|This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Cocoa solids are a mixture of many substances remaining after cocoa butter is extracted from cacao beans. When sold as an end product, it may also be called cocoa powder or cocoa. In contrast, the fatty component of chocolate is cocoa butter. Cocoa butter is 50% to 57% of the weight of cocoa beans and gives chocolate its characteristic melting properties. Cocoa liquor or cocoa mass is a paste of roasted cocoa beans with cocoa butter and solids in their natural proportions. Chocolate requires the addition of extra cocoa butter to cocoa liquor, leading to an excess of cocoa solids and thus a relatively cheap supply of cocoa powder. This contrasts with the earliest European usage of cocoa where, before milk and dark chocolate was popularized, cocoa powder was the primary product and cocoa butter was little more than a waste product.
Natural cocoa powder has a light brown color and an extractable pH of 5.3 to 5.8. The processed (alkalized) cocoa powder is darker in color, ranging from brownish red to nearly black, with a pH from 6.8 to 8.1. The alkalization process reduces bitterness and improves solubility, which is important for beverage product applications. All of these pH values are considered safe for food use.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||954 kJ (228 kcal)|
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Cocoa powder contains several minerals including calcium, copper, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and zinc. All of these minerals are found in greater quantities in cocoa powder than either cocoa butter or cocoa liquor. Cocoa solids also contain 230 mg of caffeine and 2057 mg of theobromine per 100g, which are mostly absent from the other components of the cocoa bean. Cocoa solids also contain clovamide (N-caffeoyl-L-DOPA).
Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, a type of phenolic acid. The amount of flavonoids depends on the amount of processing and manufacturing the cocoa powder undergoes, but cocoa powder can contain up to 10% of its weight in flavonoids. However, its alkalization, also known as Dutch processing, causes its content of flavonoids to be substantially reduced.
Cocoa and cacao powders may contain cadmium, a toxic heavy metal and probable carcinogen. The European Union has proposed a limit for cadmium in cocoa powders of 0.6 µg per gram. In Canada, a daily serving of a natural health product must contain no more than 6 µg of cadmium for an individual weighing 150 pounds (68 kg) and 3 µg for a 75 lb (34 kg) individual. While the U.S. government has not set a limit for cadmium in foods or health products, the state of California has established a maximum allowable daily level of oral cadmium exposure of 4.1 µg, and requires products containing more than this amount per daily serving to bear a warning on the label. One investigation by an independent consumer testing laboratory found that seven of nine commercially available cocoa powders and nibs selected for testing contained more than 0.3 µg of cadmium per serving gram; five of these products exceeded the proposed EU limit of 0.6 µg per gram.
- Steinberg, F.M.; Bearden, M.N.; Keen, C.L. (February 2003). "Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: Implications for cardiovascular health". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (2): 215–223. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50028. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Miller, Kenneth B.; Jeffery Hurst, William; Payne, Mark J.; Stuart, David A.; Apgar, Joan; Sweigart, Daniel S.; Ou, Boxin (2008). "Impact of Alkalization on the Antioxidant and Flavanol Content of Commercial Cocoa Powders". J. Agric. Food Chem. 56 (18): 8527–8533. doi:10.1021/jf801670p. PMID 18710243.
- Miller, Kenneth B.; Hurst, William Jeffery; Payne, Mark J.; Stuart, David A.; Apgar, Joan; Sweigart, Daniel S.; Ou, Boxin (24 September 2008). "Impact of Alkalization on the Antioxidant and Flavanol Content of Commercial Cocoa Powders". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (18): 8527–8533. doi:10.1021/jf801670p. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Materials Handled Cocoa Powder: Overview. Retrieved: 2 April 2014.
- "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24, (2011)".
- Antioxidative Polyphenols Isolated from Theobroma cacao. Chiaki Sanbongi, Naomi Osakabe, Midori Natsume, Toshio Takizawa, Shuichi Gomi and Toshihiko Osawa, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,volume 46, numero 2, 1998, pages 454–457, doi:10.1021/jf970575o
- Roasting impact on the contents of clovamide (N-caffeoyl-L-DOPA) and the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.). Marco Arlorio, Monica Locatelli, Fabiano Travaglia, Jean-Daniel Coïsson, Erika Del Grosso and Alberto Minassi, Food Chemistry, volume 106, numero 3, 2008, pages 967–975, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.009
- "Product Review: Cocoa Powders, Dark Chocolate, Extracts, Nibs, & Supplements". ConsumerLab.com. ConsumerLab.com LLC. 17 May 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "Chocolate Terms". Thenibble.com. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
- "Amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels of cadmium in foodstuff". 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Quality of natural health products guide". Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Proposition 65 Maximum Allowable Daily Level (MADL) for Reproductive Toxicity for Cadmium (Oral Route)" (PDF). Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- David Schardt (1 July 2014). "What to Eat: Are Cocoa and Chocolate a Reliable Source of Flavanols?". NutritionAction.com. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- Markham Heid (August 2014). "Cocoa Powders Found To Contain A Toxic Metal". Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Hamel, PJ (10 January 2014). "The A-B-C's of cocoa". Flourish. King Arthur Flour. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cocoa powder.|