherds, Rough Collies, and Shetland Sheepdogs, blue means a blue (black-based) merle. In Australian Silky Terriers, blue means a saddle-type black and tan pattern, where the black parts of the coat progressively fade to a steel grey as the dog matures, and in Australian Cattle Dogs, blue stands for a densely ticked black-based colouration with an overall blue-grey appearance.

Grey

Grey simply means a grey colouration of any shade. It can be used as an alternative synonym of blue, but tends to mean some other type of grey than the d/d dilution of black. Synonyms include silver, pepper, grizzle, slate, blue-black grey, black and silver, steel. Greys of a dusty or brownish cast are often lilac, a d/d dilution of liver, and this colouration does not have much of a commonly recognised name. Across various breeds, it is called lavender, silver-fawn, isabella, fawn, café au lait or silver beige.

In Poodles, a blue is a very slowly fading, very dark steel grey, whereas a silver is a quicker to clear, much lighter grey that can range from a pale platinum to a steel grey. Both are black at birth with minimal markings to indicate future change. Similarly, café au lait is a slower and darker and silver beige a quicker and lighter progressively greying brown, i.e. liver.

White

White: Such a light cream that it is seen and described as pure white, making them distinct from albino dogs. A white dog, as opposed to an albino one, has dark pigment around the eye rims and nose, often coupled with dark-colored eyes. There is often some coat identifiable as cream between the dog's shoulder blades.

Patterns[edit]

The same pattern may be referred to differently in different breeds.

Australien Kelpie.jpg
Liver and tan Australian Kelpie
Rottweiler-Head.jpg
Black and tan Rottweiler
Black and tan, liver and tan, blue and tan: Coat has both colors but in clearly defined and separated areas, usually with the darker color on most of the body and tan (reddish variants) underneath and in highlights such as the eyebrows. Black and brindle and liver and brindle, in which the same pattern is evident with brindling in place of tan, are also possible, but less common.
Border Collie 600.jpg
Black and white Border Collie
CavalierKgChas2 wb.jpg
Blenheim (Red-brown and white) Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
Bicolor (also called Two-color, Irish spotted, Flashy, Patched, Tuxedo) Any color or pattern coupled with white spotting. This can range anywhere from white toes and tail tip to a mostly white dog with color around the base of the ears and tail. Some breeds have special names for the color combinations; for example, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel uses Blenheim for reddish brown (chestnut) and white. Irish Spotted or flashy pattern is symmetrical and includes a white chest, white band around the neck, white belly, and white feet or "boots." This pattern is commonly seen in herding dogs, and Boxers, among others. The piebald gene is responsible for this pattern.
EntlebucherBall2 wb.jpg
Black tricolor Entlebucher Mountain Dog
Beagle 600.jpg
Tricolor Beagle
Tricolor: Three clearly defined colors, usually either black, liver, or blue on the dog's upper parts, white underneath, with a tan border between and tan highlights; for example, the Smooth Collie, the Rough Collie, the Papillon, or the Sheltie. Tricolor can also refer to a dog whose coat is patched, usually two colors (such as black and tan) on a white background.
ShetlandShpdogBlue2 wb.jpg
Blue merle tricolor Shetland Sheepdog
CatahoulaRedWhitePair wb.jpg
Red merle Catahoula Leopard Dogs
Merle: Marbled coat with darker patches and spots of the specified color. Merle is referred to as "Dapple" in Dachshunds.
Tuxedomix.jpg
Tuxedo Lab mix.
Red tuxedo2.jpg
Tuxedo Collie mix
Tuxedo: Solid (often black) with a white patch (shirt front) on the chest and chin, and white on some or all of the feet (spats.) The tuxedo pattern is common in dogs that carry only one piebald gene (a heterozygous carrier).
Dogge Odin.jpg
Harlequin Great Dane
Miezynarodowa wystawa psow rasowych katowice 2012 3.jpg
Harlequin Great Dane
Harlequin: "ripped" splotches of black on white. The Great Dane is the only breed with this pattern. The term harlequin is also sometimes used to describe a piebald spotting pattern, such as parti-colored poodles.
Dalmatian b 01.jpg
Spotted Dalmatian
Rio limon venezuela227.jpg
Spotted mutt in Sinamaica, Venezuela
Spotted Coin-sized pigmented spots on a white background. The spotting on Dalmatians is unique as it involves mutations in at least three different spotting genes.[5]
AustrCattleDogRed wb.jpg
Red-speckled Australian Cattle Dog
GermanShorthPtr wb.jpg
Liver-ticked German Shorthaired Pointer
Flecked, ticked, speckled: also called belton in English Setters
English Setter in Tallinn 2.JPG
Orange belton (orange and white speckled) English Setter
AustrCattleDogBlue wb.jpg
Blue speckled Australian Cattle Dog
BostonTerrierBrindleStand w.jpg
Densely brindled liver and white Boston Terrier
Big and little dog 1.jpg
Very sparsely brindled Great Dane
Brindle: A mixture of black/liver/blue/lilac and red/yellow/cream arranged in a vertical "tiger stripe" pattern.
Rambo the Airedale Terrier.jpg
Airedale Terrier with large black saddle
Dunker.jpg
Norwegian Dunker with merle-affected black saddle
Saddle or blanket: A different color, usually darker, over the centre of the back.
Pomeranian orange sable 600.jpg
Dark orange sable Pomeranian
Australian Terrier 002 U.jpg
Clear sable Australian Terrier
Sable: Black-tipped hairs; the rest of the hair can be gold to yellow, silver, grey, or tan. The darkness of the coat depends on how much of each hair is black versus the lighter color. Totally clear sables might only have black in their whiskers.

Show coats[edit]

The nature and quality of a purebred dog's coat is important to the dog fancy in the judging of the dog at conformation shows. The exact requirements are detailed in each breed's breed standard and do not generalise in any way, and the terminology may be very different even when referring to similar features. See individual breed articles for specific information.

Nutritional impacts on coat[edit]

A dog's coat is an outward indicator of internal well-being.[6] For this reason, coat health is an important aspect of pet care to many dog owners.[6] Dog coats can be impacted by nutritional components from the diet.[7] Below is a table that summarizes the effects of several nutrients (minerals, vitamins) on the domestic canine coat, based on current evidence:    

Nutrient Role Impacts when deficient Benefits
Zinc Gives strength to collagen[8] Dry and brittle coat[8] Contributes to coat growth and prevents brittle and dry coat[8]
Copper Involved in keratinization[9] Brittle fur, hypo-pigmentation, discoloration[9] Improved color and keratinization[9]
Selenium Cell growth; antioxidant[10][11] Sparse coat growth[10] Coat growth promotion[11]
Vitamin A Proliferation of keratinocytes[12] Rough coat[12] Proliferation of keratinocytes; hair follicle growth[13][12]
Biotin Saturation of Coat[14] Alopecia and achromotrichia beginning at the root of the coat[14] Contributes to coat shine, thickness/distribution of hair follicles[14]

Trace minerals[edit]

Zinc[edit]

Zinc contributes to hair growth and can prevent hair from becoming dry and brittle.[8] In addition to, zinc when supplemented in combination with linoleic acids has been found to improve the coat of canines by reducing water loss in the trans-epidermal layer of the skin.[15] Dogs can obtain zinc in their diet, through the addition of various ingredients, including; red meats, whole grains, poultry by-product meals, and fish meals. 

Copper[edit]

Copper is a trace mineral that is required in the diet of canines at 7.3 mg/kg.[16] Copper is involved in multiple enzymatic pathways. In dogs, a lack of copper in the diet, leading to a copper deficiency, results in incomplete keratinization.[9] This leads to a dry coat, hypo-pigmentation, and discoloration of the coat.[9]

Selenium[edit]

Selenium is another one of the many trace minerals essential for a dog’s diet. Selenium is typically required in lower levels in comparison to other minerals. It is involved in the prevention of oxidative damage as well as the production of anti-oxidants.[10] Selenium aids in the promotion of coat growth.[17] Lack of selenium in the diet of a dog can contribute to the occurrence of sparse coat growth.[18] Dogs can obtain selenium in their diet through the addition of various ingredients including; tuna fish, halibut, sardines, beef, chicken, and egg. 

Vitamins[edit]

Vitamin A[edit]

Vitamin A deficiency can lead to rough coat, scaling of skin, and other dermatitis issues like alopecia.[12] It is also essential for cells to properly proliferate keratinocytes,[12] which are epithelial cells that produce keratin on the outermost layer of the skin for the cortisol cells of the hair follicle.[13] A deficiency in vitamin A can cause the common symptoms of dermatitis (dry, scaling skin and dull coat).[19]

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)[edit]

Vitamin B7, also known as biotin, is a water-soluble nutrient that is known to play a role associated with the maintenance and development of hair starting from the follicle. Although it has not been clinically shown to improve hair growth with supplementation alone, it has been shown to reverse deficiency in dogs born deficient.[20]

Symptoms of biotin deficiency include alopecia and achromotrichia. A clinical study of biotin showed the importance of biotin in coat pigmentation. There different stages of hair development, as shown in clinical studies using mice.[14] Each stage of hair development has a different sensitivity to biotin present in the body. For example, the shaft development is not greatly affected by biotin access.[14] During the last stage, the amount of biotin available for use by the body will alter the success of that development greatly.[14] Throughout the hair development, most stages of growth are completed, but it was found that in the last stage, where biotin levels were insufficient, there was an incorrect keratinization of the root of the hair, causing the hair to fall out of the body.[14]

The supplementation of biotin cannot reverse affects caused by deficiency, but as soon as supplementation is given and biotin levels are restored to adequacy, the body begins to produce the usual hair growth and color it would before the deficiency took place.[14]

Essential fatty acids[edit]

Polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the diet play a critical role in the maintenance of a healthy coat in dogs, and have even been shown to improve coat condition when supplemented in the diet.[7] Furthermore, diets lacking essential fatty acids in their diet will manifest as unkept, matted coat.[6] Omega fatty acids 3 and 6 are highly unsaturated fatty acids, making them especially metabolically active.[21]

The proper combination of these omega fatty acids is crucial to achieve optimal benefits. Proper omega 6:3 ratios have been shown to diminish allergy triggered immune responses, thus improving overall coat condition.[22] The National Research Council (NRC) recommends a 2.6:1 to 26:1 omega 6:3 ratio for adult dog maintenance diets.[23] The proper ratio of these fatty acids is crucial because each has an opposing role in inflammation within the body and both compete for the same enzymatic pathway.[6] Dogs, like many mammals, lack the desaturase enzymes capable of interconverting omega 3 and 6 fatty acids.[21] Therefore, the amount of inflammation in the body is dependent on the ratio between omega 3 and 6 fatty acids. Too little inflammation suppresses the immune system and the body's ability to heal, however excessive inflammation can irritate the skin and reduce the coat's overall appearance.[6]

Aside from omega fatty acids, lipid content in the canine diet is an important aspect of coat health.[6] The fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) require lipids present in the diet for absorption, transport and deposition in canine adipose tissue.[24] The specific role of vitamins A and E for coat health are explored elsewhere in this article, as they pertain to immune function.[24] Another pet food regulating body, the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO), recommends that Vitamin E supplementation increase as polyunsaturated fatty acids are added to diet in order to counteract lipid oxidation and maintain the potency.[16] In addition, high fat diets in dogs were shown to dramatically improve coat sheen and appearance.[6] It is thought excess cholesterol esters are incorporated into the hair follicle, leading to the improved coat appearance.[6] The same study, by Kirby, Hester and Bauer (2007), stated the optimal approach to an improved coat in dogs is a combination of increased dietary fat and the proper amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids.[6]

Omega 3 (linolenic acid)[edit]

Omega 3 fatty acid, also known as linolenic acid, is an anti-inflammatory compound.[22] Linolenic acid is found in the oil from flaxseeds, soybean and canola.[22] Some better known examples of linolenic acid are the metabolic derivatives eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA). EPA inhibits the enzyme delta-5-desaturase, which prevents the synthesis of arachidonic acid which is an inflammatory omega 6.[25] DHA acts even earlier in omega 6 metabolism, by inhibiting delta-6-desaturase.[25] The anti-inflammatory properties of omega 3s stem from their ability to inhibit the inflammatory action of omega 6 fatty acids. Interestingly, a functional minimum has not been set forth by AAFCO, as one has yet to be determined.[16] A reduction in inflammation of somatic tissues, skin especially, supports coat health.[6]

Omega 6 (linoleic acid)[edit]

Omega 6 fatty acid, also known as linoleic acid, is found in poultry fat and the oil from safflower, sunflower, corn and flaxseed.[22] Arachidonic acid is a well known metabolic derivative of linoleic acid, found only in animal sources.[22] As mentioned above, arachindonic acid is a pro-inflammatory compound.[25] It is critical to note once again that canines are unable to interconvert between omega fatty acids and over supplying linoleic acid promotes excessive inflammation in the body, which can potentially reverse the coat benefits seen by supplying omega fatty acids in the diet. In contrast, linoleic acid is also required for epidermal lipid function and water retention, which benefits coat shine.[15][22] Having linoleic acid present in the diet has demonstrated a positive effect on skin, and thus by extension, coat.[6]

Shedding[edit]

A slicker brush with wire bristles, used for removing loose hair from the coat.

Shedding can occur continuously, but in many breeds is strongly influenced by hormones. Seasonal shedders shed most in spring and fall, following an increase or decrease in day length, and least in summer and winter, in response to constant day length. Cold temperatures stimulate hair growth, so that the heaviest shedding is in spring on dogs living in cold climates. Artificial lighting can alter the seasonal shedding pattern of dogs who live indoors. Other hormonal influences include dietary factors, reproductive hormones in intact dogs, and various medical conditions and disorders. Shedding that is done in a short period of time is known as "blowing the coat" or "blowing coat".[26][27] Among the other coat types, dogs with fine silky coats (e.g., spaniels) are generally moderate shedders, those with an intermediate coat texture (e.g., mountain dogs) are generally heavy shedders, and those with thick stand-offish coats (e.g., spitzes) are generally very heavy shedders.

The Portuguese Water Dog is an example of a breed with single, low-shedding coat.

"Non-shedding" dogs have greatly-reduced shedding due to alterations to the hair follicle growth cycle:

  • homozygosity for the furnishings (wire) allele - Most breeds with facial furnishings (including ones whose faces are usually shaved removing the furnishings!) are low-shedding, but they must be homozygous, so dogs of mixed wire/non-wire parentage (e.g., terrier crosses or breeds with wire and non-wire varieties) can be heavy shedders. There are a few furnished breeds that shed more (e.g., Old English Sheepdog, Bearded Collie, Briard, Otterhound);
  • at least one copy of the single-coat (non-shedding) allele - Most dogs with a smooth coat are low shedding, as well as the fringed or flat coat. There are breeds with a very short coat that shed more (e.g., Basset Hound, English Bulldog, Pug, Toy Fox Terrier, Dalmatian, Vizsla, German Shorthaired Pointer);
  • single coat (no undercoat) plus furnishings (homozygous) - These breeds shed the least (e.g., Poodle, Soft-coated Wheaten Terrier). No exceptions.

Hypoallergenic coat[edit]

Some dog breeds have been promoted as hypoallergenic (which means less allergic, not free of allergens) because they shed very little. However, no canine is known to be completely nonallergenic. Often the problem is with the dog's saliva or dander, not the fur.[28] Although breeds such as poodles, bichons, yorkies, and wire-haired terriers are commonly represented as being hypoallergenic due to reduced shedding, the reaction that an individual person has to an individual dog may vary greatly. In management of dog-related allergies, it has been found that "Factors related to individual dogs seem to influence the allergenicity more than breed..."[29]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "How to Keep Your Dog Warm This Winter". Spoiled Pets Shop. 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2014. 
  2. ^ James Serpell, ed. (1995). The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 284. ISBN 0-521-42537-9. 
  3. ^ Lyudmila N. Trut (March–April 1999). "Early Canid Domestication: The Farm-Fox Experiment". American Scientist. 87 (2): 160–169. doi:10.1511/1999.2.160. 
  4. ^ Graeme D. Ruxton; Michael P. Speed; David J. Kelly (September 2004). "What, if anything, is the adaptive function of countershading?". Animal Behaviour. 68 (3): 445–451. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.12.009. 
  5. ^ Edward J. Cargill1, Thomas R. Famula, Robert D. Schnabel, George M. Strain & Keith E. Murphy (July 2005). "The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene". BMC Veterinary Research. 1 (1): 1. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-1-1. ISBN 1-74661-481-1. PMC 1192828Freely accessible. PMID 16045797. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kirby, Naomi A.; Hester, Shaleah L.; Bauer, John E. "Dietary fats and the skin and coat of dogs". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 230 (11): 1641–1644. doi:10.2460/javma.230.11.1641. 
  7. ^ a b Watson, Tim D. G. (1998-12-01). "Diet and Skin Disease in Dogs and Cats". The Journal of Nutrition. 128 (12): 2783S–2789S. ISSN 0022-3166. PMID 9868266. 
  8. ^ a b c d Goldberg, L.; Lenzy, Y. (2010). "Nutrition and hair". Clinics in Dermatology. 28 (4): 412–419. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2010.03.038. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Tewari, Singh, Gautam, Dwivedi (December 2013). "Nutritional dermatosis - a review". Intas Polivet. 14: 199–202 – via GALE. 
  10. ^ a b c Guo, E.; Katta, R. (2017). "Diet and hair loss: effects of nutrient deficiency and supplement use". Dermatol Pract Concept. 7 (1): 1–10. doi:10.5826/dpc.0701a01. PMC 5315033Freely accessible. 
  11. ^ a b Kapun, A. Plevnik; Salobir, J.; Levart, A.; Kalcher, G. Tavčar; Svete, A. Nemec; Kotnik, T. (2014-12-06). "Vitamin E supplementation in canine atopic dermatitis: improvement of clinical signs and effects on oxidative stress markers". Veterinary Record. 175 (22): 560–560. doi:10.1136/vr.102547. ISSN 0042-4900. PMID 25205675. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Baviskar, Jayanthy & Nagarajan (2013). "Vitamin - a responsive dermatosis in a dog". Intas Polivet. 14: 210. 
  13. ^ a b Kurtenbach, Stefan; Mayer, Christoph; Pelz, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Leese, Florian; Neuhaus, Eva M. (2011-08-09). "Molecular evolution of a chordate specific family of G protein-coupled receptors". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11: 234. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-234. ISSN 1471-2148. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Rauch, Harold (November 2017). "Division of comparative physiology and biochemistry, society for integrative and comparative biology". University of Chicago Press Journal. 25: 145–149. 
  15. ^ a b Marsh, K.; Coe, S.; Ruedisueli, F.; Watson, T. (2000). "Effects of zinc and linoleic acid supplementation on the skin and coat quality of dogs receiving a complete and balanced diet". Veterinary Dermatology. 11 (4): 277–284. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3164.2000.00202.x. 
  16. ^ a b c "The Association of American Feed Control Officials > Publications". www.aafco.org. Retrieved 2017-11-28. 
  17. ^ Hatfield, D.; Tsuji, P.; Carlson, B.; Gladyshev, V. (2014). "Selenium and selenocysteine: roles in cancer, health and development". Trends Biochem Sci. 39 (3): 112–120. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2013.12.007. PMC 3943681Freely accessible. 
  18. ^ Sengupta, A.; Lichti, U.; Carlson, B.; Ryscavage, A.; Gladyshev, V.; Yuspa, S.; Hatfield, D. (2010). "Selenoproteins are essential for proper keratinocyte function and skin development". PLoS One. 5 (8): e12249. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012249. PMC 2923614Freely accessible. 
  19. ^ Beigh, S.A; Soodan, J.S; Bhat, A.M; Singh, V; Tantary, H (2013). "Clinical diagnosis and management of vitamin--a responsive canine dermatosis". Intas Polivet. 14 (2): 207–210. 
  20. ^ Zempleni, Janos; Hassan, Yousef I; Wijeratne, Subhashinee SK (2008-11-01). "Biotin and biotinidase deficiency". Expert review of endocrinology & metabolism. 3 (6): 715–724. doi:10.1586/17446651.3.6.715. ISSN 1744-6651. PMC 2726758Freely accessible. PMID 19727438. 
  21. ^ a b Murru, Elisabetta; Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca (2013). "Nutritional Properties of Dietary Omega-3-Enriched Phospholipids". BioMed Research International. 2013: 1–13. doi:10.1155/2013/965417. ISSN 2314-6133. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f Canine and feline nutrition : a resource for companion animal professionals. Case, Linda P. (3rd ed ed.). Maryland Heights, Mo.: Mosby. 2011. ISBN 9780323066198. OCLC 664112342. 
  23. ^ Nutrition., National Research Council (U.S.). Ad Hoc Committee on Dog and Cat (2006). Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats ([Rev. ed.] ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. ISBN 0309086280. OCLC 62741464. 
  24. ^ a b Debier, C.; Larondelle, Y. (February 2005). "Vitamins A and E: metabolism, roles and transfer to offspring". The British Journal of Nutrition. 93 (2): 153–174. ISSN 0007-1145. PMID 15788108. 
  25. ^ a b c Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung (2016-01-04). "Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances". Nutrients. 8 (1): 23. doi:10.3390/nu8010023. 
  26. ^ Blackburn, Sandy (2008). The Everything Dog Grooming Book: All you need to help your pet look and feel great!. Avon, Massachusetts: Simon & Schuster. p. 110. ISBN 1440512140. Retrieved 2017-07-04. 
  27. ^ Dog Fancy (2011). Pug. New York: Lumina Media. p. 36. ISBN 1593788398. Retrieved 2017-07-04. 
  28. ^ Grady, Denise (February 5, 1997). "Nonallergenic Dog? Not Really". New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2011. 
  29. ^ Heutelbeck AR, Schulz T, Bergmann K, Hallier E (Jan 2008). "Environmental Exposure to Allergens of Different Dog Breeds and Relevance in Allergological Diagnostics". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 71 (11–12): 751–8. doi:10.1080/15287390801985513. PMID 18569573. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Cunliffe, Juliette (2004). "Coat Types, Colors and Markings". The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. Paragon Publishing. pp. 20–23 and various. ISBN 0-7525-8276-3. 
  • Fogle, Bruce (2000). "The Breed Section Explained". The New Encyclopedia of the Dog. Dorling Kindersley. p. 83 and various. ISBN 0-7513-0471-9. 

External links[edit]