Cockermouth (UK Parliament constituency)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Cockermouth division of Cumberland
Former County constituency
for the House of Commons
18851918
Replaced byWorkington and Penrith and Cockermouth
Created fromWest Cumberland and Cockermouth
1641–1885
Replaced byCockermouth
Created fromCumberland
1295–1295
Replaced byCumberland
Created fromCumberland

Cockermouth was the name of a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England in 1295, and again from 1641, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918. It was a parliamentary borough represented by two Members of Parliament until 1868, and by one member from 1868 to 1885. The name was then transferred to a county constituency electing one MP from 1885 until 1918.

Notable MPs have included the regicide, Francis Allen.

The borough constituency (until 1885)[edit]

Until the Great Reform Act of 1832, the constituency consisted solely of the market town of Cockermouth in Cumberland. It first returned members to the Model Parliament of 1295, but its franchise then seems to have lapsed until 1641, when the Long Parliament passed a resolution (15 February 1641) to restore its ancient privileges.

The right of election in Cockermouth was vested in the burgage tenants of the borough, of whom there were about 300 in 1832. Cockermouth was considered a pocket borough, with the vast majority of the voters being under the influence of the Lowther family.

At the time of the 1831 census, the borough included just over 1,000 houses and had a population of 4,536. The Reform Act expanded the boundaries to bring in the neighbouring parishes of Eaglesfield, Brigham, Papcastle and Bridekirk, and part of Dovenby, increasing the population to 6,022 and encompassing 1,325 houses. This made the borough big enough to retain both its members. However, in the next wave of reform, introduced at the 1868 general election, one of Cockermouth's two seats was withdrawn, and in 1885 the borough was abolished altogether, although the name was transferred to the surrounding county constituency.

The county constituency (1885-1918)[edit]

The Cockermouth constituency created in 1885, strictly speaking The Cockermouth Division of Cumberland, was a compact division stretching westwards from Cockermouth to the sea, and including the much larger town of Workington. There was a significant Irish vote, and the Conservative victory in 1885 and subsequent Liberal gain of the seat in 1886 have been attributed to Parnell's shift of support from the one party to the other.

The constituency was divided between the new Workington and Penrith and Cockermouth divisions of Cumberland from 1918.

Members of Parliament[edit]

Cockermouth re-enfranchised by Parliament in Nov 1640

MPs 1641–1868[edit]

Year First member First party Second member Second party
1641 Sir John Fenwick, Bt [1] Parliamentarian Sir John Hippisley Parliamentarian
1642 Seat vacant through double return [2]
1645 Francis Allen
1653 Cockermouth was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament and the First and Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
January 1659 John Stapleton Wilfrid Lawson
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
1660 Richard Tolson Sir Wilfrid Lawson
1661 Hugh Potter
1662 Robert Scawen
1670 John Clarke
1675 Sir Richard Grahme
1679 Sir Orlando Gee
1685 Sir Daniel Fleming
1689 Sir Henry Capell Henry Fletcher
1690 Sir Orlando Gee Sir Wilfrid Lawson
1695 Sir Charles Gerard Goodwin Wharton Whig
1698 George Fletcher Whig William Seymour
1701 Goodwin Wharton Whig
February 1702 Thomas Lamplugh
July 1702 James Stanhope Whig
1708 Albemarle Bertie
1710 Nicholas Lechmere
1713 Joseph Musgrave
1715 James Stanhope Whig
April 1717 Sir Thomas Pengelly
July 1717 Lord Percy Seymour [3]
1721 Anthony Lowther
1722 Sir Wilfrid Lawson
1727 William Finch
1738 Eldred Curwen
1741 Sir John Mordaunt
July 1747 Sir Charles Wyndham [4]
December 1747 William Finch
1754 Percy Wyndham-O'Brien [5]
1761 Charles Jenkinson
1767 Captain John Elliot, RN
March 1768 Charles Jenkinson Sir George Macartney
May 1768 Captain George Johnstone, RN [6] Independent
1769 Sir James Lowther
1774 Fletcher Norton[7]
1775 Ralph Gowland James Adair
1780 John Baynes Garforth Tory[8] John Lowther Tory[8]
1784 James Clarke Satterthwaite Tory[8]
1786 Humphrey Senhouse Tory[8]
1790 John Baynes Garforth Tory[8] Sir John Anstruther, 1st and 4th Baronet Tory[8]
1796 Edward Burrow Tory[8]
1800 Walter Spencer-Stanhope Tory[8]
1802 James Graham Tory[8] Robert Plumer Ward Tory[8]
1805 Viscount Garlies Tory[8]
1806 John Lowther Tory[8] James Graham Tory[8]
January 1807 Lord Binning Tory
May 1807 John Lowther Tory[8]
July 1807 John Osborn Tory[8]
1808 Viscount Lowther Tory[8]
October 1812 John Lowther Tory[8]
December 1812 Augustus Foster Tory[8]
1813 Thomas Wallace Tory[8]
1816 John Lowther Tory[8]
1818 Sir John Beckett Tory[8]
1821 William Wilson Carus Wilson Tory[8]
1826 Viscount Garlies Tory[8]
1827 Laurence Peel Tory[8]
1830 Philip Pleydell-Bouverie Tory[8]
1831 John Lowther Tory[8] Sir James Scarlett Tory[8]
1832 Henry Aglionby Aglionby Radical[9][10][11][12][13][14] Fretchville Lawson Ballantine Dykes Whig[8]
1836 Edward Horsman Whig[15][16][9][17][8]
1852 Henry Wyndham Conservative
1854 John Steel Radical[18][19]
1857 Lord Naas Conservative
1859 Liberal
April 1868 Andrew Green Thompson Conservative
1868 Representation reduced to one member

MPs 1868–1885[edit]

Election Member Party
1868 Isaac Fletcher Liberal
1879 by-election William Fletcher Liberal
1880 Edward Waugh Liberal
1885 Borough abolished; name transferred to county division

MPs 1885–1918[edit]

Cockermouth Division of Cumberland

Election Member Party
1885 Charles James Valentine Conservative
1886 Sir Wilfrid Lawson Liberal
1900 John Scurrah Randles Conservative
1906 Sir Wilfrid Lawson Liberal
1906 Sir John Scurrah Randles Conservative
1910 Sir Wilfrid Lawson jnr. Liberal
1916 Joseph Bliss Liberal
1918 constituency abolished

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

Horsman was appointed a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 1 June 1840: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Edward Horsman 117 56.3
Conservative Henry Wyndham 91 43.8 N/A
Majority 26 12.5
Turnout 208 72.2
Registered electors 288
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 1841: Cockermouth [20][8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Henry Aglionby Aglionby 129 36.2
Whig Edward Horsman 127 35.7
Conservative Henry Wyndham 100 28.1 N/A
Turnout 228 78.2
Registered electors 293
Majority 2 0.6
Radical hold Swing N/A
Majority 27 7.6
Whig hold Swing
General Election 1847: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Edward Horsman Unopposed
Radical Henry Aglionby Aglionby Unopposed
Registered electors 319
Whig hold
Radical hold

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1852: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Henry Wyndham 160 34.7 N/A
Radical Henry Aglionby Aglionby 154 33.4 N/A
Whig Edward Horsman 147 31.9 N/A
Turnout 311 (est) 87.5 (est) N/A
Registered electors 355
Majority 6 1.3 N/A
Conservative gain from Whig
Majority 7 1.5 N/A
Radical hold

Aglionby's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 9 August 1854: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical John Steel Unopposed
Radical hold
General Election 1857: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Richard Bourke Unopposed
Radical John Steel Unopposed
Registered electors 408
Conservative hold
Radical hold

Bourke was appointed Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 3 March 1858: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Richard Bourke Unopposed
Conservative hold
General Election 1859: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Richard Bourke Unopposed
Liberal John Steel Unopposed
Registered electors 412
Conservative hold
Liberal hold

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

General Election 1865: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Richard Bourke Unopposed
Liberal John Steel Unopposed
Registered electors 336
Conservative hold
Liberal hold

Bourke was appointed Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 11 Jul 1866: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Richard Bourke Unopposed
Conservative hold

Steel's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 27 Apr 1868: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Andrew Green Thompson 171 54.3 N/A
Liberal Isaac Fletcher 144 45.7 N/A
Majority 27 8.6 N/A
Turnout 315 93.8 N/A
Registered electors 336
Conservative gain from Liberal

Seat reduced to one member

General Election 1868: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Isaac Fletcher 620 61.5 N/A
Conservative Henry Lorton Bourke[21] 388 38.5 N/A
Majority 232 23.0 N/A
Turnout 1,008 93.9 N/A
Registered electors 1,074
Liberal hold

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

General Election 1874: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Isaac Fletcher 506 56.6 −4.9
Conservative John Henry Fawcett[22] 388 43.4 +4.9
Majority 118 13.2 −9.8
Turnout 894 83.0 −10.9
Registered electors 1,077
Liberal hold Swing −4.9

Fletcher's suicide caused a by-election.

By-election, 18 Apr 1879: Cockermouth[23][20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Fletcher 557 60.3 +3.7
Conservative David Rapley[24] 366 39.7 −3.7
Majority 191 20.7 +7.5
Turnout 923 83.8 +0.8
Registered electors 1,102
Liberal hold Swing +3.7

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1880: Cockermouth [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Waugh 582 60.5 +3.9
Conservative Robert Webster[25] 380 39.5 −3.9
Majority 202 21.0 +7.8
Turnout 962 87.9 +4.9
Registered electors 1,094
Liberal hold Swing +3.9
General Election 1885: Cockermouth [26][27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles James Valentine 3,845 50.1 +10.6
Liberal Wilfrid Lawson 3,835 49.9 −10.6
Majority 10 0.2 N/A
Turnout 7,680 80.5 −7.4
Registered electors 9,538
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +10.6
Wilfrid Lawson
General Election 1886: Cockermouth [28][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Wilfrid Lawson 4,130 56.9 +7.0
Liberal Unionist Henry Frazer Curwen[30] 3,126 43.1 -7.0
Majority 1,004 13.8 N/A
Turnout 7,256 76.1 -4.4
Registered electors 9,538
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +7.0

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

General Election 1892: Cockermouth [31][32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Wilfrid Lawson 4,599 54.6 -2.3
Conservative John Scott Napier 3,829 45.4 +2.3
Majority 770 9.2 -4.6
Turnout 8,428 77.3 +1.2
Registered electors 10,906
Liberal hold Swing -2.3
General Election 1895: Cockermouth [33][34][35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Wilfrid Lawson 4,259 51.5 -3.1
Conservative Thomas Milvain 4,018 48.5 +3.1
Majority 241 3.0 -6.2
Turnout 8,277 80.8 +3.5
Registered electors 10,242
Liberal hold Swing -3.1

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

General Election 1900: Cockermouth [36][37][38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Scurrah Randles 4,276 51.3 +2.8
Liberal Wilfrid Lawson 4,067 48.7 −2.8
Majority 209 2.8 N/A
Turnout 8,343 76.6 -4.2
Registered electors 10,897
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +2.8
Sir Wilfrid Lawson, political postcard.jpg
General Election 1906: Cockermouth [39][40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Wilfrid Lawson 5,349 52.8 +4.1
Conservative John Scurrah Randles 4,786 47.2 -4.1
Majority 563 5.6 8.2
Turnout 10,135 86.6 +10.0
Registered electors 11,700
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +4.1
Frederick Guest
Cockermouth by-election, 1906[41]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Scurrah Randles 4,593 46.2 -1.0
Liberal Frederick Guest 3,903 39.3 -13.5
Labour Robert Smillie 1,436 14.5 N/A
Majority 690 6.9 12.5
Turnout 9,932 84.9 -1.7
Registered electors 11,700
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +6.2

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election January 1910: Cockermouth [42][43]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Scurrah Randles 4,579 45.2 -1.0
Liberal Wilfrid Lawson 3,638 35.9 -3.4
Labour James Percy Whitehead 1,909 18.9 +4.4
Majority 941 9.3 +2.4
Turnout 89.4 +4.5
Conservative hold Swing +1.2
Lawson
General Election December 1910: Cockermouth [44][45]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Wilfrid Lawson 5,003 52.7 +16.8
Conservative John Scurrah Randles 4,492 47.3 +2.1
Majority 511 5.4 14.7
Turnout 83.8 -5.6
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +7.4

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

Cockermouth by-election, 1916 [46][47]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Joseph Bliss unopposed n/a n/a
Liberal hold Swing n/a

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fenwick was later elected for Northumberland, which he chose to represent, and ceased to sit for Cockermouth
  2. ^ The election to replace Fenwick was disputed, and the Returning Officer made a double return, i.e. reported both candidates - Sir Thomas Sandford, Bt and Francis Allen - as elected, leaving Parliament to decide. The dispute was still unresolved when Sandford was declared disabled from sitting because of his Royalist sympathies in January 1644; Allen was admitted to sit in 1645.
  3. ^ In a by-election in 1717, Seymour was defeated by Sir Wilfrid Lawson by 90 votes to 84, but Lawson was underage, and on petition Seymour was declared elected
  4. ^ Wyndham was also elected for Taunton, which he chose to represent, and never sat for Cockermouth
  5. ^ Created Earl of Thomond (in the peerage of Ireland), 1756
  6. ^ Johnstone was re-elected at the general election of 1774, but was also elected for Appleby, which he chose to represent, and did not sit for Cockermouth in this parliament
  7. ^ Norton was also elected for Carlisle, which he chose to represent, and never sat for Cockermouth
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S., ed. The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 54–57. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
  9. ^ a b Churton, Edward (1836). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1836. pp. vii, 3.
  10. ^ Kingsley, Nick (14 July 2013). "(55) Aglionby of Nunnery and Drawdykes Castle". Landed families of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  11. ^ Ward, J. T. (1967). "The Making of a Whig". Sir James Graham. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-349-00079-1. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  12. ^ "Cockermouth". Morning Post. 14 December 1832. p. 2. Retrieved 3 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  13. ^ Hawkins, Angus (2015). "Notions of Representation". Victorian Political Culture: 'Habits of Heart & Mind'. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-19-872848-1.
  14. ^ The Illustrated London News, Volume 6. Elm House. 1845. p. 184. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  15. ^ Mosse, Richard Bartholomew (1838). The Parliamentary Guide: a concise history of the Members of both Houses, etc. pp. 134, 186. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  16. ^ Cragg, David (2016). "Chapter 8 — Joseph Cragg (1803–1878) and Hannah Grave (1803–1878)". Cragg Family Origins: Great Britain 1770–1859. David Cragg. p. 98. ISBN 9780994519207. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  17. ^ Coohill, Joseph, ed. (17 October 2011). "Free Trade Agendas: The Construction of an Article of Faith, 1837–50". Texts & Studies 5: Ideas of the Liberal Party: Perceptions, Agendas and Liberal Politics in the House of Commons, 1832–52. 30 (s2): 170–203. doi:10.1111/j.1750-0206.2011.00262.x. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Cockermouth". Carlisle Patriot. 12 August 1854. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 3 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  19. ^ Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1855). Dod's Parliamentary Companion. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. p. 279. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  21. ^ "Cockermouth". Carlisle Patriot. 18 September 1868. p. 8. Retrieved 4 February 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  22. ^ "The General Election". The Morning Post. 5 February 1874. p. 2. Retrieved 28 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  23. ^ "Cockermouth Election". South Wales Daily News. 17 April 1879. Retrieved 6 October 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  24. ^ "Cockermouth Election". Rhyl Record and Advertiser. 19 April 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 28 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  25. ^ "The General Election". Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper. 4 Apr 1880. p. 7. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  26. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  27. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  28. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  29. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  30. ^ "Yesterday's Nominations". London Evening Standard. 8 Jul 1886. p. 3. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  31. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  32. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  33. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  34. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  35. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  36. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  37. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  38. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  39. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  40. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  41. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  42. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  43. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  44. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  45. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  46. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  47. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1918
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, "Members of the Long Parliament" (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [1]
  • F W S Craig, "British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885" (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • Michael Kinnear, "The British Voter" (London: Batsford, 1968)
  • J Holladay Philbin, "Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales" (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Henry Stooks Smith, "The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847" (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)
  • Frederic A Youngs, jr, "Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol II" (London: Royal Historical Society, 1991)
  • "The Constitutional Yearbook, 1913" (London: National Unionist Association, 1913)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "C" (part 5)