Bearing the surname indicates that one's patrilineal ancestors were priests in the Temple of Jerusalem. A single such priest was known as a Kohen, and the hereditary caste descending from these priests is collectively known as the Kohanim. As multiple languages were acquired through the Jewish diaspora, the surname acquired dozens of variants.
Some Kohanim have added a secondary appellation to their surname, so as to distinguish themselves from other Kohanim --- such as Cohen-Scali of Morocco, who trace their lineage to Zadok, and Cohen-Maghari (Meguri) of Yemen, who trace their lineage to the first ward, Jehoiariv, in the division of twenty-four priestly wards.
Being a Kohen imposes some limitations: by Jewish law a Kohen may not marry a divorced woman, and may not marry a proselyte (someone who converted to Judaism). Nor should an observant Kohen come into contact with the dead.
- Transliterated via Russian language
- Schreiber, Mordecai (2011). The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia. Taylor Trade Publications.
- Donin, Rabbi Haim Halevy (1972). To Be A Jew. A Guide to Jewish Observance in Contemporary Life. Basic Books. p. 198.
- Shlomo bar Yosef ha-Cohen Atzvan, Ma'alot Shlomo, Jerusalem 1985, p. 56 in PDF (Hebrew)
- Donin p.291
- Donin p.304
- Sources for the genetic studies are given in the article Y-chromosomal Aaron.
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