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Coccidia oocysts
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): SAR
Superphylum: Alveolata
Phylum: Apicomplexa
Class: Conoidasida
Subclass: Coccidia
Leuckart, 1879
  • Coccidiasina

Coccidia (Coccidiasina) are a subclass of microscopic, spore-forming, single-celled obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the apicomplexan class Conoidasida.[1] As obligate intracellular parasites, they must live and reproduce within an animal cell. Coccidian parasites infect the intestinal tracts of animals,[2] and are the largest group of apicomplexan protozoa.

Infection with these parasites is known as coccidiosis. Coccidia can infect all mammals, some birds, some fish, some reptiles, and some amphibians. Most species of coccidia are species-specific in their choice of host. An exception is Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect all mammals, although it can only undergo sexual reproduction in cats. Depending on the species of coccidia, infection can cause fever, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, and nervous system effects and changes to behavior, and may lead to death. Healthy adults may recover without medication, but those which are immunocompromised or young will almost certainly require medication to prevent death. Humans generally become infected by eating undercooked meat, but are most likely to contract infection with T. gondii by poor hygiene when handling cat waste.


The class is divided into four orders which are distinguished by the presence or absence of various asexual and sexual stages:

The order Eucoccidiorida is divided into two suborders. These two groups differ in their sexual development: syzygy for Adeleorina and independent gametes for Eimeriorina.

The first suborder, Adeleorina, comprises coccidia of invertebrates and the coccidia that alternate between blood-sucking invertebrates and various vertebrates; this group includes Haemogregarina and Hepatozoon. There are seven families in this suborder.

The second suborder, Eimeriorina, comprises coccidia of a variety of coccidia many of form cysts. A number of genera, including Toxoplasma and Sarcocystis, infect vertebrates.



Infected animals spread spores called oocysts in their stool. The oocysts mature, called sporulation. When another animal passes over the location where the feces were deposited, they may pick up the spores, which they then ingest when grooming themselves. The spores may also be ingested by mice; when another animal eats the mouse it becomes infected.

Some species of coccidia are transmissible to humans, including toxoplasma and cryptosporidium.[3]


Inside the host, the sporulated oocyst opens, and eight sporozites are released. Each one finds a home in an intestinal cell and starts the process of reproduction. These offspring are called merozoites. When the cell is stuffed full of merozoites, it bursts open, and each merozoite finds its own intestinal cell to continue the cycle.[3]

Symptoms of Infection[edit]

As the infection continues, thousands and thousands of intestinal cells may become infected. As they break open, they produce a bloody, watery diarrhea. This can cause dehydration, and can lead to death in young or small pets.[3]

Diagnosis and Treatment[edit]

Coccidiosis can be diagnosed by finding oocysts in fecal smears. In early stages of the disease, there may be very few oocysts being shed, and a negative test does not rule out the disease.

Coccidiosis is most commonly treated through the administration of coccidiostats, a group of medications that stop coccidia from reproducing. In dogs and cats, the most commonly administered coccidiostat is sulfa-based antibiotics. Once reproduction stops, the animal can usually recover on its own, a process that can take a few weeks, depending on the severity of the infection and the strength of the animal's immune system.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ S.J. Brands (Compiler) (2000). "The Taxonomicon & Systema Naturae" (Website database). Taxon: Genus Cryptosporidium. Universal Taxonomic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 
  2. ^ "Biodiversity explorer: Apicomplexa (apicomplexans, sporozoans)". Iziko Museums of Cape Town. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Coccidia". Mar Vista Animal Medical Center. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 

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