|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2009)|
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person. Names are often used for military purposes, or in espionage. They may also be used in industrial counter-industrial espionage to protect secret projects and the like from business rivals, or to give names to projects whose marketing name has not yet been determined. Another reason for the use of names and phrases in the military is that they transmit with a lower level of cumulative errors over a walkie-talkie or radio link than actual names.
During World War I, names common to the Allies referring to nations, cities, geographical features, military units, military operations, diplomatic meetings, places, and individual persons were agreed upon, adapting pre-war naming procedures in use by the governments concerned. In the British case names were administered and controlled by the Inter Services Security Board (ISSB) staffed by the War Office. This procedure was coordinated with the United States when America entered the war. Random lists of names were issued to users in alphabetical blocks of ten words and were selected as required. Words became available for re-use after six months and unused allocations could be reassigned at discretion and according to need. Judicious selection from the available allocation could result in clever meanings and result in an aptronym or backronym, although policy was to select words that had no obviously deducible connection with what they were supposed to be concealing. Those for the major conference meetings had a partial naming sequence referring to devices or instruments which had an ordinal number as part of their meaning, e.g., the third meeting was "TRIDENT". Joseph Stalin, whose last name means "man of steel", was given the name "GLYPTIC", meaning "an image carved out of stone".
- Reference: Glossary of Names from U.S. Army in World War II – Washington Command Post: The Operations Division
German code names
Ewen Montagu, a British Naval intelligence officer, discloses in Beyond Top Secret Ultra that during World War II, Nazi Germany habitually used ad hoc code names as nicknames which often openly revealed or strongly hinted at their content or function.
Some German code names:
- Golfplatz (German for "golf course") – Britain, employed by the Abwehr
- Samland – The United States (from Uncle Sam), employed by the Abwehr
- Heimdall (a god whose power was "to see for a hundred miles") – long-range radar
- Wotan – a radar system. Knowing that the god Wotan had only one eye, R. V. Jones, a British scientist working for Air Intelligence of the British Air Ministry and SIS inferred that the device used a single beam and from that determined, correctly, how it must work. A counter-system was quickly created which made Wotan useless.
- Operation Seelöwe (Sea-lion) – plans to invade Britain (lions being prominent in the coat of arms of the United Kingdom)
- Operation Barbarossa (Frederick Barbarossa) – plans to go east and invade the Soviet Union
Conversely, Operation Wacht am Rhein (Watch on the Rhine) was deliberately named to suggest the opposite of its purpose – a defensive "watch" as opposed to a massive blitzkrieg operation, just as was Operation Weserübung (Weser-exercise), which signified the plans to invade Norway and Denmark in April 1940.
By comparison, as a result of the German practice and relative ease of deciphering some element of its content in the post-War period, the British Ministry of Supply adopted the Rainbow Codes system which randomly combined a color and a noun (from a list) to create the name for projects. Though memorable, the names were unrelated to content.
Code names of other powers
Britain and the United States developed the security policy of assigning code names intended to give no such clues to the uninitiated. For example, the British counter measures against the V-2 was called Operation Crossbow. The atomic bomb project centered in New Mexico was called the Manhattan Project, derived from the Manhattan Engineer District which managed the program. The code name for the American A-12 / SR-71 spy plane project, producing the fastest, highest-flying aircraft in the world, was Oxcart. The American group that planned that country's first ICBM was called the Teapot Committee.
Although the word could stand for a menace to shipping (in this case, that of Japan), the American code name for the attack on the subtropical island of Okinawa in World War II was Operation Iceberg. The Soviet Union's project to base missiles in Cuba was named Operation Anadyr after their closest bomber base to the US (just across the Bering Strait from Nome, Alaska). The names of colors are generally avoided in American practice to avoid confusion with meteorological reporting practices. Britain, in contrast, made deliberately non-meaningful use of them, through the system of rainbow codes.
Aircraft recognition reporting names
Although German and Italian aircraft were not given code names by their Allied opponents, in 1942, Captain Frank T. McCoy, an intelligence officer of the USAAF, invented a system for the identification of Japanese military aircraft. Initially using short, "hillbilly" boys' names such as "Pete", "Jake", and "Rufe", the system was later extended to include girls' names and names of trees and birds, and became widely used by the Allies throughout the Pacific theater of war. This type of naming scheme differs from the other use of code names in that it does not have to be kept secret, but is a means of identification where the official nomenclature is unknown or uncertain.
The policy of recognition reporting names was continued into the Cold War for Soviet, other Warsaw Pact, and Communist Chinese aircraft. Although this was started by the Air Standards Co-ordinating Committee (ASCC) formed by the United States, UK, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, it was extended throughout NATO as the NATO reporting name for aircraft, rockets and missiles. These names were considered by the Soviets as being like a nickname given to one's unit by the opponents in a battle, such as the U.S. Marines were called by the Germans in France "Devil Dogs", which they appreciated as a feather in their cap. The Soviets did not like the Sukhoi Su-25 getting the code name "Frogfoot". However, some names were appropriate, such as "Condor" for the Antonov An-124, or, most famously, "Fulcrum" for the Mikoyan MiG-29, which had a "pivotal" role in Soviet air-strategy.
Code names were adopted by the following process. Aerial or space reconnaissance would note a new aircraft at a Warsaw Pact airbase. The intelligence units would then assign it a code name consisting of the official abbreviation of the base, then a letter, for example, "Ram-A", signifying an aircraft sighted at Ramenskoye Airport. Missiles were given designations like "TT-5", for the fifth rocket seen at Tyura-Tam. When more information resulted in knowing a bit about what a missile was used for, it would be given a designation like "SS-6", for the sixth surface-to-surface missile design reported. Finally, when either an aircraft or a missile was able to be photographed with a hand-held camera, instead of a reconnaissance aircraft, it was given a name like "Flanker" or "Scud" – always an English word, as international pilots worldwide are required to learn English. The Soviet manufacturer or designation – which may be mistakenly inferred by NATO – has nothing to do with it.
Jet-powered aircraft received two-syllable names like Foxbat, while propeller aircraft were designated with short names like Bull. Fighter names began with an "F", bombers with a "B", cargo aircraft with a "C". Training aircraft and reconnaissance aircraft were grouped under the word "miscellaneous", and received "M". The same convention applies to missiles, with air-launched ground attack missiles beginning with the letter "K" and surface-to-surface missiles (ranging from intercontinental ballistic missiles to antitank rockets) with the letter "S", air-to-air missiles "A", and surface-to-air missiles "G".
Military operations since Churchill
Throughout the Second World War, the British allocation practice favored one-word code names (Jubilee, Frankton). That of the Americans favored longer compound words, although the name Overlord was personally chosen by Winston Churchill himself. Many examples of both types can be cited, as can exceptions.
Presently, British forces tend to use one-word names, presumably in keeping with their post-World War II policy of reserving single words for operations and two-word names for exercises. British operation code names are usually randomly generated by a computer and rarely reveal its components or any political implications unlike the American names (e.g., the 2003 invasion of Iraq was called "Operation Telic" compared to Americans' "Operation Iraqi Freedom", obviously chosen for propaganda rather than secrecy). Americans prefer two-word names, whereas the Canadians and Australians use either. The French military currently prefer names drawn from nature (such as colors or the names of animals), for instance Opération Daguet ("brocket deer") or Opération Baliste ("Triggerfish"). The CIA uses alphabetical prefixes to designate the part of the agency supporting an operation.
In many cases with the United States, the first word of the name has to do with the intent of the program. Programs with "have" as the first word, such as Have Blue for the stealth fighter development, are developmental programs, not meant to produce a production aircraft. Programs that start with Senior, such as Senior Trend for the F-117, are for aircraft in testing meant to enter production.
In the United States code names are commonly set entirely in upper case. This is not done in other countries, though for the UK in British documents the code name is in upper case while operation is shortened to OP e.g., "Op. TELIC".
This presents an opportunity for a bit of public-relations (Operation Just Cause), or for controversy over the naming choice (Operation Infinite Justice, renamed Operation Enduring Freedom). Computers are now used to aid in the selection. And further, there is a distinction between the secret names during former wars and the published names of recent ones.
Project code name
Project code names are typically used for several reasons:
- To uniquely identify the project within the organization. Code names are frequently chosen to be outside the normal business/domain jargon that the organization uses, in order to not conflict with established terminology.
- To assist with maintaining secrecy of the project against rival concerns. Some corporations routinely change project names in order to further confuse competitors.
- When the goal of the project is to develop one or more commercial products, use of a code name allows the eventual choice of product nomenclature (the name the product(s) are marketed and sold under) to be decoupled from the development effort. This is especially important when one project generates multiple products, or multiple projects are needed to produce a single product. This allows for subprojects to be given a separate identity from the main project.
- To decouple an early phase of a development effort (which may have failed) from a subsequent phase (which may be given a "fresh start") as a political tool.
- To prevent casual observers from concluding that a pre-release version is a new release of the product, thus helping reduce confusion.
Different organizations have different policies regarding the use and publication of project code names. Some companies take great pains to never discuss or disclose project code names outside of the company (other than with outside entities who have a need to know, and typically are bound with a non-disclosure agreement). Other companies never use them in official or formal communications, but widely disseminate project code names through informal channels (often in an attempt to create a marketing buzz for the project). Still others (such as Microsoft) discuss code names publicly, and routinely use project code names on beta releases and such, but remove them from final product(s). At the other end of the spectrum, Apple Computer includes the project code names for Mac OS X as part of the official name of the final product, a practice that was started in 2002 with Mac OS X v10.2 "Jaguar".
Famous code names
- Black Tornado – 26/11 Attacks, began on 26 November 2008 and lasted until 29 November when India's National Security Guards (NSG) conducted Operation Black Tornado to flush out the attackers from Hotel Taj Mahal, Mumbai
- Operation Anthropoid – assassination of top Nazi Reinhard Heydrich in Prague
- Operation Arc Light – United States Air Force B-52 bombing campaign during the Vietnam War
- Operation Barbarossa – German invasion of the Soviet Union
- Operation Blue Star – was an Indian military operation which took place 3–8 June 1984, in order to remove Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Punjab, India.
- Operation Market Garden – failed invasion of Germany (1944)
- Operation Neptune Spear – The operation, was carried out in a Central Intelligence Agency-led operation in which Osama bin Laden, the founder and head of the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011, by Navy SEALs of the U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group.
- "Geronimo", the codename for Osama bin Laden during Operation Neptune's Spear
- Operation Overlord – Allied invasion of Normandy
- Operation Rolling Thunder – the sustained bombing campaign conducted against North Vietnam by the United States and South Vietnam
- Operation Sea Lion – the planned invasion of Britain by Nazi Germany which was never carried out
- Operation Shakti – (Pokhran-II) refers to the series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998. It was initiated with the detonation of one fusion and three fission bombs.
- Operation Torch – British-American invasion of North Africa in 1942
- Manhattan Project (with Trinity, Little Boy, and Fat Man) – early U.S. nuclear weapons program during World War II
- MKULTRA – CIA project (an attempt at mind control technology & technique)
- Smiling Buddha – (Pokhran-I), was an assigned codename of India's first nuclear weapon explosion, which took place on 18 May 1974. The device was detonated by the Indian Army in the long-constructed army base, Pokhran Test Range. It was also the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
- Project-706 (with Chagai-I and Chagai-II) – an early Pakistani secret code name for its nuclear weapons programme during the Cold War
- Tank – originally a code name adopted in 1915 by the British government for the first tracked armoured vehicles, which were then under development
- Tube Alloys – British nuclear program
- AMD have also been naming their CPUs since 90 nm generations under the K8 micro-architecture after the name of cities around the world. For the CPUs under the Phenom brand, the names of stars were used as code names. For Opteron server CPUs and platforms, cities related to the Ferrari Formula One team were used. Mobile platforms are named after birds (except for Puma). For example:
- Single-core Athlon 64 and Athlon 64 FX : Newcastle, Venice, San Diego and Lima
- Dual-core Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon 64 FX: Manchester, Toledo, Windsor and Brisbane
- Phenom CPUs: Agena (Beta Centauri), Toliman (Alpha Centauri), Kuma (Nu Draconis), Deneb (Alpha Cygni), Propus (Eta Geminorum), Heka (Lambda Orionis), Rana (Delta Eridani), Regor (Gamma Velorum)
- Opteron CPUs: Barcelona, Shanghai, São Paulo, Istanbul
- Server platforms: Catalunya, Fiorano, Maranello
- Mobile CPUs: Griffin, Lion, Swift
- Mobile platforms: Kite, Puma, Shirke, Eagle
- Apple Inc. (previously Apple Computer) currently names the various major releases of Mac OS X after major California landmarks, such as Mavericks (a surfing location), Yosemite, and El Capitan. Previous OS X releases were named after big cats (Jaguar, Panther, Tiger, Leopard, Snow Leopard, Lion and Mountain Lion). Earlier systems had music-related codenames, such as Copland, after composer Aaron Copland and Gershwin, after George Gershwin. Two other sources of popular Apple code-names, at least before the 1990s, appear to have been women's names (e.g., Jennifer, rumored for the Macintosh IIx; Lisa, actually sold as the Apple Lisa) and varieties of apples (e.g., Cortland → Apple IIgs; Macintosh [from McIntosh], actually sold as the Macintosh). In 1994 astronomer Carl Sagan filed two lawsuits against Apple, related to its use of the code name "Carl Sagan" for its Power Macintosh 7100 while it was under development. Sagan lost both lawsuits, and reached an out-of-court settlement with the company.
- Intel often names CPU projects after rivers in the American West, particularly in the state of Oregon (where most of Intel's CPU projects are designed). Examples include Willamette, Deschutes, Yamhill, Tualatin, and Clackamas. See List of Intel codenames.
- Microsoft often names projects (in particular, versions of the Microsoft Windows operating systems) after place names. Examples include Chicago (Windows 95), Daytona (Windows NT 3.5), Memphis (Windows 98), Whistler (Windows XP), Longhorn (Windows Vista), Blackcomb/Vienna (Windows 7), and Cairo (originally thought to be Windows NT 4.0, though many observers now believe that Cairo never turned into a project). It is not uncommon for Microsoft to reuse codenames a few years after a previous usage has been abandoned. See Microsoft codenames.
- For a period of time, Mozilla used code names which are mostly named after national parks to reference different versions of the Mozilla Firefox browser:
- Nintendo often uses code names for new consoles. The best-known is that of Wii, which was code-named Revolution for over a year. Others include the GameCube's code name of Dolphin, the Game Boy Advance's code name of Atlantis, the Nintendo 64 as Project Reality, the DS code name Project Nitro, the Game Boy Micro code name Oxygen and most recently the Wii U, codenamed Project Cafe.
- CIA cryptonym
- Military Operations listed by Codename
- NATO reporting name
- Pseudonym, the term for a code name when applied to a single person
- Rainbow Codes
- Secret Service codename
- WEBSTER, Graham (2013). "History of the British Inter-Services Security Board and the Allocation of Code-Names in the Second World War". Intelligence and National Security [online].: 1–31. doi:10.1080/02684527.2013.846731.
- "OS X Mountain Lion - Move your Mac even further ahead". Apple. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
- William Arkin, Code Names: Deciphering U.S. Military Plans, Programs and Operations in the 9/11 World
- Code Names for U.S. Military Projects and Operations
- Code Names: A Look Behind Secret U.S. Military Plans in the Middle East, Africa and at Home – Broadcast on Democracy Now! January 27, 2005.
- Gregory C. Sieminski, The Art of Naming Operations