Windows-1251

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Windows-1251
MIME / IANAwindows-1251
Alias(es)cp1251 (Code page 1251)
Language(s)English, Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Serbian Cyrillic, Macedonian
Created byMicrosoft
StandardWHATWG Encoding Standard
Classificationextended ASCII, Windows-125x
Other related encoding(s)Amiga-1251,
RFC 1345's "ECMA-Cyrillic"

Windows-1251 is an 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover languages that use the Cyrillic script such as Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian Cyrillic and other languages. It is the most widely used encoding for the Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian languages.[citation needed] As of October 2019, 0.9% of all web sites use Windows-1251.[1][2] However, it is used by 13.8% of Russian (.ru) websites,[3] where it is the second most popular choice after UTF-8. In Linux, the encoding is known as cp1251.[4]

Windows-1251 and KOI8-R (or its Ukrainian variant KOI8-U) are much more commonly used than ISO 8859-5 (which is "used by less than 0.1% of websites").[5] In contrast to Windows-1252 and ISO 8859-1, Windows-1251 is not closely related to ISO 8859-5.

Unicode is preferred to Windows-1251 or other Cyrillic encodings in modern applications, especially on the Internet, making UTF-8 the dominant encoding for web pages. (For further discussion of Unicode's complete coverage and how single-byte character encodings, such as Windows-1251 and KOI8-R, cannot provide this, see Cyrillic script in Unicode.)

Character set[edit]

The following table shows Windows-1251. Each character is shown with its Unicode equivalent and its decimal code.

Windows-1251
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
NUL
0000
SOH
0001
STX
0002
ETX
0003
EOT
0004
ENQ
0005
ACK
0006
BEL
0007
BS
0008
HT
0009
LF
000A
VT
000B
FF
000C
CR
000D
SO
000E
SI
000F
1_
16
DLE
0010
DC1
0011
DC2
0012
DC3
0013
DC4
0014
NAK
0015
SYN
0016
ETB
0017
CAN
0018
EM
0019
SUB
001A
ESC
001B
FS
001C
GS
001D
RS
001E
US
001F
2_
32
SP
0020
!
0021
"
0022
#
0023
$
0024
%
0025
&
0026
'
0027
(
0028
)
0029
*
002A
+
002B
,
002C
-
002D
.
002E
/
002F
3_
48
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
:
003A
;
003B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
?
003F
4_
64
@
0040
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
5_
80
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
[
005B
\
005C
]
005D
^
005E
_
005F
6_
96
`
0060
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E
DEL
007F
8_
128
Ђ
0402
Ѓ
0403

201A
ѓ
0453

201E

2026

2020

2021

20AC

2030
Љ
0409

2039
Њ
040A
Ќ
040C
Ћ
040B
Џ
040F
9_
144
ђ
0452

2018

2019

201C

201D

2022

2013

2014

2122
љ
0459

203A
њ
045A
ќ
045C
ћ
045B
џ
045F
A_
160
NBSP
00A0
Ў
040E
ў
045E
Ј
0408
¤
00A4
Ґ
0490
¦
00A6
§
00A7
Ё
0401
©
00A9
Є
0404
«
00AB
¬
00AC
SHY
00AD
®
00AE
Ї
0407
B_
176
°
00B0
±
00B1
І
0406
і
0456
ґ
0491
µ
00B5

00B6
·
00B7
ё
0451

2116
є
0454
»
00BB
ј
0458
Ѕ
0405
ѕ
0455
ї
0457
C_
192
А
0410
Б
0411
В
0412
Г
0413
Д
0414
Е
0415
Ж
0416
З
0417
И
0418
Й
0419
К
041A
Л
041B
М
041C
Н
041D
О
041E
П
041F
D_
208
Р
0420
С
0421
Т
0422
У
0423
Ф
0424
Х
0425
Ц
0426
Ч
0427
Ш
0428
Щ
0429
Ъ
042A
Ы
042B
Ь
042C
Э
042D
Ю
042E
Я
042F
E_
224
а
0430
б
0431
в
0432
г
0433
д
0434
е
0435
ж
0436
з
0437
и
0438
й
0439
к
043A
л
043B
м
043C
н
043D
о
043E
п
043F
F_
240
р
0440
с
0441
т
0442
у
0443
ф
0444
х
0445
ц
0446
ч
0447
ш
0448
щ
0449
ъ
044A
ы
044B
ь
044C
э
044D
ю
044E
я
044F

Amiga variant[edit]

Amiga-1251
MIME / IANAAmiga-1251
Alias(es)Ami1251
Language(s)English, Russian
Classificationextended ASCII
Based onWindows-1251, ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-15

Russian Amiga OS systems used a version of code page 1251 which matches Windows-1251 for the Russian subset of the Cyrillic letters, but otherwise mostly follows ISO-8859-1. This version is known as Amiga-1251,[6] under which name it is registered with the IANA.[7]

  Different from Windows-1251 to match ISO-8859-1
  Different from both Windows-1251 and ISO-8859-1
Amiga-1251[6]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
NUL
0000
SOH
0001
STX
0002
ETX
0003
EOT
0004
ENQ
0005
ACK
0006
BEL
0007
BS
0008
HT
0009
LF
000A
VT
000B
FF
000C
CR
000D
SO
000E
SI
000F
1_
16
DLE
0010
DC1
0011
DC2
0012
DC3
0013
DC4
0014
NAK
0015
SYN
0016
ETB
0017
CAN
0018
EM
0019
SUB
001A
ESC
001B
FS
001C
GS
001D
RS
001E
US
001F
2_
32
SP
0020
!
0021
"
0022
#
0023
$
0024
%
0025
&
0026
'
0027
(
0028
)
0029
*
002A
+
002B
,
002C
-
002D
.
002E
/
002F
3_
48
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
:
003A
;
003B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
?
003F
4_
64
@
0040
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
5_
80
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
[
005B
\
005C
]
005D
^
005E
_
005F
6_
96
`
0060
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E
DEL
007F
8_
128
XXX
0080
XXX
0081
BPH
0082
NBH
0083
IND
0084
NEL
0085
SSA
0086
ESA
0087
HTS
0088
HTJ
0089
VTS
008A
PLD
008B
PLU
008C
RI
008D
SS2
008E
SS3
008F
9_
144
DCS
0090
PU1
0091
PU2
0092
STS
0093
CCH
0094
MW
0095
SPA
0096
EPA
0097
SOS
0098
XXX
0099
SCI
009A
CSI
009B
ST
009C
OSC
009D
PM
009E
APC
009F
A_
160
NBSP
00A0
¡
00A1
¢
00A2
£
00A3
[a]
20AC
¥
00A5
¦
00A6
§
00A7
Ё
0401
©
00A9
[b]
2116
«
00AB
¬
00AC
SHY
00AD
®
00AE
¯
00AF
B_
176
°
00B0
±
00B1
²
00B2
³
00B3
´
00B4
µ
00B5

00B6
·
00B7
ё
0451
¹
00B9
º
00BA
»
00BB
¼
00BC
½
00BD
¾
00BE
¿
00BF
C_
192
А
0410
Б
0411
В
0412
Г
0413
Д
0414
Е
0415
Ж
0416
З
0417
И
0418
Й
0419
К
041A
Л
041B
М
041C
Н
041D
О
041E
П
041F
D_
208
Р
0420
С
0421
Т
0422
У
0423
Ф
0424
Х
0425
Ц
0426
Ч
0427
Ш
0428
Щ
0429
Ъ
042A
Ы
042B
Ь
042C
Э
042D
Ю
042E
Я
042F
E_
224
а
0430
б
0431
в
0432
г
0433
д
0434
е
0435
ж
0436
з
0437
и
0438
й
0439
к
043A
л
043B
м
043C
н
043D
о
043E
п
043F
F_
240
р
0440
с
0441
т
0442
у
0443
ф
0444
х
0445
ц
0446
ч
0447
ш
0448
щ
0449
ъ
044A
ы
044B
ь
044C
э
044D
ю
044E
я
044F
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Matching ISO-8859-15; at a different location than in Windows-1251.
  2. ^ Present in Windows-1251, but in a different location; absent from ISO-8859-1/15.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Historical trends in the usage of character encodings, May 2019". Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  2. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions".
  3. ^ "Distribution of Character Encodings among websites that use .ru". w3techs.com. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  4. ^ "cp1251(7) - Linux manual page". man7.org. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  5. ^ "Usage Statistics of Character Encodings for Websites". w3techs.com. Archived from the original on 2018-09-13.
  6. ^ a b Malyshev, Michael (2003). "Amiga-1251 to Unicode table". Registration of new charset [Amiga-1251]. IANA.
  7. ^ "Character Sets". IANA.

Further reading[edit]

  • Kornai, Andras; Birnbaum, David J.; da Cruz, Frank; Davis, Bur; Fowler, George; Paine, Richard B.; Paperno, Slava; Simonsen, Keld J.; Thobe, Glenn E.; Vulis, Dimitri; van Wingen, Johan W. (1993-03-13). "CYRILLIC ENCODING FAQ Version 1.3". Retrieved 2017-02-18.

External links[edit]