Codex Veronensis

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Codex Veronensis

The Codex Veronensis, designated by the siglum b (used in the critical editions of Nestle-Åland and the UBS Greek New Testament) or 4 (in the Beuron system), is a 5th-century Latin manuscript of the four Gospels, written on vellum which has been dyed purple. The text is written in silver and occasionally gold ink, and is a version of the old Latin New Testament Gospels. The Gospels follow in the Western order.[1]


The manuscript is a codex (precursor to the modern book), containing the Latin text of the four Gospels written on purple parchment, with 1 column and 18 lines per page.[2]: 212  It has several missing sections (Matthew 1:1-11; 15:12-23; 23:18-27; John 7:44-8:12; Luke 19:26-21:29; Mark 13:9-19; 13:24-16:20).[3] On the several pages which are missing, they also include the pages which contained John 7:44-8:11. Space-considerations show that the missing pages included John 7:53-8:11, the passage known as the Pericope Adulterae.

Gold ink is used for the first page of each Gospel book, and all nomina sacra (special names/titles employed in early Christian writings and copies of the New Testament books) are also written in gold ink.[2]: 189 

In Luke 8:21 it reads αυτον instead of αυτους; the reading αυτον is supported by 𝔓75, and Minuscule 705.[4]

In John 1:34 reads ὁ ἐκλεκτός together with the manuscripts 𝔓5, 𝔓106, א, e, ff2, syrc, s.

In John 14:14 the entire verse is omitted along with manuscripts X f1 565 1009 1365 76 253 vgmss sys, p arm geo Diatessaron.[5]

The Latin text of the codex is a representative of the Western text-type in its European/Italian recension.[6] The codex is one of the principal witnesses to the Old Latin Text-Type I along with manuscripts Codex Corbeiensis II (VL8) and Codex Vindobonensis (VL17), although in John 1:1-10:13 it has a slightly earlier type of the Old Latin text.[2]

In biblical scholar Francis Crawford Burkitt's opinion, it represents the type of text that Jerome used as the basis of the Vulgate.[7]

The manuscript was examined by Giuseppe Bianchini in the mid-18th century. The text was edited by Bianchini, Belsheim,[8] and Jülicher.[1]

It was named Veronensis after Verona, the city where it was located.

It is currently located in the Chapter Library, at the Verona Cathedral (Biblioteca Capitolare della Cattedrale di Verona).[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Metzger, Bruce Manning (1977). The Early Versions of the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 296. ISBN 978-0198261704.
  2. ^ a b c Houghton, Hugh A. G. (2016). The Latin New Testament: A Guide to its Early History, Texts, and Manuscripts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-19-874473-3.
  3. ^ Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, Vol. 2 (fourth ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 45.
  4. ^ NA26, p. 181
  5. ^ UBS3, p. 390.
  6. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1902). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. Vol. 2. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs. p. 601.
  7. ^ a b Metzger, Bruce Manning; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-019-516667-5.
  8. ^ J. Belsheim, Codex Veronensis. Quattuor Evangelia (Prague, 1904).

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