3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||g·mol−1 423.472|
|Melting point||175 to 178 °C (347 to 352 °F; 448 to 451 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Coelenterazine is a luciferin, light-emitting molecules, found in many aquatic organisms across eight phyla. It is the substrate of many luciferases such as Renilla reniformis luciferase (Rluc), Gaussia luciferase (Gluc), and photoproteins, including aequorin, and obelin.
Coelenterazine was simultaneously isolated and characterized by two groups studying the luminescent organisms sea pansy (Renilla reniformis) and the cnidarian Aequorea victoria, respectively. Both groups unknowingly discovered that the same compound was used in both luminescent systems, however the name of the molecule was given after the now-obsolete phylum coelenterata. Likewise, the two main metabolites – coelenteramide and coelenteramine – were named after their respective functional groups. Despite being first discovered in Aequorea victoria, it was later shown that they do not synthesize coelenterazine, rather they obtain it through their diet, largely from crustaceans and copepods.
Coelenterazine is widely found in marine organisms including:
- cnidarians such as Aequorea victoria, Obelia geniculata and Renilla reniformis
- squid such as Watasenia scintillans and Vampyroteuthis infernalis
- shrimp such as Systellaspis debilis and Oplophorus gracilirostris
- copepods such as Pleuromamma xiphias and Gaussia princeps
- fish including some Neoscopelidae and Myctophidae
- echinoderms such as Amphiura filiformis
Coelenterazine can be crystallized into orange-yellow crystals. The molecule absorbs light in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum, with peak absorption at 435 nm in methanol, giving the molecule a yellow color. The molecule spontaneously oxidizes in aerobic conditions or in some organic solvents such as dimethylformamide and DMSO and is preferentially stored in methanol or with an inert gas.
Synthetic coelenterazine derivatives
To improve its biophysical properties, derivatives of coelenterazine have been synthesized by means of different procedures including multicomponent strategies.
- Shimomura, O. (2006). Bioluminescence: Chemical Principles and Methods. World Scientific Publishing. pp. 159–65. ISBN 978-981-256-801-4.
- Hori K, Charbonneau H, Hart RC & Cormier MJ (1977). "Structure of native Renilla reinformis luciferin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 74 (10): 4285–87. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.10.4285. PMC 431924. PMID 16592444.
- Shimomura O, Johnson FH (1975). "Chemical nature of bioluminescence systems in coelenterates". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 72 (4): 1546–49. doi:10.1073/pnas.72.4.1546. PMC 432574. PMID 236561.
- Haddock, SH; Rivers, TJ; Robison, BH (2001). "Can coelenterates make coelenterazine? Dietary requirement for luciferin in cnidarian bioluminescence". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (20): 11148–51. doi:10.1073/pnas.201329798. PMC 58698. PMID 11572972.
- Haddock SHD, Case JF (1994). "A bioluminescent chaetognath" (PDF). Nature. 367 (6460): 225–26. doi:10.1038/367225a0.
- Vece V.; Vuocolo G. (2015). "Multicomponent Synthesis of Novel Coelenterazine Derivatives Substituted at the C-3 Position". Tetrahedron. 71 (46): 8781–85. doi:10.1016/j.tet.2015.09.048.
- Bioluminescence Page showing major luciferin types