Codex Bezae

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Uncial 05
New Testament manuscript
A sample of the Greek text from the Codex Bezae
A sample of the Greek text from the Codex Bezae
TextGospels and Acts of Apostles
Datec. 400
ScriptGreek-Latin diglot
Now atUniversity of Cambridge
Size26 × 21.5 cm (10.2 × 8.5 in)
TypeWestern text-type

The Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis, designated by siglum Dea or 05 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering of New Testament manuscripts), δ 5 (in the von Soden of New Testament manuscript), is a codex of the New Testament dating from the 5th century written in an uncial hand on vellum. It contains, in both Greek and Latin, most of the four Gospels and Acts, with a small fragment of 3 John.

A digital facsimile of the codex is available from Cambridge University Library, which holds the manuscript.[1]


The codex contains 406 extant parchment leaves, from perhaps an original 534 (26 x 21.5 cm), written one column per page with the Greek text on the left face and the Latin text on the right.[2] The text is written colometrically and is full of hiatus. The Greek text of the codex has some copying errors, e.g., errors of metathesis: in John 1:3, ΕΓΕΝΕΤΟ (egeneto) was changed into ΕΝΕΓΕΤΟ (enegeto); in Acts 1:9, ΥΠΕΛΑΒΕΝ (hypelaben) into ΥΠΕΒΑΛΕΝ (hypebalen). The first three lines of each book are in red letters, and black and red ink alternate the title of books. As many as eleven correctors (G, A, C, B, D, E, H, F, J1, L, K) have amended the text of the manuscript between the sixth and twelfth centuries.[3]: 35–43, 123–163 

The following nomina sacra are written in an abbreviated form: ΙΗΣ (Ιησους, Iēsous 'Jesus'), ΧΡΣ (Χριστος, Christos 'Christ'), ΠΑΡ (πατηρ, patēr 'Father'), ΣΤΗ (σταυρωθη, staurōthē '[he] was crucified'). Other words which usually feature among the nomina sacra are written out in full: μητερ, υιος, σωτηρ, ανθρωπος, ουρανος, δαυιδ, Ισραηλ, Ιηρουσαλημ (mēter 'Mother', huios 'Son', sōter 'savior', anthrōpos 'man', ouranos 'sky', David, Israēl, Iērousalēm).[4]

Codex contents[edit]

The manuscript presents the gospels in the Western order Matthew, John, Luke and Mark, of which only Luke is complete; after some missing pages the manuscript picks up with the Third Epistle of John (in Latin) and contains part of Acts.[5]: xiv 

Matthew 1:1–20, 6:20–9:2, 27:2–12; John 1:16–3:26; Acts 8:29–10:14, 21:2–10, 21:16–18, 22:10–20, 22:29–end[5]: xiv–xv 
Omitted verses
Matthew 5:20; 5:30; 9:34; 10:37b; 10:41b; 21:44; 23:14
Mark 15:28
Luke 5:39; Luke 11:32; Luke 11:36; 12:21; 19:25; 23:34; 24:5; 24:12; 24:40
John 5:4
Supplementations (by a later hand)
Matthew 3:7–16; Mark 16:15–20; John 18:14–20:13[5]: xiv–xv 

Text type[edit]

The Greek text is unique, with many interpolations found in no other manuscript. It has several remarkable omissions, and a capricious tendency to rephrase sentences. Aside from this one Greek manuscript, the type of text is found in Old Latin (pre-Vulgate) versions — as seen in the Latin here — and in Syriac, and Armenian versions. Bezae is the principal Greek representative of the Western text-type.[6]: 73 

There is no consensus on the many problems the Greek text presents. Since the Latin text occasionally agrees with Codices Bobiensis and Vercellensis against all others, it "preserves an ancient form of the Old Latin", and is a witness to a text which was current no later than 250 CE.[6]: 103  Issues of conformity have dogged the usage of the codex in biblical scholarship. "In general the Greek text is treated as an unreliable witness," but it is "an important corroborating witness wherever it agrees with other early manuscripts."[7]

Some of the outstanding features: Matthew 16:2b–3 is present and not marked as doubtful or spurious. One of the longer endings of Mark is given. Luke 22:43f and Pericope de adultera are present and not marked as spurious or doubtful. John 5:4 is omitted, and the text of Acts is nearly 8% longer than the generally received text.

Acts in Codex Bezae differs quite considerably from other manuscripts, which some argue possibly represents an earlier version directly from Luke.[8]

Notable readings[edit]

John 3:26–4:1 (Greek text)

Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis contains some extraordinary readings.[9] Below is a selection of some of the more notable or unsupported readings, with text and translation.

Gospel of Matthew
Matthew 1:22
διὰ Ησαιου τοῦ προφήτου (through Isaiah the prophet) : D itmss vgmss syrs,(c),h,pal sams arm Diatessaronsyr Irenaeuslat
διὰ τοῦ προφήτου (through the prophet) : Majority Byz

Matthew 2:17

ὑπὸ κυριου διὰ Ἰερεμίου (by the LORD through Jeremiah) : D itaur
διὰ Ἰερεμίου (through Jeremiah) : א B C al
ὑπὸ Ἰερεμίου (by Jeremiah) : Majority Byz

Matthew 3:16

καταβαίνοντα ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὡς περιστερὰν (descending out of heaven like a dove) : D it vgmss syrh
καταβαῖνον ὡσεὶ περιστερὰν (deceding like a dove) : Majority Byz

Matthew 4:4

ἐκπορευομένῳ διὰ στόματος (proceeds out through the mouth)
Omit. : D ita, b, g1
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 5:4–5

Matt 5:5, 4: D 17. 33. 130. lat syrc Clement Origen Eusebius
Matt 5:4,5 : Majority Byz

Matthew 5:11

ψευδόμενοι (falsely)
Omit. : D b c d g1 h k syrs Tertullian Augustine
Incl. : Majority Byz
ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης (for the sake of righteousness) : D itmss
ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ (for my sake) : Majority Byz

Matthew 5:19

ὃς δʼ ἂν ποιήσῃ καὶ διδάξῃ, οὗτος μέγας κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν (but whoever will do [them] and should teach [them], the same will be called great in the kingdom of the heavens)
Omit. : D א* W boms
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 5:32

καὶ ὃς ἐὰν ἀπολελυμένην γαμήσῃ, μοιχᾶται (and whoever should marry her who is divorced, he commits adultery)
Omit. : D ita,b,d,k Origenmss
Incl. : Majority Byz
ὑπὲρ τῶν επηρεαζοντων υμας, καὶ διωκόντων ὑμᾶς : D L W Δ Θ 047 ƒ13 33. 118. 700. 892. Byz lat syrp, h,pal mae-1 goth Clement Eusebius
ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς : א B ƒ1 22 279 660* 1192 2786* itk syrs, c sa bo Irenaeuslat Origen Cyprian

Matthew 6:6

πρόσευξαι τῷ πατρί σου ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ (shut the door and pray to your Father in secret) : D ƒ1 ƒ13 700. syrs,c bomss
πρόσευξαι τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ (shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret) : Majority Byz

Matthew 6:8

ἀνοῖξαι τὸ στόμα (open your mouth) : D ith
αἰτῆσαι αὐτόν (ask him) : Majority Byz

Matthew 10:3

Λεββαῖος (Lebbaeus) : D itk,μ Origenlat
Θαδδαῖος (Thaddeus) : א B 124 788. 892. 2211. f13mss 17. 130. 892. itaur,c,ff1l vg sa bo
Λεββαῖος ὁ ἐπικληθεὶς Θαδδαῖος (Lebbaeus, called Thaddeus) : C2 L W X Δ Θ ƒ1 ƒ13mss 22. 33. 565. 579. 700. Byz itf syrp, h,pal arm
Judas Zelotes (Judas the Zealot) : ita,b,g1,h, q
omit. : syrs

Matthew 10:14

τῆς οἰκίας ἢ (that house or)
Omit. : D arm
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 10:18

ἐπὶ ἡγεμόνων σταθήσεσθε (you shall be caused to stand before governors)
Incl. : D 0171 itmss syrs
Omit. : Majority Byz

Matthew 10:19

δοθήσεται γὰρ ὑμῖν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ τί λαλήσητε (for it will be given to you in that hour what you should speak)
Omit. : D L itmss vgmss Epiphanius
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 11:3

ἐργαζόμενος (Are you the one who is to labor) : D*
ἐρχόμενος (Are you the one who is to come) : Majority Byz

Matthew 11:5

καὶ χωλοὶ περιπατοῦσιν (and the lame are walking)
Omit. : D
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 12:34

λαλεῖ ἀγαθὰ (speaks good) : D* itd
λαλεῖ (speaks) : Majority Byz

Matthew 13:14

Πορεύθητι, καὶ εἰπὲ τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ (Go, and tell the people this)
Incl. : D itmss mae-1 Eusebius
Omit. : Majority Byz

Matthew 13:33

ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς (he spoke to them)
Omit. : D itd,(k) syrs, c
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 13:49

κόσμου : (cosmos) D
αἰῶνος τούτου (this age) : N cosams,bo
αἰῶνος (age) : Majority Byz

Matthew 14:2

ὃν ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα (whom I beheaded)
Incl. : D ita,b,ff1,h vgmss
Omit. : Majority Byz

Matthew 14:3

Φιλίππου (of Philip)
Omit. : D itmss vgmss Augustine
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 14:8
ἐπὶ πίνακι (on a platter)

Omit. : D
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 15:26

οὐκ ἔξεστιν (it is not permitted) : D itmss syrs, c Origen
οὐκ ἐστιν (it is not) : 1293. Tertullian Eusebius
οὐκ καλὸν ἐστιν (right it is not) : 544. 1010. geo
οὐκ ἔστιν καλὸν (it is not right) : Majority Byz

Matthew 15:30

κωφούς (mute)
Omit. : D
Incl. : Majority Byz
ἐθεράπευσεν αὐτούς πάντας (and he healed them all) : D itmss sa boms
ἐθεράπευσεν αὐτούς (and he healed them) : Majority Byz

Matthew 15:32

μήποτε ἐκλυθῶσιν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ (lest they should faint in the way)
Omit. : D*
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 15:39

Μαγαδάν (Magadan) : א* B D
Μαγεδάν (Magedan) : א2 Δlat latmss syrs, c,(p) cosa Eusebius
Μαγδαλάν (Magdalan) : C N W 33. 565. 579. itq mae-1 cobo
Μαγδαλά (Magdala) : L Δgr Θ ƒ1 ƒ13 22 892. Byz syrh

Matthew 16:4

καὶ μοιχαλὶς (and adulterous)
Omit. : D itmss
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 16:16

ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ σῴζοντος (the son of the saving God) : D*
ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος (the son of the living God) : Majority Byz

Matthew 16:20

ἐπετίμησεν (rebuked) : D B* ite syrc Origenmss
διεστείλατο (ordered) : Majority Byz

Matthew 17:1

ὄρος ὑψηλὸν λίαν (very high mountain) : D Eusebius
ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατʼ ἰδίαν (high mountain by themselves) : Majority Byz

Matthew 17:2

λευκὰ ὡς χιών (white as snow) : D latmss syrc bomss
λευκὰ ὡς τὸ φῶς (white as the light) : Majority Byz

Matthew 17:12b

οὕτως καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου μέλλει πάσχειν ὑπʼ αὐτῶν (So also the Son of Man is about to suffer at their hands)
Incl. in 17:12 : Majority Byz
Place in 17:13 : D ita,b,c,d,e,ff1,ff2,g1,n,r1

Matthew 18:10

τῶν μικρῶν τούτων τῶν πιστευόντων εἰς ἐμέ (these little ones who believe in me) : D itmss vgmss syrc cosamss
τῶν μικρῶν τούτων (these little ones') : Majority Byz

Matthew 18:16

μαρτύρων (witnesses) : Majority Byz
omit : D

Matthew 18:18

omit: D* itn
ἔσται δεδεμένα ἐν οὐρανῷ, καὶ ὅσα ἐὰν λύσητε ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς (will be bound in heaven, and whatever you should loosen upon the earth) : Majority Byz

Matthew 19:25

ἐξεπλήσσοντο καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν σφόδρα (they were astonished and they were afraid exceedingly) : D itmss vgmss syrc
omit : Majority Byz

Matthew 19:29

ἢ πατέρα (or father)
Incl. : Majority Byz
Omit. : D
ἢ γυναῖκα (or wife)
Incl. : Majority Byz
Omit. : D

Matthew 20:28

ὑμεῖς δὲ ζητεῖτε ἐκ μικροῦ αὐξήσαι καὶ ἐκ μείζονος ἔλαττον εἶναι εἰσερχόμενοι δὲ καὶ παρακληθέντες δειπνῆσαι μὴ ἀνὰκλινεσθε εἷς τοὺς ἐξἔχοντας τόπους μήποτε ἐνδοξότερον σου ἐπέλθῃ καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ δειπνοκλήτωρ εἴπῃ σοι ἔτι κάτω χὼρει καὶ καταισχυνθήσῃ ἐὰν δὲ αναπεσής εἷς τόν ἥττονα τόπον καὶ ἐπέλθῃ σου ἥττων ἐρεῖ σοι ὁ δειπνοκλήτωρ σύναγε ἔτι ἄνω καὶ ἔσται σοι τοῦτο χρήσιμον But seek to increase from that which is small, and to become less from that which is greater. When you enter into a house and are summoned to dine, do not sit down at the prominent places, lest perchance a man more honorable than you come in afterwards, and he who invited you come and say to you, "Go down lower"; and you shall be ashamed. But if you sit down in the inferior place, and one inferior to you come in, then he that invited you will say to you, "Go up higher"; and this will be advantageous for you.[6]: 71 

Incl. : D Φ ita aur b cd e ff1 ff2(g1) h(m)n r1 r2 vgmss syr(c), pmshmg Juvencus Hilary
Omit. : Majority Byz

Matthew 21:44

Omit. : D 𝔓104 33 ita,b,d,e,ff1, ff2, r1 syrs Irenaeuslat Origen Eusebius
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 22:13

Ἄρατε αὐτόν ποδῶν καὶ χειρῶν καὶ Βάλετε αὐτόν εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον (Take him by his feet and his hands and cast him into the outer darkness) : D ita,b,c,d,e,ff1,ff2,h,q,r1 syrs, c Irenaeuslat Lucifer
Δήσαντες αὐτοῦ πόδας καὶ χεῖρας ἐκβάλετε αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον (After binding him by his feet and his hands, cast him into the outer darkness) : א B L Θ 085 ƒ1 22 700. 892. itaur,f,g1,l vg syrp co Didymus
Δήσαντες αὐτοῦ πόδας καὶ χεῖρας ἄρατε αὐτόν καὶ ἐκβάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον (After binding him by his feet and his hands, take and cast him into the outer darkness) : C (M) W Δ (Φ) 0102 33. (565.)(579.) (1241.) (1424.) Byz itf syr(h)
Βάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον (castpl [him] into the outer darkness) : ƒ13

Matthew 22:17

Εἰπέ οὖν ἡμῖν (Therefore, tell us)
Omit. : D ita,b,d,e,ff1,ff2,q,r1 syrs boms
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 22:24

τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ (his wife)
Omit. : D
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 22:46

ἐκείνης τῆς ὥρας (from that hour) : D W ƒ1 1506 ita,d,q syrs, c bomss Origen
ἐκείνης τῆς ἡμέρας (from that day) : Majority Byz

Matthew 23:26

καὶ τῆς παροψίδος (and the plate)
Omit. : D Θ ƒ1 2* 700. ita,d,e,ff2,r1 syrs Irenaeuslat Clement
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 23:34

καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν μαστιγώσετε ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς ὑμῶν (and of them, ye will scourge in your synagogues)
Omit. : D ita Lucifer
Incl. : Majority Byz

Matthew 24:31

ἀρχομένων δὲ τούτων γίνεσθαι ἀναβλέψατε καὶ ἐπάρατε τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑμῶν διότι ἐγγίζει ἡ ἀπολύτρωσις ὑμῶν (But when these things begin happening, look up and lift up your heads, because that your redemption is approaching)
Incl. : D 1093. itb,c,d,h,q,r1
Omit. : Majority Byz

Matthew 24:41

δύο ἐπὶ κλίνης μιᾶς εἷς παραλαμβάνεται καὶ εἷς ἀφίεται (two upon one bed; one taken, and one left)
Incl. : D ƒ13 itmss vgmss Origenmss
Omit. : Majority Byz
Gospel of Mark
Mark 1:6
καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ (and a leather belt roundabout his waist)
Omit. : D ita,b,d,ff2,r1,t vgms
Incl. : Majority Byz

Mark 1:7

κύψας (stoop)
Omit. : D Θ ƒ13 28.* 565. 844,2211 itmss
Incl. : Majority Byz

Mark 5:9

απεκριτη : D
λεγιων ονομα μοι : א B C L Δ
απεκριθη λεγων : E 565. 700.
λεγεων : A W Θ ƒ1 ƒ13 Byz[10]: 102 

Mark 10

Verse Order 23, 25, 24, 26 : D
Verse Order 23, 24, 25, 26 : Majority Byz[10]: 123 

Mark 13:2

και μετα τριων ημερων αλλος αναστησεται ανευ χειρων (and within three days another will arise without hands)
Incl. : D W ita,b,c,d,(e),ff2,i,(k),n,r1 Cyprian
Omit. : Majority Byz

Mark 15:34 (see Psalms 22:2)

ὠνείδισάς με (insult me) : D itc, (i), k syrh
ἐγκατέλιπές με (forsaken me) : א B Ψ 059. vg Ptolemy Justin Martyr Eusebius
με ἐγκατέλιπες (forsaken me) : Majority Byz
Gospel of Luke
Luke 4:17
ἁπτύξας (touched) : D*
ἀναπτύξας (unrolled) : א Dc K Δ Θ Π Ψ ƒ1 ƒ13 28. 565. 700. 1009. 1010. 1071. 1079. 1216. 1230. 1242. 1253. 1344. 1546. 1646. 2148. 2174. Byz
ἀνοίξας (opened) : A B L W Ξ 33. 892. 1195. 1241. 547 syrs, h,pal bo sa

Luke 6:5

τῇ αὐτῇ ἡμέρᾳ, θεασάμενός τινα ἐργαζόμενον τῷ σαββάτῳ, εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Ἄνθρωπε, εἰ μὲν οἴδας τί ποιεῖς, μακάριοις εἶ· εἰ δὲ μὴ οἴδας, ἐπικατάρατος καὶ παραβάτης εἶ τοῦ νόμου. (On that same day, seeing someone working on the Sabbath, he (Jesus) said to him, 'Man, if you know what you do, blessed are you; but if you do not know, you are cursed and a transgressor of the law.')
Incl. : D
Omit. : Majority Byz[11][5]: li 

Luke 7:1

και εγενετο οτε ετελεσεν ταυτα τα ρηματα λαλων ηλθεν : D (it syrh(mg)
επειδη επληρωσεν παντα τα ρηματα αυτου εις τας ακοας του λαου εισηλθεν : Majority Byz

Luke 7:2

δουλος (slave) : D
παις (boy servant): Majority Byz[10]: 175 

Luke 9:55–56

και ειπεν, Ουκ οιδατε ποιου πνευματος εστε (But He turned and rebuked them and He said: You do not know what manner of spirit you are of) : D ( 1127m) D geo Epiphanius
καὶ εἶπεν, Οὐκ οἰδατε οἵου πνεύματός ἐστε ὑμεῖς : Byz
Omit. : א A B C L Δ Ξ 28. 33. 71. 157. al

Luke 11:2

ἐφ ἡμᾶς ἐλθέτω σου ἡ βασιλεία (Let thine kingdom come upon us) : D
ἐλθέτω τὸ πνεῦμα σου τὸ ἄγιον εφ ημας και καθαρισατω ημας (May your Holy Spirit come upon us and cleanse us) : 162. 700.
ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου (May your kingdom come) : Byz
ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου (May your kingdom come) : C P W Δ ƒ13 1241
Omit. : geo

Luke 22:1

ηγγισεν : D Codex Regius
εγγιζεν : Majority Byz[10]: 232 

Luke 23:34

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔλεγεν πάτερ, ἄφες αὐτοῖς, οὐ γὰρ οἴδασιν τί ποιοῦσιν (Then Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they are doing")
Omit. : 𝔓75 אa B D W Θ 0124 31.* 38. 435. 597.* 1241. 1808.* ita,bc,d syrs co
Incl. : Majority Byz[12]

Luke 24:1

ἀρώματα (aromatics)
Omit. : D itmss syrs, c cosa
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:2

ἐλθοῦσαι δὲ εὗρον (Then, upon arriving, they found)
Omit. : D 070 itc sa
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:6

τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ (the Lord Jesus)
Omit. : D ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:6

οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε, ἀλλὰ ἠγέρθη
Omit. : D ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1 armmss geomss
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:7

ἁμαρτωλῶν (sinful)
Omit. : D ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:9

ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου (from the tomb)
Omit. : D ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1 arm geo
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:10

ἦσαν δὲ (Now they were)
Omit. : A D W Γ 788. 1241. mss itd,e syrs, c
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:17

καὶ ἐστάθησαν (and they stood still)
Omit. : D Cyril
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:36

καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς εἰρήνη ὑμῖν (and said to them, "Peace be unto you")
Omit. : D ita,b,e,ff2,l,r1
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:37

φαντασμα (phantasma) : D MarcionTert
πνευμα (spirit) : Majority Byz[10]: 245 

Luke 24:42

και απο μελισσιου κηριου (and honeycomb of the beehive)
Omit. : 𝔓75 א A B D L W P 579. 1079. 1377.* 2411. itd,e syrs sa bomss
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:46

ἐκ νεκρῶν (from the dead)
Omit. : D sa
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:49

τοῦ πατρός (my Father)
Omit. : D ite
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:51

καὶ ἀνεφέρετο εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν (and he was being uplifted into the sky)
Omit. : א* D ita,b,d,e,ff2,l
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:52

προσκυνήσαντες αὐτὸν (upon worshiping him)
Omit. : D ita,b,d,e,ff2,l syrs
Incl. : Majority Byz

Luke 24:53

αἰνοῦντες (praising) D ita,b,d,e,ff2,l,r1 vgmss
εὐλογοῦντες (eulogizing) 𝔓75 א B C* L syrs,pal sa bo geo
αἰνοῦντες καὶ εὐλογοῦντες (praising and eulogizing) A C2 W Δ Θ Ψ ƒ1 ƒ13 33 157 579 Byz itaur,c,f,q vgmss syrp,h arm
Gospel of John
John 1:4
ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἐστίν (in Him is life) : D א‎ it samss
ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ᾓν (in Him was life) : Majority Byz

John 4:51

υιος σου : Dgr
υιος αυτου : Dlat

John 4:9

οὐ γὰρ συγχρῶνται Ἰουδαῖοι Σαμαρίταις (for Jews have no dealings with Samaritans)
Omit. : D ita,b,d,e,j
Incl. : Majority Byz

John 5:39

καὶ ἐκεῖναί εἰσιν ἁμαρτάνουσαι περὶ ἐμοῦ· (and they are the ones who sin concerning Me) : D
καὶ ἐκεῖναί εἰσιν αἱ μαρτυροῦσαι περὶ ἐμοῦ· (and they testify concerning Me) : Majority Byz

John 6:1

της θαλασσης της Γαλιλαιας εις τα μερη της Τιβεριαδος : D Θ 892. 1009. 1230. 1253. itb,d,e
τῆς θαλάσσης τῆς Γαλιλαίας τῆς Τιβεριάδος : Majority Byz

John 7:8

εγω ουκ αναβαινω (I am not going) : א D K 1241.
εγω ουπω αναβαινω (I am not yet going) : B L T W Θ Ψ 0105 0180 0250 ƒ1 ƒ13 Byz[10]: 269 

John 8:46

Omit. : D
Incl. : Majority Byz

John 11:54

εἰς τὴν χώραν Σαμφουριν ἐγγὺς τῆς ἐρήμου (into the region of Sepphoris near the wilderness) : D
εἰς τὴν χώραν ἐγγὺς τῆς ἐρήμου (into the region near the wilderness) : Majority Byz[10]: 289 

John 12:8

Omit. : D
Incl. : Majority Byz

John 17:11

καὶ οὐκέτι εἰμὶ ἐν τῷ τούτῳ τῷ κόσμῳ (and no longer am I in this world) : D b c f ff2 q
καὶ οὐκέτι εἰμὶ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ (and no longer am I in the world) : Majority Byz
ουκετι ειμι εν τω κοσμω· και εν τω κοσμω ειμι (no longer am I in this world, and I am in the world)
Incl. : 𝔓107(vid) D (a c) r1
Omit. : Majority Byz

John 20:8

και ιδεν και ουκ επιστευσεν (and saw and did not believe) : D
και ιδεν και επιστευσεν (and saw and believed) : Majority Byz
Acts of the Apostles
Acts 20:28
του κυριου (of the Lord) : D 𝔓74 C* E Ψ 33. 36. 453. 945. 1739. 1891.
του θεοῦ (of God) : א B 614. 1175. 1505. vg syr boms; Cyprian
τοῦ κυρίου καὶ θεοῦ (of the Lord and of God) : Cc3 L 323 1241 Byz[10]: 384 
A sample of the Latin of the Codex Bezae


The place of origin of the codex is still disputed; both Gaul (current France) and southern Italy have been suggested.[13][3]: 261–276 

The manuscript is believed to have been repaired at Lyon in the ninth century, as revealed by a distinctive ink used for supplementary pages. It was closely guarded for many centuries in the monastic library of St Irenaeus at Lyon. The manuscript was consulted, perhaps in Italy, for disputed readings at the Council of Trent, and was at about the same time collated for Stephanus's edition of the Greek New Testament. During the upheavals of the Wars of Religion in the 16th century, when textual analysis had a new urgency among the Reformation's Protestants, the manuscript was stolen from the monastic library in Lyon when French Huguenots ransacked the library in 1562. It was delivered to the Protestant scholar Theodore Beza,[14] the friend and successor of Calvin, who gave it in 1581 to the University of Cambridge, in the comparative security of England, which accounts for its double name. It remains in the Cambridge University Library (Nn. II 41).[15][6]: 70–73 

John Mill collated and Johann Jakob Wettstein transcribed (1716) the text of the codex. Both did their editions of the Greek Testament, but both did their work carelessly. A much better collation was made about 1732 by John Dickinson.

The University of Cambridge in 1787 appointed Dr Thomas Kipling to edit a facsimile edition which appeared in two volumes in 1793.

The English cleric Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener edited the text of the codex in 1864 (rewritten text of the codex)[5] and in 1899 (photographic facsimile).

The importance of the Codex Bezae is such that a colloquium held at Lunel, Hérault, in the south of France on 27–30 June 1994 was entirely devoted to it.[16] Papers discussed the many questions it poses to our understanding of the use of the Gospels and Acts in early Christianity, and of the text of the New Testament.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Codex Bezae facsimile at the Cambridge Digital Library
  2. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
  3. ^ a b Parker, David C. (1992). Codex Bezae: An Early Christian Manuscript and its Text. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-07236-6.
  4. ^ Gregory, Caspar R. (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. Vol. 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 43. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d e Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1864). Bezae Codex Cantabrigiensis: Being an exact Copy, in ordinary Type, of the celebrated Uncial Graeco-Latin Manuscript of the Four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles. London: Bell and Daldy.
  6. ^ a b c d Metzger, Bruce Manning; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (4 ed.). New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516122-9.
  7. ^ Michael Marlowe. "Bible Researcher". Archived from the original on 14 August 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2004.
  8. ^ Wilson, J. M. (1923). The Acts of the Apostles, translated from the Codex Bezae with an Introduction on its Lucan origin and Importance. New York and Toronto: The Macmillan Co. ISBN 978-1-61097-123-2.
  9. ^ Epp, Eldon Jay (2005). The Theological Tendency of Codex Bezae Cantebrigiensis in Acts. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-521-02047-3.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Aland, Kurt; Black, Matthew; Martini, Carlo Maria; Metzger, Bruce M.; Wikgren, Allen, eds. (1981). Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece (26 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung. ISBN 3-438-051001. (NA26)
  11. ^ Perowne, John James Stewart (1893). Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges: The Gospel According to St. Luke. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, & Co. p. 179.
  12. ^ UBS4, p. 311
  13. ^ L. Neville Birdsall, The Geographical and Cultural Origin of Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis: A Survey of the Status Qyaestionnis, Mainly from Palaeographical Standpoint, in: Studien zum Text zur Ethik des Neuen Testaments: Festschrift zum 80. Geburtstag von Heinrich Greeven, ed. Wolfgang Schrage, Beihelfe zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 47 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 186), 102–114.
  14. ^ Knight, Kevin (2017). "Codex Bezae". New Advent. Retrieved 22 July 2018. Beza wrote in the letter accompanying his gift that the manuscript was obtained from the monastery of St. Irenæus in Lyons, during the war in 1562. Lyons was sacked by the Huguenots in that year and this manuscript was probably part of the loot. The reformer said it had lain in the monastery for long ages, neglected and covered with dust; but his statement is rejected by most modern scholars. It is claimed, in fact, that this codex is the one which was used at the Council of Trent in 1546 by William Dupré (English writers persist in calling this Frenchman a Prato), Bishop of Clermont in Auvergne, to confirm a Latin reading of John 21, si eum volo manere, which is found only in the Greek of this codex. Moreover, it is usually identified with Codex beta, whose peculiar readings were collated in 1546 for Stephens' edition of the Greek Testament by friends of his in Italy. Beza himself, after having first denominated his codex Lugdunensis, later called it Claromontanus, as if it came not from Lyons, but from Clermont (near Beauvais, not Clermont of Auvergne). All this, throwing Beza's original statement into doubt, indicates that the manuscript was in Italy in the middle of the sixteenth century, and has some bearing upon the locality of the production.
  15. ^ "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  16. ^ The story of the colloquium has been chronicled by one of the participants: J.-M. Auwers, "Le colloque international sur le Codex Bezae", Revue Théologique de Louvain 26 (1995), 405–412. See also: Codex Bezae, Studies from the Lunel Colloquium, ed. D.C. Parker & C.-B. Amphoux

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]