Codex Sangallensis 48

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Uncial 037
New Testament manuscript
The beginning of John
The beginning of John
Date9th century
Now atAbbey library of Saint Gall
Size23 cm by 18.5 cm
TypeAlexandrian / Byzantine

Codex Sangallensis, designated by Δ or 037 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering of New Testament manuscripts), ε76 (in the von Soden numbering of New Testament manuscripts), is a Greek-Latin diglot uncial manuscript of the four Gospels. Using the study of comparative writing styles (palaeography), it is usually dated to the 9th century CE, though a few palaeographers would place it in the 10th century CE.[1] It was given its current name by biblical scholar Johann Martin Augustin Scholz in 1830.[2]: 156 

The Latin text is written above the Greek text, interlinear style.


The manuscript is a codex (precursor to the modern book), containing a near complete text of the four Gospels on 198 parchment leaves (size 23 cm by 18.5 cm), with one missing section: John 19:17-35. The text is written in one column per page, 17-28 lines per page,[1] in large semi-uncial letters using brown and black ink.[3][4] The Latin text is written above the Greek (as in Codex Boernerianus), and in minuscule letters. It is decorated, but the decorations were made by an inartistic hand.[5]: 82  The manuscript from which Sangallensis was copied (known as its Vorlage/examplar) was likely written stichometrically.[2]: 158  Quotations from the Old Testament are indicated.[4]

The text is divided according to Ammonian Sections, whose numbers are given at the margin, with references to the Eusebian Canons (both early systems of dividing the four Gospels into different sections) in Roman letters written below the Ammonian Section numbers. The top of the pages contain the τιτλοι (titles of chapters).[3] It contains Prologues, the Epistle of Jerome to Pope Damasus I (a letter outlining Jerome's Latin translation of the Gospels), the Eusebian Canon Tables, and the tables of contents (known as κεφαλαια / kephalaia) before each gospel in both Greek and Latin.[3][4][2]: 157  Brief subscriptions are written after each gospel.[4]

The text of 7:16 was originally omitted but inserted by a later hand,[6]: 111  and 11:26 is omitted without being added later.[6]: 126  The Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:11) is omitted, but a blank space was left for the remainder of the 348th page. The texts of Matthew 16:2b-3 and John 5:4 are included without any indications of spuriousness, but Luke 22:43 is marked by asterisks to express doubt as to its inclusion.[4]


The Greek text is considered a representative of the Alexandrian text-type (similar to L) in the Gospel of Mark, but the Byzantine text-type in the rest of the gospels (as in Ψ).[5]: 82–83  The text-types are groups of different New Testament manuscripts which share specific or generally related readings, which then differ from each other group, and thus the conflicting readings can separate out the groups. These are then used to determine the original text as published; there are three main groups with names: Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine.[5]: 205–230  Biblical scholar Kurt Aland placed it in Category III of his New Testament manuscript classification system.[1] Category III manuscripts are described as having "a small but not a negligible proportion of early readings, with a considerable encroachment of [Byzantine] readings, and significant readings from other sources as yet unidentified."[1]: 335 

Some Textual variants

Matthew 1:12

Ζορομβαβαβελ - Δ
Ζοροβαβελ - All other witnesses[7]

Matthew 27:35

τὰ ἱμάτιά μου ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον - Δ Θ 0250 ƒ1 ƒ13 537 1424
omit - All other witnesses

Mark 4:19

η αγαπη του πλουτου (the love of wealth) - Δ
απαται του πλουτου - D Θ 565 it
απαται του κοσμου - W 1424 f
η απατη του πλουτου - All other witnesses[6]: 100 

Mark 9:49

πᾶς γὰρ πυρὶ ἁλισθήσεταιΔ B L W ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 260 syrs sa
πᾶς γὰρ πυρὶ ἁλισθήσεται καὶ πᾶσα θυσία ἁλὶ ἁλισθήσεται – All other witnesses

John 1:42

ἐμβλέψας δὲ (Then, having looked) - Δ 𝔓75 Θ ƒ13 33 892 1241. 1424 pm pc
ἐμβλέψας (Having looked) - 𝔓66 א A B K L Γ Ψ ƒ1 565 579 700 pm[6]: 250 

Latin text[edit]

The Latin version seems a mixture of the Vulgate with Old Latin Itala, and altered and accommodated to the Greek as to be of little critical value.

The interlinear Latin text of the codex is remarkable for its alternative readings in almost every verse, e.g. uxorem vel coniugem for την γυναικα in Matthew 1:20.[8]


The codex was written in the West, possibly in the St. Gallen monastery, by an Irish monk in the 9th century.[9] It can not be dated earlier, because it has a reference to the (heretical) opinions of Gottschalk at Luke 13:24 and John 12:40.

Siglum Δ was given to it by Scholz.[10]

It was examined by Martin Gerbert (1773), Scholz, Rettig, J. Rendel Harris, Oscar von Gebhardt. Rettig thought that Codex Sangallensis is a part of the same manuscript as Codex Boernerianus.[9]

The text of the codex was edited by H. C. M. Rettig in 1836, but with some mistakes (e.g. in Luke 21:32 οφθαλμους instead of αδελφους).[5]: 83  There are references made to the opinions of Gottschalk († 866) in Luke 13:24; John 12:40, and to Hand Aragon († 941).[9]

The codex is located in the Abbey library of St. Gallen (48) at St. Gallen.[1][11]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
  2. ^ a b c Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament. Vol. 1 (4th ed.). London: George Bell & Sons.
  3. ^ a b c Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments (in German). Vol. 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 86.
  4. ^ a b c d e Hatch, William Henry Paine (1939). The Principal Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament. Chicago: Chicago Univervisty Press. p. Plate LXV.
  5. ^ a b c d Metzger, Bruce Manning; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516122-X.
  6. ^ a b c d Aland, Kurt; Black, Matthew; Martini, Carlo Maria; Metzger, Bruce M.; Wikgren, Allen, eds. (1981). Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece (26 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung. ISBN 3-438-051001. (NA26)
  7. ^ Editio Octava Critica Maior, p. 3
  8. ^ F. H. A. Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, (George Bell & Sons: London, 1894), vol. 2, p. 51.
  9. ^ a b c C. R. Gregory, "Textkritik des Neuen Testaments", Leipzig 1900, vol. 1, p. 87.
  10. ^ H. C. M. Rettig, Ueber einen tausendjährigen noch nie verglichenen griechischen Evangeliencodex mit lateinischer Interlinearversion, Theologische Studien und Kritiken (1836), pp. 465-469.
  11. ^ "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013.

Further reading[edit]

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