Coconut oil (or coconut butter) is an edible oil derived from the wick, meat, and milk of the coconut palm fruit. Coconut oil is a white solid fat, melting at warmer room temperatures of around 25 °C (78 °F), in warmer climates during the summer months it is a clear thin liquid oil. Unrefined varieties have a distinct coconut aroma. It is used as a food oil, and in industrial applications for cosmetics and detergent production. Due to its high levels of saturated fat, numerous health authorities recommend limiting its consumption as a food.
Coconut oil can be extracted through wet or dry processing.
The all-wet process uses coconut milk extracted from raw coconut rather than dried copra. The proteins in the coconut milk create an emulsion of oil and water. The more problematic step is breaking up the emulsion to recover the oil. This used to be done by prolonged boiling, but this produces a discolored oil and is not economical. Modern techniques use centrifuges and pre-treatments including cold, heat, acids, salts, enzymes, electrolysis, shock waves, steam distillation, or some combination thereof. Despite numerous variations and technologies, wet processing is less viable than dry processing due to a 10–15% lower yield, even taking into account the losses due to spoilage and pests with dry processing. Wet processes also require investment of equipment and energy, incurring high capital and operating costs.
Proper harvesting of the coconut (the age of a coconut can be 2 to 20 months when picked) makes a significant difference in the efficacy of the oil-making process. Copra made from immature nuts is more difficult to work with and produces an inferior product with lower yields.
Conventional coconut oil processors use hexane as a solvent to extract up to 10% more oil than produced with just rotary mills and expellers. They then refine the oil to remove certain free fatty acids to reduce susceptibility to rancidification. Other processes to increase shelf life include using copra with a moisture content below 6%, keeping the moisture content of the oil below 0.2%, heating the oil to 130–150 °C (266–302 °F) and adding salt or citric acid.
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) can be produced from fresh coconut milk, meat, or residue. Producing it from the fresh meat involves either wet-milling or drying the residue, and using a screw press to extract the oil. VCO can also be extracted from fresh meat by grating and drying it to a moisture content of 10–12%, then using a manual press to extract the oil. Producing it from coconut milk involves grating the coconut and mixing it with water, then squeezing out the oil. The milk can also be fermented for 36–48 hours, the oil removed, and the cream heated to remove any remaining oil. A third option involves using a centrifuge to separate the oil from the other liquids. Coconut oil can also be extracted from the dry residue left over from the production of coconut milk.
A thousand mature coconuts weighing approximately 1,440 kilograms (3,170 lb)[clarification needed] yield around 170 kilograms (370 lb) of copra from which around 70 litres (15 imp gal) of coconut oil can be extracted.
Dry processing requires that the meat be extracted from the shell and dried using fire, sunlight, or kilns to create copra. The copra is pressed or dissolved with solvents, producing the coconut oil and a high-protein, high-fiber mash. The mash is of poor quality for human consumption and is instead fed to ruminants; there is no process to extract protein from the mash.
Refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) oil is usually made from copra and dried coconut kernel, which is pressed in a heated hydraulic press to extract the oil. This yields practically all the oil present, amounting to more than 60% of the dry weight of the coconut. This crude coconut oil is not suitable for consumption because it contains contaminants and must be refined with further heating and filtering.
Unlike virgin coconut oil, refined coconut oil has no coconut taste or aroma. RBD oil is used for home cooking, commercial food processing, and cosmetic, industrial, and pharmaceutical purposes.
RBD coconut oil can be processed further into partially or fully hydrogenated oil to increase its melting point. Since virgin and RBD coconut oils melt at 24 °C (76 °F), foods containing coconut oil tend to melt in warm climates. A higher melting point is desirable in these warm climates, so the oil is hydrogenated. The melting point of hydrogenated coconut oil is 36–40 °C (97–104 °F).
In the process of hydrogenation, unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids) are combined with hydrogen in a catalytic process to make them more saturated. Coconut oil contains only 6% monounsaturated and 2% polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the partial hydrogenation process, some of these are transformed into trans fatty acids.
Fractionated coconut oil provides fractions of the whole oil so that its different fatty acids can be separated for specific uses. Lauric acid, a 12-carbon chain fatty acid, is often removed because of its high value for industrial and medical purposes. The fractionation of coconut oil can also be used to isolate caprylic acid and capric acid, which are medium-chain triglycerides, as these are used for medical applications, special diets and cosmetics, sometimes also being used as a carrier oil for fragrances.
|Coconut oil production – 2018|
|Country||(millions of tonnes)|
|Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations|
The World Health Organization's Codex Alimentarius guidelines on food, food production, and food safety, published by the Food and Agriculture Organization, includes standards for commercial partners who produce coconut oil for human consumption.
The Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC), whose 18 members produce about 90 per cent of the coconut sold commercially, has published its standards for virgin coconut oil (VCO), defining virgin coconut oil as obtained from fresh, mature coconut kernels through means that do not "lead to alteration of the oil."
Composition and comparison
Coconut oil contains only trace amounts of fatty acids (about 0.03% by mass). Instead it contains esters. In the following content, the expressions "fatty acids" and "acid" below refer to esters rather than carboxylic acids.
The approximate concentration of fatty acids in coconut oil (midpoint of range in source):
The following table provides information about the composition of coconut oil and how it compares with other vegetable oils.
|Almond oil||216 °C (421 °F)|
|Avocado||11.6||70.6||52-66||13.5||1||12.5||12.5:1||250 °C (482 °F)|
|Brazil nut||24.8||32.7||31.3||42.0||0.1||41.9||419:1||208 °C (406 °F)|
|Canola||7.4||63.3||61.8||28.1||9.1||18.6||2:1||238 °C (460 °F)|
|Cocoa butter oil|
|Coconut||82.5||6.3||6||1.7||175 °C (347 °F)|
|Corn||12.9||27.6||27.3||54.7||1||58||58:1||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Cottonseed||25.9||17.8||19||51.9||1||54||54:1||216 °C (420 °F)|
|Flaxseed/Linseed||9.0||18.4||18||67.8||53||13||0.2:1||107 °C (225 °F)|
|Grape seed||10.5||14.3||14.3||74.7||-||74.7||very high||216 °C (421 °F)|
|Hemp seed||7.0||9.0||9.0||82.0||22.0||54.0||2.5:1||166 °C (330 °F)|
|Olive||13.8||73.0||71.3||10.5||0.7||9.8||14:1||193 °C (380 °F)|
|Palm||49.3||37.0||40||9.3||0.2||9.1||45.5:1||235 °C (455 °F)|
|Peanut||20.3||48.1||46.5||31.5||0||31.4||very high||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Rice bran oil||25||38.4||2.2||34.4||15.6||232 °C (450 °F)|
|High-Oleic Safflower oil||7.5||75.2||75.2||12.8||0||12.8||very high||212 °C (414 °F)|
|Soybean||15.6||22.8||22.6||57.7||7||51||7.3:1||238 °C (460 °F)|
|Walnut oil||unrefined||9.1||22.8||22.2||63.3||10.4||52.9||5:1||160 °C (320 °F)|
|Sunflower (standard)||10.3||19.5||19.5||65.7||0||65.7||very high||227 °C (440 °F)|
|Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)||10.1||45.4||45.3||40.1||0.2||39.8||199:1|
|Sunflower (> 70% oleic)||9.9||83.7||82.6||3.8||0.2||3.6||18:1||232 °C (450 °F)|
|The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by mass of total fat.|
Many health organizations advise against the consumption of coconut oil owing to its high levels of saturated fat, including the United States Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization, the United States Department of Health and Human Services, American Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, British National Health Service, British Nutrition Foundation, and Dietitians of Canada.
Marketing of coconut oil has created the inaccurate belief that it is a "healthy food". Instead, studies have found that coconut oil consumption has health effects similar to those of other unhealthy fats, including butter, beef fat, and palm oil. Coconut oil contains a high amount of lauric acid, a saturated fat that raises total blood cholesterol levels by increasing the amounts of both high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good") cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad") cholesterol. Although lauric acid consumption may create a more favorable total blood cholesterol profile, this does not exclude the possibility that persistent consumption of coconut oil may actually increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases through other mechanisms, particularly via the marked increase in total blood cholesterol induced by lauric acid. Because the majority of saturated fat in coconut oil is lauric acid, coconut oil may be preferred over partially hydrogenated vegetable oil when solid fats are used in the diet.
A 2020 systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials on whether chronic consumption of coconut oil might affect risk factors for cardiovascular diseases found that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholestrol (but also high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ("good cholesterol")) concentrations were elevated compared with nontropical vegetable oils. The review stated that "coconut oil should not be viewed as healthy oil for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and limiting coconut oil consumption because of its high saturated fat content is warranted." A 2017 review of clinical research by experts associated with the American Heart Association recommended against consumption of coconut oil due to its propensity for increasing blood levels of LDL as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
|Nutritional value per 100 g|
|Energy||3,730 kJ (890 kcal)|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Nutrition and fat composition
Coconut oil is 99% fat, composed mainly of saturated fats (82% of total; table). In a 100 gram reference amount, coconut oil supplies 890 Calories. Half of the saturated fat content of coconut oil is lauric acid (41.8 grams per 100 grams of total composition), while other significant saturated fats are myristic acid (16.7 grams), palmitic acid (8.6 grams), and caprylic acid (6.8 grams). Monounsaturated fats are 6% of total composition, and polyunsaturated fats are 2% (table). Coconut oil contains phytosterols, whereas there are no micronutrients in significant content (table).
Coconut oil has a long history in Asia, particularly in tropical regions where the plant is abundant, where it has been used for cooking. It is the oil of choice in Sri Lankan cuisine, where it is used for sautéing and frying, in both savoury and sweet dishes. It also plays a prominent role in the cuisines of Thailand and Kerala.
As an oil relatively recently introduced to Western countries, coconut oil is commonly used in baked goods, pastries, and sautés, having a nut-like quality with some sweetness. It is sometimes used by movie theatre chains to pop popcorn. Coconut oil adds considerable saturated fat and calories to the snackfood while enhancing flavor, possibly a factor increasing further consumption of high-calorie snackfoods, energy balance, and weight gain.
Other culinary uses include replacing solid fats produced through hydrogenation in baked and confectionery goods. Hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated coconut oil is often used in non-dairy creamers and snack foods. In frying, the smoke point of coconut oil is 177 °C (351 °F).
Coconut oil has been tested for use as a feedstock for biodiesel to use as a diesel engine fuel. In this manner, it can be applied to power generators and transport using diesel engines. Since straight coconut oil has a high gelling temperature (22–25 °C), a high viscosity, and a minimum combustion chamber temperature of 500 °C (932 °F) (to avoid polymerization of the fuel), coconut oil typically is transesterified to make biodiesel. Use of B100 (100% biodiesel) is possible only in temperate climates, as the gel point is approximately 10 °C (50 °F). The oil must meet the Weihenstephan standard[better source needed] to use pure vegetable oil as a fuel. Moderate to severe damage from carbonisation and clogging would occur in an unmodified engine.
The Philippines, Vanuatu, Samoa, and several other tropical island countries use coconut oil as an alternative fuel source to run automobiles, trucks, and buses, and to power generators.[better source needed] Biodiesel fuel derived from coconut oil is currently used as a fuel for transport in the Philippines. Further research into the potential of coconut oil as a fuel for electricity generation is being carried out in the islands of the Pacific, although to date it appears that it is not useful as a fuel source due to the cost of labour and supply constraints.
Coconut oil has been tested for use as an engine lubricant and as a transformer oil. Coconut oil (and derivatives, such as coconut fatty acid) are used as raw materials in the manufacture of surfactants such as cocamidopropyl betaine, cocamide MEA, and cocamide DEA.
Acids derived from coconut oil can be used as herbicides. Before the advent of electrical lighting, coconut oil was the primary oil used for illumination in India and was exported as cochin oil.
Coconut oil is an important base ingredient for the manufacture of soap. Soap made with coconut oil tends to be hard, though it retains more water than soap made with other oils and thus increases manufacturer yields. It is more soluble in hard water and salt water than other soaps allowing it to lather more easily.
- "Coconut oil". Transport Information Service, German Insurance Association, Berlin. 2015.
- "Coconut Oil". The Nutrition Source, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston. 2021.
- Sacks, Frank M.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Creager, Mark A.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Miller, Michael; Rimm, Eric B.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Stone, Neil J.; Van Horn, Linda V. (2017). "Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory from the American Heart Association" (PDF). Circulation. 136 (3): e1–e23. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000510. PMID 28620111. S2CID 367602.
Media summary: "Coconut oil 'as unhealthy as beef fat and butter'". BBC News. June 16, 2017. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Umesh Patil, Soottawat Benjakul (July 13, 2018). "Coconut Milk and Coconut Oil: Their Manufacture Associated with Protein Functionality". Concise Reviews & Hypotheses in Food Science. 83 (8): 2019–2027. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.14223. PMID 30004125. S2CID 51617929.
- Grimwood et al., 1975, pp. 193–210.
- Grimwood et al., 1975, p. 29.
- Kurian; Peter KV (2007). Commercial Crops Technology: Vol.08. Horticulture Science Series. New India Publishing. pp. 202–6. ISBN 978-81-89422-52-3.
- Bourke, RM; Harwood T (2009). Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea. Australian National University. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-921536-60-1.
- Grimwood, BE; Ashman F; Dendy DAV; Jarman CG; Little ECS; Timmins WH (1975). Coconut Palm Products – Their processing in developing countries. Rome: FAO. pp. 49–56. ISBN 978-92-5-100853-9.
- Foale, M. (2003). "The Coconut Odyssey: The Bounteous Possibilities of the Tree of Life" (PDF). Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. pp. 115–116. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
- McGlone OC, Canales A, Carter JV (1986). "Coconut oil extraction by a new enzymatic process". J Food Sci. 51 (3): 695–697. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1986.tb13914.x.
- Foster, R., Williamson, C.S. and Lunn, J. (2009). "BRIEFING PAPER: Culinary Oils And Their Health Effects". Nutrition Bulletin. 34 (1): 4–47. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2008.01738.x.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Gervajio, G. C. (2005). "Fatty Acids and Derivatives from Coconut Oil". Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. doi:10.1002/047167849X.bio039. ISBN 978-0471678496.
- Emil Raymond Riegel; James Albert Kent (2003). Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry. Springer. pp. 1100–1117. ISBN 978-0-306-47411-8. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "Coconut oil production, 2018; Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity; unofficial data (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
- "Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oils (Codex Stan 210-1999, Revision 3)" (PDF). Codex Alimentarius. Food and Agriculture Organization. 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- "About us". Asian and Pacific Coconut Community. Archived from the original on 2011-08-29. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- "APCC Standards for Virgin Coconut Oil" (PDF). Jakarta, Indonesia: Asian and Pacific Coconut Community. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-12. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- Kratzeisen, M. (2010). "Influence of free fatty acid content of coconut oil on deposit and performance of plant oil pressure stoves". Fuel. 89 (7): 1583–1589. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2009.08.038. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
- "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited.
- "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
- "USDA Specifications for Vegetable Oil Margarine Effective August 28, 1996" (PDF).
- "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org.
- "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). "Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF). Elsevier. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. The American Oil Chemists’ Society. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
- "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
- Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488.
- "Smoke points of oils" (PDF).
- "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFVegetable_Oils_in_Food_Technology2011 (help)
- Orthoefer, F. T. (2005). "Chapter 10: Rice Bran Oil". In Shahidi, F. (ed.). Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. 2 (6 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 465. doi:10.1002/047167849X. ISBN 978-0-471-38552-3.
- "Rice bran oil". RITO Partnership. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Oil, sesame, salad or cooking". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
- "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Walnut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, United States Department of Agriculture.
- "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
- "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Around the Block Nutrition Facts at a Glance: More on Nutrients to Get Less Of". Food and Drug Administration. 2012-09-05. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Avoiding Heart Attacks and Strokes" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 2011-04-06.
- "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010" (PDF). Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- "American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada Offer Up-to-Date Guidance on Dietary Fat". American Dietetic Association. Archived from the original on 2012-03-19. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- "Tropical Oils". American Heart Association. Archived from the original on 2011-06-02. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- Foster R, Williamson CS, Lunn J (2009). "Culinary oils and their health effects". Nutrition Bulletin. 34: 4–47. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2008.01738.x.
- Lockyer S, Stanner S (2016). "Coconut oil – a nutty idea?". Nutrition Bulletin. 41 (1): 42–54. doi:10.1111/nbu.12188.
- "Heart Healthy Eating: Cholesterol". Dietitians of Canada. 2010-09-01. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- Abbasi, J (8 April 2020). "Coconut Oil's Health Halo a Mirage, Clinical Trials Suggest". JAMA. 323 (16): 1540–1541. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.5186. PMID 32267505.
- Neelakantan, Nithya; Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; van Dam, Rob M. (2020-03-10). "The effect of coconut oil consumption on cardiovascular risk factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials". Circulation. 141 (10): 803–814. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.119.043052. ISSN 0009-7322. PMID 31928080. S2CID 210195904.
- Eyres, L; Eyres, MF; Chisholm, A; Brown, RC (April 2016). "Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans". Nutrition Reviews. 74 (4): 267–80. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuw002. PMC 4892314. PMID 26946252.
- Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB (May 2003). "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials" (PDF). Am J Clin Nutr. 77 (5): 1146–55. doi:10.1093/ajcn/77.5.1146. PMID 12716665.
- Tarrago-Trani, MT; Phillips, KM; Lemar, LE; Holden, JM (2006). "New and existing oils and fats used in products with reduced trans-fatty acid content" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 106 (6): 867–880. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.03.010. PMID 16720128.
- "Coconut oil; Nutrient content per 100 g". USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 28. May 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- Clark, M (2011-03-01). "Once a Villain, Coconut Oil Charms the Health Food World". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-03-02.
- "Two Thumbs Down' for Movie Theater Popcorn". Center for Science in the Public Interest. 2009-11-18. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
- "Weihenstephan vegetable oil fuel standard (German Rapeseed Fuel Standard)". Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- "In Vanuatu, A Proving Ground for Coconut Oil As An Alternative Fuel". One Country. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- "Coconut fuel". The World. Public Radio International. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- Watson, Todd (1 August 2013). "Coconut biodiesel drives the Philippines". Inside Investor. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- Koo, Sung Mo (July 6, 2018). "Coconut Oil : Spotlight Fades Away". Tridge. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- Romares-Sevilla, J (2008-01-17). "Davao-based firm sees expansion of bio-tech oil market". Sun.Star Superbalita Davao. Archived from the original on 2008-01-21. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
- DC, Abeysundara; Weerakoon, C; Lucas, JR; Gunatunga, KAI; Obadagee, KC (2001). "Coconut Oil As An Alternative To Transformer Oil" (PDF). ERU Symposium. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2009-07-28. Cite journal requires
- James, TK; Rahman A (2005). "Efficacy of several organic herbicides and glyphosate formulations under simulated rainfall" (PDF). New Zealand Plant Protection. 58: 157–163. doi:10.30843/nzpp.2005.58.4322.
- Brady, GS; Clauser, HR; Vaccari, JA (2002). Materials Handbook – An encyclopedia for managers, technical professionals, purchasing and production managers, technicians, and supervisors (15 ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 250–251. ISBN 978-0-07-136076-0.
- Alsberg, CL; Taylor AE (1928). The Fats and Oils – A General Overview (Fats and Oils Studies No. 1). Stanford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-8047-0330-7.
- Adkins SW; Foale M; Samosir YMS, eds. (2006). Coconut revival – new possibilities for the 'tree of life'. Proceedings of the International Coconut Forum, 22–24 November 2005 (PDF). Cairns, Australia: ACIAR Proceedings. ISBN 978-1-86320-515-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Salunkhe, D.K., J.K. Chavan, R.N. Adsule, and S.S. Kadam. (1992). World Oilseeds: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization. Springer. ISBN 978-0-442-00112-4.
- Media related to Coconut oil at Wikimedia Commons