Cocoa Beach, Florida

Coordinates: 28°19′12.7956″N 80°36′31.9356″W / 28.320221000°N 80.608871000°W / 28.320221000; -80.608871000
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Cocoa Beach, Florida
City of Cocoa Beach
Cocoa Beach
Cocoa Beach
Official seal of Cocoa Beach, Florida
"Uptown. Downtown. The Beaches."
"Open for Business!"
Location in Brevard County and the state of Florida
Location in Brevard County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 28°19′12.7956″N 80°36′31.9356″W / 28.320221000°N 80.608871000°W / 28.320221000; -80.608871000
Country United States of America
State Florida
County Brevard
Settled (Oceanus Settlement)1888
Incorporated (Town of Cocoa Beach)June 5, 1925
Incorporated (City of Cocoa Beach)June 29, 1957
 • TypeCommission-Manager
 • MayorKeith Capizzi
 • Vice MayorSkip Williams
 • CommissionersJoshua Jackson,
Karalyn Woulas, and
Jeremy Hutcherson
 • City ManagerRobin R. Hayes
 • City ClerkLoredana Kalaghchy
 • Total15.19 sq mi (39.34 km2)
 • Land4.66 sq mi (12.06 km2)
 • Water10.53 sq mi (27.28 km2)
10 ft (3 m)
 • Total11,354
 • Density2,437.53/sq mi (941.07/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP code
Area code321
FIPS code12-33450[3]
GNIS feature ID0284502[4]

Cocoa Beach is a city in Brevard County, Florida, United States. The population was 11,539 at the 2018 United States Census.[5] It is part of the Palm Bay–Melbourne–Titusville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area.


The first non-native settlement in the area was by a family of freed slaves following the American Civil War. In 1888, a group of men from Cocoa bought the entire tract of land, which went undeveloped until it was bought out in 1923 by a member of the group—Gus Edwards, Cocoa's city attorney. At that time, Edwards' total holdings included approximately 600 acres (240 ha). He stopped practicing law to devote all his efforts to developing the area.[6][7][8]

Prior to incorporation, the area was known as Oceanus.[9] The Town of Cocoa Beach was established on June 5, 1925. Cocoa Beach's first official meeting was held at the Cocoa Beach Casino on July 27, 1925, and adopted the City Seal.[10] Gus C. Edwards was elected [10] as mayor and served as a commissioner along with J.A. Haisten, and R.Z. Grabel. A little less than a month later, plans for a pier became official.

In 1935, the FDOT opened up what is now State Road A1A as a one-lane dirt road to Eau Gallie.[11] In 1938, a Deputy Marshal was appointed "to act in emergencies at night or at other times" for $.25/hour.[11] By 1939, the town had 49 residents. In 1940, the town requested that State Road 140 (now A1A) be routed on Orlando Avenue instead of Atlantic Avenue.[11] In 1942, the town prepared to receive men assigned to the newly opened Naval Air Station Banana River. Establishing regular garbage collection was discussed when the town discovered that the Air Station was having theirs collected.[11]

On May 1, 1942, the German submarine U-109 torpedoed the La Paz off the shore of Cocoa Beach. The crew was able to beach it with the help of tugs. Eventually it was returned to shipping. On May 3, the same U-boat sank the SS Laertes near the same spot.[12] Local boys were recruited for salvaging efforts and to rid the beach of subsequent debris.[13][14] Shortly thereafter, the federal government realized the danger of back-lighting from the coast making easy targets of passing ships and ordered a blackout for the remainder of the war.

During World War II, Cocoa Beach experienced money shortages to pay employees or to fix roads.[11] In 1944, the town successfully fought a bill introduced in the Florida legislature which would have dissolved the city government.[11] In 1947 a single police officer was hired for $1/hour. The same year, the city constructed works for the distribution of potable water. In 1950, a volunteer fire department was created which used a second-hand vehicle. In 1950, a proposal to prevent people from driving on the beach was defeated.[11] In 1951, the city sought to place a stoplight, the city's first, at the intersection of what is now A1A and Minutemen Causeway. In 1953, the city decided to mark the names of all streets. That same year, the city planned to pave A1A south from 520 down Orlando Avenue. The city intended to bear 1/3 of the costs, the adjacent property owners, 2/3.[11]

In 1954, the Women's Club opened a library in the building used by the Fire Department.[11] In 1955, the speed limit in most of the town was raised to 35 miles per hour (56 km/h). In 1955, the city prepared to house the people who were going to be launching missiles from what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.[11]

In 1956, the city attorney warned the council that blacks might attempt to use the beach. If they did, he recommended clearing the beach of all persons, both white and black. The 1954 decision, Brown v. Board of Education, had, in theory at least, integrated all general public facilities. Actual integration came later.[citation needed]

The city proposed selling the town dump to the school board for a junior high school, in order to keep students from being bused to Merritt Island.[11]

On June 29, 1957, the town of Cocoa Beach incorporated into a city. It sold its water system to Cocoa, Florida and contracted with them to furnish water.[15]

In September 1959, the city voted to add more sidewalks, improve the streets in residential areas as well as the main streets, and to pave more roads.[16]

In 1961, Ron-Jon opened their first store locally.[17]

In 1965, Cocoa Beach High School requested that Cocoa Avenue, the street that the school was located on, be renamed Minutemen Boulevard, in honor of the school's mascot, the Minuteman.

Cocoa Beach started its major growth during the 1960s. There was a 1000% population increase from 1950 to 1960, mainly as a result of the U.S. space program. NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center is located approximately 15 miles (24 km) north of town. Many people moved to Cocoa Beach due to jobs connected to the space program and in search of new opportunities.

After crewed space flights, the town held parades in honor of the astronauts.

After NASA's Apollo program came to an end, and before the Space Shuttle program was in full swing, the town's economy reflected the resulting layoffs. At one point, in 1975, unemployment was 14.3%.[8] Many families lost their jobs or simply moved away. The housing market plummeted and some people unable to sell their homes simply abandoned them.[18]

Cocoa Beach was the setting for the 1960s sitcom I Dream of Jeannie, although no episodes were actually filmed there, and star Barbara Eden only made two visits during the show's production—both in 1969, for publicity.[19] Cocoa Beach High School was used as the school in the 2002 movie Race to Space.[20]

In 2002, 69% of the voters capped building height to 45 feet (14 m). Prior construction and later variances, resulted in about 80 buildings between 45 and 70 feet (14 and 21 m) high, as of 2018.[21]

The 2010 Nebula Awards were held in the city.[22]

In 2016, the largest mansion in the city was destroyed by fire. It had been built on the beach by Al Neuharth in 1975. It contained 10,000 square feet (930 m2) of living space, 11 bedrooms and 12 bathrooms. It was valued at several million dollars.[23]


Cocoa Beach Pier, built in 1962, extends into the Atlantic Ocean

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.0 square miles (39 km2). 4.9 square miles (13 km2) of it is land and 10.1 square miles (26 km2) of it (67.49%) is water. Bordering the city on the north is Cape Canaveral; on the south is Crescent Beach; on the east is the Atlantic Ocean (5.6 mi or 9.0 km of oceanfront); on the west is the Banana River.

Propelled by a powerful hurricane, the ocean pushed its way through the barrier islands centuries ago and formed the Thousand Islands in the Banana River.[24]

There are a number of boating channels dredged in the area: the 0–99 Channel, the 100 Channel, the 200 Channel for houseboats, the 300 Channel, the 400 Channel near housing for private boats, the 500 Channel and the 600 Channel. Dredged material is placed on one of the Thousand Islands, but is now controlled.[25][26]

Many of the homes in Cocoa Beach are built on dredged mud and sand from the Banana River.

Surrounding areas[edit]


Cocoa Beach's has a humid subtropical climate Köppen climate classification of Cfa. This climate features hot and humid summers with frequent tropical downpours and daily thundershowers, and warm, dry, and sunny winters. The average high temperature in the warmest month (July) in Cocoa Beach is 91 °F (33 °C) and the average high in the coolest month (January) is 72 °F (22 °C).[27]

Climate data for Cocoa Beach
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 89
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 71
Daily mean °F (°C) 60
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 49
Record low °F (°C) 17
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.27


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[29]
Cocoa Beach racial composition
(Hispanics excluded from racial categories)
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race Pop 2010[30] Pop 2020[31] % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 10,457 9,940 93.11% 87.55%
Black or African American (NH) 83 88 0.74% 0.78%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 33 23 0.29% 0.20%
Asian (NH) 169 187 1.50% 1.65%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian (NH) 1 8 0.01% 0.07%
Some other race (NH) 22 51 0.20% 0.45%
Two or more races/Multiracial (NH) 112 420 1.00% 3.70%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 354 637 3.15% 5.61%
Total 11,231 11,354

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 11,354 people, 6,064 households, and 3,003 families residing in the city.[32]

The ancestry in 2020 (excluding Latino groups), was 19.5% German, 19.4% Irish, 18.1% English, 6.4% Italian, 5.2% Polish, 4.6% French, 2.0% Scottish, 1.1% Norwegian, and 0.1% Sub-saharan African.[33]

In 2020, the median age was 57.9 years old. 33.1% were older than 65, with 18.1% between the ages of 65 and 74, 8.5% between the ages of 75 and 84, and 6.4% 85 or older. 10.8% of the population were under 18, with 1.9% under 5 years. The gender makeup was 49.6% female and 50.4% male.[34][33]

In 2020, the median household income was $73,901, with families having $104,449, married couples having $114,468, and non-families having $44,792. 9.8% of the population were in poverty, with 9.8% of people under 18, 12.0% of people between the ages of 18 and 64, and 6.2% of people 65 or older in poverty. The per capita income was $55,754.[34][33]

As of the 2010 United States census, there were 11,231 people, 6,052 households, and 3,263 families residing in the city.[35]


Cocoa Beach is run by a Commission-Manager government, agreed to by its citizens in 1958. The City Commission acts as the legislative branch of the city government, guided by the provisions of the Charter of the City of Cocoa Beach. The City Commission enacts ordinances and resolutions that the City Manager administers as the appointed executive officer of the city government.[36]

The city owns and runs the Cocoa Beach Country Club, a golf course on the Banana River.[37][38]

In 2007, the city had a taxable real estate base of $2.09 billion.[39]

In 2011, the city photographed more than 20,000 instances of vehicles running red lights by the use of automatic cameras. A total of 6,595 violations were prosecuted.[40] In 2012, the police force consisted of 36 officers.[41] In 2014, the city grossed $1.1 million for over 9.000 red light violations. Over 24,000 violations were captured on film. All could not be prosecuted for various reasons. The city netted over $249,000. The remainder went for licensing fees to the installing vendor; over half was remitted to the state. Cameras were sited at four locations on state road A1A, including the intersection with state road 520. Intersection crashes dropped from 88 in 2009 to 30 in 2014.[42]

The City Commission is made up of five members, one of whom is the Mayor. Historically, the commissioners were elected at-large to three-year terms but with a successful referendum on the 2010 ballot to hold elections on even-numbered years, the terms were extended to four years.[citation needed]

Following an election, a Vice Mayor is then selected from the commission members at an organizational meeting. The Mayor presides over all meetings and performs duties as delegated by the City Commission.[36] Seats affected by the 2010 referendum included Seat #1, Seat #4 and Seat #5.

City Commission[edit]

  • Mayor and Commissioner Keith Capizzi, Seat 1 (Term expires November 2024)
  • Commissioner Joshua Jackson, Seat 2 (Term expires November 2024)
  • Commissioner Karalyn Woulas, Seat 3 (Term expires November 2024)
  • Vice Mayor and Commissioner Skip Williams, Seat 4 (Term expires November 2026)
  • Commissioner Jeremy Hutcherson, Seat 5 (Term expires November 2026)

City Manager[edit]

The City Manager is appointed by the City Commission and is responsible for the city's day-to-day operations. The city's charter has established a separation of powers and responsibility between the Commission and the Manager; the elected commission establishes policy that the manager and staff carry out. The City Manager conducts day-to-day operations through four city departments: Administrative, Public Safety, Utilities, and Recreation.[43] Charles Billias was the City Manager from 1998 until October 2012. Bob Majka was the City Manager from 2012 until 2015. As of 2023, Robin R. Hayes is the current city manager.

Crime Rate[edit]

In 2016, the crime index for the Cocoa Beach is 14 in 100. Where 100 is safest and 0 is most unsafe.[44] Cocoa beach is safer than 14% of cities in the United States. The crime rate of Cocoa Beach is higher than Florida where chances of becoming a victim is 1 in 264, while in Cocoa Beach it is 1 in 183 people. Below is the chart for the crime rate of violent nature in Cocoa beach. It is important to note that this is a single year and may not represent the municipality as a whole, over a broader period of time.[45]

Report Total 1 6 11 44
Rate per 1,000 0.09 0.51 0.94 3.74
POPULATION: 323,127,513
Report Total 17,250 130,603 332,198 803,007
Rate per 1,000 0.05 0.4 1.03 2.49



Surfing manufacture and tourism add to Cocoa Beach's economy.
Ron Jon Surf Shop

Ron Jon's, a surf shop, receives 2 million visitors a year (as of 2006).[46] Cocoa Beach is home to the East Coast Surfing Hall of Fame.

The Cocoa Beach Pier, formerly known as the Cape Canaveral Pier, was built in 1962. An annual Easter Surfing Festival began in 1964. An estimated 100,000 spectators attend annually.[47]

An air show in 2009 drew a crowd estimated at 30,000.[48]

The Ron Jon Easter Surfing Festival drew 50,000 visitors in 2009,[49] while around 10,000 visitors attend the Surfing Santas festival each year at Christmas.[50]

The largest charity surfing festival, National Kidney Foundation Pro-Am Surfing Festival, has been held every Labor Day Weekend in Cocoa Beach since 1985.[51][52]

In 2015, businesses in the city collected $5.6 million in tourist tax, over half the tourist tax collected in the county and more than any other municipality, $1.4 million.[53]


In 2007, Cocoa Beach's median labor force was 6,344. Of that group, 6,006 were employed and 338 were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 5.3%.[54]

The median home price in 2007 was $409,000.[55]


The disability rate for the people under age of 65 is 7.6%.[56] The number of people who do not have insurance policies on the Cocoa beach is 20.8%.


As of 2018, the primary language spoken in Cocoa Beach is English, with 9.8% of the population speaking languages other than English at home.[56]

Travel time to work[edit]

As of 2018, mean travel time to the work is 25.4 minutes from home to work.[56]


The city has three public schools:

Freedom 7 Elementary school and Cocoa Beach Jr./Sr High School both are certified International Baccalaureate schools. Freedom 7 Elementary has a primary years program, and Cocoa Beach Jr./Sr High has both a middle years program and a diploma program.

96.1% of all residents 25 years or older are high school graduates. 42.3% have a Bachelor's Degree or higher.[citation needed]


Cocoa Beach Pier
  • Cocoa Beach Pier
  • Alan Shepard Beachfront Park
  • Thousand Islands Conservation Area[57]
  • Cocoa Beach Aquatic Center and Pool Complex
  • I Dream of Jeannie Lane

Former Landmark[edit]



The following roads are usually called by their numbers when spoken:

  • SR A1A – This is the main road through the city. From north to south, SR A1A enters Cocoa Beach from Cape Canaveral as Atlantic Avenue. After passing the downtown area and resort area, the road splits into a one-way pair of roads, southbound being named Orlando Avenue, with northbound keeping the name Atlantic Avenue. The route continues in this manner until the southbound town limits. Major intersections include SR 520, 4th Street, and Minutemen Causeway.
  • SR 520 – This is the main way to access the city from the mainland. It enters the city from the unincorporated community of Merritt Island, and the route terminates at SR A1A. Major intersections include the Cape Canaveral Hospital entrance, Banana River Boulevard, and SR A1A.

It is estimated that there are 2.4 million day trippers to the city annually. While businesses appreciate the tourism, it creates a parking problem for the city.[58] There are 1,780 paved parking spaces and 607 spaces on the streets downtown, near the beach.[59]

Public transportation[edit]

Public transportation in Cocoa Beach, Cape Canaveral, and surrounding Brevard County is provided by Space Coast Area Transit.


The city contracted directly with Florida Power & Light for electricity, paying 10.689 cents per kilowatt hour in 2010.[60]


The city has 37 canals, totaling 9 miles (14 km), serving residential homes, plus 17 miles (27 km) of channels. These are maintained by the city.[61]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 31, 2021.
  2. ^ "Cocoa Beach ZIP Code". 2023. Retrieved January 12, 2023.
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ "Explore Census Data".
  6. ^ Biography of Gus C. Edwards Archived November 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on June 26, 2009.
  7. ^ City History Archived September 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on June 26, 2009.
  8. ^ a b History at a Glance Archived January 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on June 26, 2009.
  9. ^ Parrish, Ada Edmiston; Field, Alma Clyde; Harrell, George Leland (2001). Merritt Island and Cocoa Beach. Charleston, SC: Arcadia. ISBN 0738506680.
  10. ^ a b Meeting Minutes for July 27, 1925 Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on June 26, 2009.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The History of Cocoa Beach". City of Cocoa Beach. December 15, 2010. Archived from the original on February 19, 2009.
  12. ^ "2003 Mystery Photos | Cocoa Village". Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
  13. ^ Chris Kridler (August 18, 2010). "New book highlights Florida's role during World War II". Florida Today. Florida Today. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
  14. ^ La Paz (British Motor merchant) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII. Retrieved on September 18, 2013.
  15. ^ Waymer, Jim (October 22, 2017). "How the system came undone". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 8A. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  16. ^ The History of Cocoa Beach Archived February 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on September 18, 2013.
  17. ^ "Ron Jon Surf Shop marks 60th anniversary of iconic East Coast beach lifestyle brand". Florida Today. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  18. ^ "City of Cocoa Beach, Florida - Brevard County". Business View Magazine. January 31, 2023. Retrieved May 16, 2023.
  19. ^ Osborne, Ray I Dream of Jeannie Days
  20. ^ Race to Space (2000) - Overview - MSN Movies Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on September 18, 2013.
  21. ^ Neale, Rick (February 26, 2018). "Will Cocoa Beach vote to raise building height limit?". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 3A. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  22. ^ Harbaugh, Pam (May 12, 2010). "Nebula Awards honor science, fantasy writers". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1D.
  23. ^ Sangalang, Jennifer (March 17, 2016). "After the fire, city feels loss". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1A, 12A. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
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  25. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 2, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  29. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  30. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Cocoa Beach city, Florida". United States Census Bureau.
  31. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Cocoa Beach city, Florida". United States Census Bureau.
  32. ^ "S1101 HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES - 2020: Cocoa Beach city, Florida". United States Census Bureau.
  33. ^ a b c "Explore Census Data". Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  34. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Cocoa Beach city, Florida". Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  35. ^ "S1101 HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES - 2010: Cocoa Beach city, Florida". United States Census Bureau.
  36. ^ a b Elected Officials Archived September 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on June 26, 2009.
  37. ^ Cocoa Beach golf course Archived December 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine accessed March 18, 2008
  38. ^ "COCOA BEACH COUNTRY CLUB - A PUBLIC FACILITY". Cocoa Beach Florida. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
  39. ^ Dean, James (April 26, 2008). More taxes or fewer services. Florida Today.
  40. ^ Neale, Rick (February 5, 2012). "Challengers mostly win". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 12A.
  41. ^ Gallop, J.D. (January 31, 2012). "Off-duty officer 'critical' after crash". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 1B.
  42. ^ Moody, R. Norman (January 16, 2015). "Cocoa Beach keeps red light cameras...for now". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 12A. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
  43. ^ City Departments Archived November 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on June 26, 2009.
  44. ^ "Cocoa Beach, 32931 Crime Rates and Crime Statistics - NeighborhoodScout". Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  45. ^ "Florida". FBI. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  46. ^ Travel Writer'S Magazine - Space Coast Is Great Place For Families To Commune With Nature Archived November 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
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  48. ^ [1] retrieved October 4, 2009 Archived April 30, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Summers, Keyonna (April 3, 2010). "Sign in the sand". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1A.
  50. ^ "Florida Today". Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  51. ^ Mulak, Michelle (September 2, 2015). "NKF surf fest: 30 years of making waves". Florida Today. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  52. ^ "History". NKF Surf Festival. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
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  57. ^ "Thousand Islands Conservation Area". Brevard County. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  58. ^ Neale, Rick (February 24, 2013). "Parking plan recharged". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1B.
  59. ^ Neale, Rick (March 9, 2013). "Parking garage costs concern Cocoa Beach". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1B.
  60. ^ Moody, R. Norman (March 19, 2010). "Cocoa Beach studies municipal electriciy". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1A.
  61. ^ Waymer, Jim (November 24, 2013). "Muck". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 4A. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  62. ^ Banks, Chasite. "Cocoa Beach's Emanne Beasha wins CCU Florida Athlete of the Week online vote". Florida Today. Retrieved May 16, 2023.
  63. ^ Scott, Megan K. (March 6, 2011). "Hurston's real home". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1D.
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  66. ^ "Carrot Top Biography (1967-)". Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  67. ^ Browne, Malcolm W (July 9, 1986). "TV REVIEWS - 'GROWING UP WITH ROCKETS,' CAPE CANAVERAL FAMILY LIFE". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2015.

External links[edit]