The Codex Amiatinus, designated by siglum A, is the earliest surviving manuscript of the nearly complete Bible in the Latin Vulgate version, and is considered to be the most accurate copy of St. Jerome's text. It is missing the Book of Baruch. It was produced in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria as a gift for the Pope, and dates to the start of the 8th century. The Codex is also a fine specimen of medieval calligraphy, and is now kept at Florence in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana (Amiatino 1).
The symbol for it is written am or A (Wordsworth). It is preserved in an immense tome, measuring 19 1⁄4 inches high, 13 3⁄8 inches in breadth, and 7 inches thick, and weighs over 75 pounds — so impressive, as Hort says, as to fill the beholder with a feeling akin to awe.
It contains Epistula Hieronymi ad Damasum, Prolegomena to the four Gospels.
The Codex Amiatinus qualifies as an illuminated manuscript as it has some decoration including two full-page miniatures, but these show little sign of the usual insular style of Northumbrian art and are clearly copied from Late Antique originals. It contains 1040 leaves of strong, smooth vellum, fresh-looking today despite their great antiquity, arranged in quires of four sheets, or quaternions. It is written in uncial characters, large, clear, regular, and beautiful, two columns to a page, and 43 or 44 lines to a column. A little space is often left between words, but the writing is in general continuous. The text is divided into sections, which in the Gospels correspond closely to the Ammonian Sections. There are no marks of punctuation, but the skilled reader was guided into the sense by stichometric, or verse-like, arrangement into cola and commata, which correspond roughly to the principal and dependent clauses of a sentence. From this manner of writing the script is believed to have been modeled upon the Codex Grandior of Cassiodorus, but it may go back, perhaps, even to St. Jerome.
Originally three copies of the Bible were commissioned by Ceolfrid in 692. This date has been established as the double monastery of Wearmouth-Jarrow secured a grant of additional land to raise the 2000 head of cattle needed to produce the vellum. Bede was most likely involved in the compilation. Ceolfrid accompanied one copy intended as a gift to Pope Gregory II, but he died en route to Rome. The book later appears in the 9th century in Abbey of the Saviour, Monte Amiata in Tuscany (hence the description "Amiatinus"), where it remained until 1786 when it passed to the Laurentian Library in Florence. The dedication page had been altered and the librarian Angelo Maria Bandini suggested that the author was Servandus, a follower of St. Benedict, and was produced at Monte Cassino around the 540s. This claim was accepted for the next hundred years, establishing it as the oldest copy of the Vulgate, but scholars in Germany noted the similarity to 9th-century texts. In 1888 Giovanni Battista de Rossi established that the Codex was related to the Bibles mentioned by Bede. This also established that Amiatinus was related to the Greenleaf Bible fragment in the British Library. Although de Rossi's attribution removed 150 years from the age of the Codex, it remained the oldest version of the Vulgate.
As the primary source of the Vulgate, the manuscript was of particular importance to the Catholics during the Counter-Reformation. Protestant translations derived from the original language of the Scriptures, but the supposedly sixth-century Latin text of the Amiatinus was earlier than any then-known Hebrew manuscript, making it a "major piece of propaganda in the battle for textual precedence". In 1587 Pope Sixtus V demanded the book be sent to Rome where it was used as the principal source for a new papal edition of the Bible, the Vulgata Sixtina.
- List of New Testament Latin manuscripts
- Celt (tool) – a famous mistake in most Vulgates, not found in this copy
- Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament (Oxford University Press 2005), p. 106.
- H. J. White, The Codex Amiatinus and its Birthplace, in: Studia Biblica et Ecclesiasctica (Oxford 1890), Vol. II, p. 273.
- Richard Marsden, Amiatinus, Codex, in: Blackwell encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. Michael Lapidge,John Blair,Simon Keynes, Wiley-Blackwell, 2001, s. 31.
- Dom John Chapman, The Codex Amiatinus and the Codex grandior in: Notes on the early history of the Vulgate Gospels, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1908, pp. 2–8.
- De Hamel, p.64
- Chapman, John (1908). Notes on the early history of the Vulgate Gospels. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 2015-12-13.
- Chazelle, Celia (2003). "Ceolfrid's gift to St Peter: the first quire of the Codex Amiatinus and the evidence of its Roman destination". Early Medieval Europe. 12 (2): 129–157. doi:10.1111/j.0963-9462.2004.00124.x. ISSN 1468-0254. Retrieved 2015-12-04.
- Chazelle, Celia (2006). "Christ and the vision of God: the Biblical diagrams of the Codex Amiatinus". In Jeffrey F. Hamburger, Anne-Marie Bouché (eds.). The mind's eye: art and theological argument in the Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 84–111. ISBN 978-0-691-12475-9.
- Corsano, Karen (1987). "The First Quire of the Codex Amiatinus and the Institutiones of Cassiodorus". Scriptorium. 41 (1): 3–34. doi:10.3406/scrip.1987.1462. ISSN 0036-9772. Retrieved 2015-12-13.
- Meyvaert, Paul (1996). "Bede, Cassiodorus, and the Codex Amiatinus". Speculum. 71 (4): 827–883. doi:10.2307/2865722. ISSN 0038-7134. JSTOR 2865722.
- Meyvaert, Paul (2005). "The date of Bede's In Ezram and his image of Ezra in the Codex Amiatinus". Speculum. 80 (04): 1087–1133. doi:10.1017/S0038713400001366. ISSN 2040-8072. Retrieved 2015-12-04.
- Sanday, W. (1890). "On the Italian origin of the Codex Amiatinus and the localizing of Italian MSS.". Studia Biblica et ecclesiastica: essays chiefly in Biblical and patristic criticism. 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 309–324. Retrieved 2015-12-13.
- Tischendorf, Constantinus von (1850). Novum Testamentum Latine interprete Hieronymo: ex celeberrimo Codice Amiatino. Leipzig: Avenarius et Mendelssohn. Retrieved 2015-12-04.
- White, H.J. (1890). "The Codex Amiatinus and its birthplace". Studia Biblica et ecclesiastica: essays chiefly in Biblical and patristic criticism. 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 273–308. Retrieved 2015-12-13.
- The City and the Book: International Conference Proceedings, Florence, 2001.
- Alphabet and Bible: From the Margins to the Centre. Paper at Monte Amiata, 2009. http://www.florin.ms/AlphabetBible.html
- Makepeace, Maria. "The 1,300 year pilgrimage of the Codex Amiatinus". Umilta Website. Retrieved 2006-06-07. Contains link to facsimile project, as well.
- de Hamel, Christopher (2016). Meetings with Remarkable Manuscripts. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-241-00304-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Codex Amiatinus.|
- Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Amiat. 1, bibliography
- Image of the codex, folio 950
- David Dimbleby. "Age of Conquest". Seven Ages of Britain. 33:38 minutes in. BBC 1. Retrieved 21 Nov 2010.
- The Cambridge History of the Bible, Cambridge University Press 2008, pp. 117–119, 130.
- More information at Earlier Latin Manuscripts.