Coimbatore

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the city in Tamil Nadu, India. For its namesake district, see Coimbatore district.
Coimbatore
கோயம்புத்தூர்
Kovai
Metropolis
Clockwise from top: Avinashi Road, Perur Pateeswarar Temple, Victoria Town Hall, Sungam flyover, PSG College of Technology, Ukkadam Periyakulam Lake
Clockwise from top: Avinashi Road, Perur Pateeswarar Temple, Victoria Town Hall, Sungam flyover, PSG College of Technology, Ukkadam Periyakulam Lake
Nickname(s): Manchester of South India
Coimbatore is located in Tamil Nadu
Coimbatore
Coimbatore
Location of Coimbatore in India
Coordinates: 11°1′6″N 76°58′21″E / 11.01833°N 76.97250°E / 11.01833; 76.97250Coordinates: 11°1′6″N 76°58′21″E / 11.01833°N 76.97250°E / 11.01833; 76.97250
Country India India
State Tamil Nadu
Region Kongu Nadu
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body CCMC
 • Mayor Ganapathy P Rajkumar
 • Corporation Commissioner Dr K Vijay Karthikeyan, IAS
Area
 • Metropolis 246.75 km2 (95.27 sq mi)
 • Metro[1] 642.12 km2 (247.92 sq mi)
Area rank 2
Elevation 411.2 m (1,349.1 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Metropolis 2,151,466
 • Metro[1][2] 2,633,170
Demonym(s) Coimbatorean
Languages
 • Official Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 641XXX
STD Code +91-422
Vehicle registration TN 37 (South), TN 38 (North), TN 66 (Central), TN 99 (West)
Website www.ccmc.gov.in

Area Note 1: The pre expansion area of city limits was 105.6 sq.km. The 2010 expansion order added 12 local bodies and increased the total area to 265.36 sq.km. However in 2011, three of the local bodies were dropped from the expansion and two more added instead. Those removed were – Vellalore (16.64 sq.km), Chinniampalayam (9.27 sq.km) and Perur (6.40sq.km). Those added were – Vellakinar (9.20) and Chennavedampatti (4.5). So the actual area post expansion is 246.75 sq. km.[3][4][5][6]

Population Note 1: The census 2011 data is available only for pre expansion city limits.[7] For the expanded city limits only 2001 census data is available. Pre expansion the population was 930882.[4] After the 2010 expansion GO, the population became 1262122.[4] But after the small changes mentioned in the previous note were made, the 2001 population figure was 1250446.[3][8] However the 2011 census data for the urban agglomeration is available and has been provided.[7]

Coimbatore also known as Kovai, [koːʋəj] is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the second largest city and urban agglomeration in the state after Chennai[9] and the sixteenth largest urban agglomeration in India. It is administered by the Coimbatore Municipal Corporation and is the administrative capital of Coimbatore district. It is one of the fastest growing tier-II cities in India and a major textile, industrial, commercial, educational, information technology, healthcare and manufacturing hub of Tamil Nadu.[10] It is often referred to as the "Manchester of South India" due to its cotton production and textile industries.[11][12] Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies two thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of jewellery, wet grinders, poultry and auto components and the term "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a Geographical indication.[13][14][15] The city is located on the banks of Noyyal river surrounded by the Western Ghats.

Coimbatore was the capital city of the historical Kongu Nadu and was ruled by the Cheras as it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu.[16] Coimbatore was in the middle of the Roman trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu in South India.[17][18] The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE.[19][20] The region was ruled by Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century followed by the Nayaks who introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams.[21] In the later part of the 18th century, the Coimbatore region came under the Kingdom of Mysore and following the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed Coimbatore to the Madras Presidency in 1799. The Coimbatore region played a prominent role in the Second Poligar War (1801) when it was the area of operations of Dheeran Chinnamalai.[22] In 1804, Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed Coimbatore district and in 1866 it was accorded municipality status with Robert Stanes as its Chairman.[23][24][25] The city experienced a textile boom in the early 19th century due to the decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai.[26] Post independence, Coimbatore has seen rapid growth due to industrialisation.

Coimbatore was ranked the best emerging city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey.[27] The city has been ranked 4th among Indian cities in investment climate by CII[28] and ranked 17th among the top global outsourcing cities by Tholons.[29]

Etymology[edit]

There are multiple theories regarding the origin of the name. According to one theory, Coimbatore is a derivation of Kovanputhur (literally 'new town of Kovan'), after chieftain Kovan or Koyan, who ruled the region around the city. Kovanputhur evolved into Koyambatoor, which was anglicized as Coimbatore.[30] Another theory states that the name could have been derived from Koniamman. Koyamma, the goddess worshiped by Koyan evolved into Kovaiamma and later Koniamma.[31]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Coimbatore
The Sugarcane Breeding Institute at Coimbatore, 1928

The region around Coimbatore was ruled by the Sangam Cheras dyansty and it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu.[16] The Kossar tribe mentioned in the second century CE Tamil epic Silappathikaram and other poems in Sangam literature is associated with the Coimbatore region (Kongu Nadu).[32] The region was in the middle of a Roman trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu.[17][18] The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE. A Chola highway called Rajakesari Peruvazhi ran through the region.[19][20] Much of Tamil Nadu came under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire by the 15th century. In the 1550s, Madurai Nayaks who were the military governors of the Vijaynagara Empire took control of the region. After the Vijayanagara Empire fell in the 17th century, the Madurai Nayaks established their state as an independent kingdom. The Nayaks introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams.[21]

In the later part of the 18th century, the region came under the Kingdom of Mysore, following a series of wars with the Madurai Nayak Dynasty. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed Coimbatore to the Madras Presidency in 1799. The Coimbatore region played a prominent role in the Second Poligar War (1801) when it was the area of operations of Dheeran Chinnamalai.[22] In 1804, Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed Coimbatore district and in 1866 it was accorded municipality status.[23][24] Sir Robert Stanes became the first Chairman of the Coimbatore City Council.[25] The region was hard hit during the Great Famine of 1876–78 resulting in nearly 200,000 famine related fatalities. The city experienced an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.0 on the Richter scale on February 8, 1900.[33] The first three decades of the 20th century saw nearly 20,000 plague-related deaths and an acute water shortage.[34][35]

The city experienced an economical boom in the 1920s and 1930s due to the decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai.[26] The region played a significant role in the Indian independence movement.[36] Post independence, Coimbatore has seen rapid growth due to industrialisation and in 1981, Coimbatore was constituted as a corporation.[37] On February 14, 1998, the radical Islamist group Al Ummah bombed 11 places across the city killing 58 people and injuring more than 200.[38]

Geography[edit]

Western Ghats along the Coimbatore-Palghat National Highway

Coimbatore lies at 11°1′6″N 76°58′21″E / 11.01833°N 76.97250°E / 11.01833; 76.97250 in South India at 411 metres (1349 ft) above sea level on the banks of the Noyyal river, in south-western Tamil Nadu. It covers an area of 642.12 km2 (247.92 sq mi).[1] It is surrounded by the Western Ghats mountain range to the West and the North, with reserve forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve on the northern side.[39] The Noyyal River forms the southern boundary of the city.[40][41] The city sits amidst Noyyal's basin area and has an extensive tank system fed by the river and rainwater.[42] The eight major tanks and wetland areas of Coimbatore are namely, Singanallur, Valankulam, Ukkadam Periyakulam, Selvampathy, Narasampathi, Krishnampathi, Selvachinthamani, and Kumaraswami.[43] Multiple streams drain the waste water from the city.[40][44]

The city is divided into two distinctive regions: the dry eastern side which includes majority of the urban area of the city and the western region which borders the Nilgiris, Anaimalai and Munnar ranges. Palghat Gap, a mountain pass which connects the neighboring state of Kerala to Tamil Nadu lies to the west of the city. Because of its location in biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats, it is rich in fauna and flora. The Coimbatore urban wetlands harbors around 116 species of birds of which, 66 are resident, 17 are migratory and 33 are local migrants.[45] The spot-billed pelican, painted stork, openbill stork, ibis, spot-billed duck, teal and black-winged stilt visit the Coimbatore wetlands on their migration.[39] Apart from the species common to the plains, various threatened and endangered species such as Indian elephants, wild boars, leopards, Bengal tigers, gaurs, Nilgiri tahr, sloth bear and black-headed oriole are found in the region.[46]

The northern part of the city has a rich tropical evergreen forest with commercially significant trees such as teak, sandalwood, rosewood and bamboo. The soil is predominantly black, which is suitable for cotton cultivation, but some red loamy soil is also found. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, Coimbatore falls under the Class III/IV Seismic Zone, having experienced a 6.0 Richter scale earthquake in 1900.[33]

Climate[edit]

Coimbatore has a pleasant, salubrious climate due to its proximity to thickly forested mountain ranges and the cool breeze blowing through the Palghat gap which makes the consistently hot temperatures pleasant.[40] Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a tropical wet and dry climate, with the wet season being from October to December due to the northeast monsoon. Coimbatore is located at an elevation of about 411 meters.[39] The mean maximum and minimum temperatures varies between 35 °C (95 °F) and 18 °C (64 °F).[47] highest temperature ever recorded is 41 °C (106 °F) and lowest is 8 °C (46 °F).[48]

Due to the presence of the mountain pass, more elevated parts of the district benefit from the south-west monsoon in the months from June to August. After a warm, humid September, the main monsoon starts from October lasting till early November. These monsoons are brought about by the retreating monsoon. The average annual rainfall is around 700 mm (27.6 in) with the North East and the South West monsoons contributing to 47% and 28% respectively to the total rainfall.[47] This rainfall is not enough to sustain the needs of the city for the entire year and the shortage is made up through water supply schemes like Siruvani, Pilloor and Athikadavu.[49][50]

Climate data for Coimbatore (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.6
(96.1)
37.6
(99.7)
39.7
(103.5)
40.3
(104.5)
40.4
(104.7)
38.6
(101.5)
35.6
(96.1)
35.7
(96.3)
36.2
(97.2)
36.1
(97)
34.4
(93.9)
35.0
(95)
40.3
(104.5)
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
33.3
(91.9)
35.9
(96.6)
36.7
(98.1)
35.2
(95.4)
32.2
(90)
31.6
(88.9)
31.6
(88.9)
32.5
(90.5)
31.6
(88.9)
30.1
(86.2)
29.3
(84.7)
32.5
(90.5)
Average low °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
19.5
(67.1)
21.3
(70.3)
23.4
(74.1)
23.5
(74.3)
22.4
(72.3)
21.8
(71.2)
21.8
(71.2)
22.0
(71.6)
21.8
(71.2)
20.7
(69.3)
19.0
(66.2)
21.3
(70.3)
Record low °C (°F) 11.7
(53.1)
12.8
(55)
15.6
(60.1)
17.8
(64)
16.1
(61)
18.3
(64.9)
16.7
(62.1)
17.2
(63)
17.8
(64)
15.0
(59)
13.9
(57)
12.2
(54)
11.7
(53.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 5.4
(0.213)
13.0
(0.512)
15.1
(0.594)
48.0
(1.89)
71.2
(2.803)
27.4
(1.079)
35.5
(1.398)
35.5
(1.398)
74.3
(2.925)
123.1
(4.846)
122.2
(4.811)
46.0
(1.811)
606.0
(23.858)
Average rainy days 0.3 1.0 1.0 3.0 4.2 2.7 2.6 2.6 4.6 7.4 5.8 2.8 38.3
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[51][52]

Demographics[edit]

According to 2011 census, Coimbatore had a population of 1,050,721 with a sex-ratio of 997 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[55] A total of 102,069 were under the age of six, constituting 52,275 males and 49,794 females.The average literacy of the city was 82.43%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[55] There were a total of 425,115 workers, comprising 1,539 cultivators, 2,908 main agricultural labourers, 11,789 in house hold industries, 385,802 other workers, 23,077 marginal workers, 531 marginal cultivators, 500 marginal agricultural labourers, 1,169 marginal workers in household industries and 20,877 other marginal workers.[56]

As per the 2001 census,[57] Coimbatore had a population of 1,565,797 within Municipal Corporation limits.[3][4][8] The population of the urban agglomeration as per 2011 census is 2,151,466.[1] In the urban agglomeration, males constitute 50.08% of the population and females 49.92%. Coimbatore has an average literacy rate of 89.23%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. Male literacy is 93.17% and female literacy is 85.3% with 8.9% of the population under 6 years of age. The Sex ratio was 964 females per 1000 males.[58] In 2005, the crime rate in the city was 265.9 per 100,000 people, accounting for 1.2% of all crimes reported in major cities in India. It ranked 21st among 35 major cities in India in the incidence of crimes.[59] In 2011, the population density in the city was 10,052 per km2 (26,035 per mi2).[7]

The city's population is predominantly Hindu with minor Muslim population.[60] Christians, Sikhs and Jains are also present in small numbers.[8][61][62] Tamil is the official language and Kongu Tamil (also called Kangee), a dialect is predominantly spoken.[63] or "Kongalam"[64] Coimbatore also has a significant number of Kannadigas, Telugus,[65] Malayalis[66][67][68] and North Indians,[69] mainly Gujaratis,[70] who are engaged in trade and commerce. During the 1970s the city witnessed a population explosion as a result of migration fueled by increased economic growth and job opportunities.[54][71] Around 8% of the city's population lives in slums.[72]

Administration and politics[edit]

Corporation officials
Mayor
Ganapathy P. Rajkumar
Deputy Mayor
S. Leelavathiunni[73]
Commissioner
Dr K Vijay Karthikeyan, IAS [74]

Coimbatore is a Municipal corporation administered by the Coimbatore Municipal Corporation and is the administrative headquarters of Coimbatore District. Coimbatore was established as the capital of Coimbatore district in 1804 and in 1866 it was accorded municipality status.[23][24] In 1981, Coimbatore was elevated as a municipal corporation.[37] The city is divided into five administrative zones – East, West, North, South and Central, each further subdivided into 20 wards.[75] Each ward is represented by a councilor who is elected by direct election and the Mayor of Coimbatore is elected by Councillors. The executive wing of the corporation is headed by a Corporation Commissioner and maintains basic services like water supply, sewage and roads.[76][77] The district itself is administered by the District Collector and the district court in Coimbatore is the highest court of appeal in the district. The Coimbatore City Police is headed by a Commissioner and there are 18 police stations in the city.[78]

Race Course Road, Coimbatore

A large part of the Coimbatore urban agglomeration falls outside the Municipal corporation limits.[79] These suburbs are governed by local bodies called Village Panchayats and Town Panchayats.[80] Besides the Coimbatore Municipal Corporation, the Coimbatore UA comprises the town panchayats of Vellalur, Irugur, Sulur, Pallapalayam, Kannampalayam, Veerapandi, Periyanaickenpalayam, Narasimhanaickenpalayam, Idikarai, Vedapatti, Perur, Madukkarai, Ettimadai, Thondamuthur, Uliyampalayam, Thirumalayampalayam, Othakalmandapam, Chettipalayam, Alanthurai, Pooluvapatti, Thenkarai, Karumathampatti, Sarcarsamakulam, Mopperipalayam and Gudalur and census towns of Ashokapuram, Kurudampalayam, Malumichampatti, Selvapuram, Chettipalayam, Sulur, Chinniampalayam, Somayampalayam, Muthugoundan Pudur, Arasur, Kaniyur and Neelambur[2] These local bodies are in turn split into wards each electing a councillor through direct election. The head of the local body known as president[81] is elected by the councillors from among their number.[77]

Coimbatore elects ten members to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and one member to the Indian Parliament. The five legislative assembly constituencies in the city are Coimbatore North, Coimbatore South, Kaundampalayam, Singanallur and Sulur. All five are part of the Coimbatore Parliamentary Constituency. Till 2009, there were only four assembly constituencies in Coimbatore – Coimbatore East, Coimbatore West, Singanallur, and Perur. Also about 20% of the urban agglomeration came under the Nilgiris constituency which runs into the northern part of the city and about 10% came under the Pollachi constituency. In the Indian general election held in 2014, AIADMK candidate A.P. Nagarajan defeated C. P. Radhakrishnan of the BJP in the Coimbatore Lok Sabha constituency.[82] In the last legislative assembly election held in 2011, the AIADMK led front won in all five assembly constituencies.[83]

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Coimbatore
Lakshmi Mills was one of the earliest textile mills in Coimbatore
Tidel Park, one of the largest IT parks in the state
CODISSIA Trade Centre, Coimbatore

Coimbatore houses more than 25,000 small, medium and large industries with the city's primary industries being engineering and textiles. Coimbatore is called the "Manchester of South India" due to its extensive textile industry, fed by the surrounding cotton fields.[84][85] The city has two special economic zones (SEZ), the Coimbatore Hi-Tech Infrastructure (CHIL) SEZ at Saravanampatti and the TIDEL Park near Peelamedu, and at least five more SEZs are in the pipeline.[86][87] As of 2006-07, before the bifurcation of Tirupur district, Coimbatore was the highest revenue earning district in Tamil Nadu.[88] In 2010, Coimbatore ranked 15th in the list of most competitive (by business environment) Indian cities.[89]

Coimbatore region experienced a textile boom in the 1920s and 1930s.[26] Though, Robert Stanes had established Coimbatore's first textile mills as early as the late 19th century, it was during this period that Coimbatore emerged as a prominent industrial center. Coimbatore has trade associations such as CODISSIA, COINDIA, SITRA and COJEWEL representing industries in the city. Coimbatore also has a 160,000 square feet (15,000 m2) trade fair ground, built in 1999. It was named COINTEC due to its hosting of INTEC (Small Industries Exhibition). The Trade Fair complex, one of the country's largest, was built in six months, and is owned by CODISSIA (Coimbatore District Small Industries Association).[90] It is also the country's largest pillar-free hall, according to the Limca Book of Records.[91] Coimbatore houses a large number of medium and large textile mills. It also has central textile research institutes like the Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) and Sardar Vallabhai Patel International School of Textiles and Management. The South Indian Textiles Research Association (SITRA) is also based in Coimbatore. The city also houses two of the Centers of Excellences (COE) for technical textiles proposed by Government of India, namely Meditech, a medical textile research centre based at SITRA, and InduTech based in PSG College of Engineering and Technology.[92] The neighbouring city of Tirupur is home to some of Asia’s largest garment manufacturing companies, exporting hosiery clothes worth more than 50,000 million.

The city is the second largest software producer in Tamil Nadu, next only to Chennai. IT and BPO industry in the city has grown greatly with the launch of TIDEL park and other planned IT parks in and around the city. It is ranked at 17th among the global outsourcing cities.[29] Companies like Tata Consultancy Services, Cognizant Technology Solutions, IBM, Robert Bosch GmbH, Ford, Cameron International Corporation, Dell, Wipro, HCL are having a presence in the city. Coimbatore is already the second largest hub in India for Cognizant Technology Solutions as it employs around 5000 people in its Coimbatore centre and is planning to double its capacity here.[93] Software exports stood at 710.66 Crores (7.1 billion) for the financial year 2009–10 up 90% from the previous year.[94] Apart from this, there are also lots of healthcare BPOs (Medical Transcription, Coding and Billing) in and around Coimbatore serving the US Healthcare industry. Coimbatore has a large and a diversified manufacturing sector facilitated by the presence of research institutes like Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, SITRA and large number of engineering colleges producing about 50,000 engineers annually.[95]

Coimbatore is one of major manufacturers of automotive components in India with car manufacturers Maruti Udyog and Tata Motors sourcing up to 30% of their automotive components from the city. G.D. Naidu developed India's first indigenous motor in 1937.[96][97] India's first indigenously developed diesel engines for cars was manufactured in the city in 1972.[15] The city also has a number of tier-I, II and III suppliers catering to the needs of the entire gamut of the automobile industry, ranging from two-wheelers and four-wheelers to commercial vehicles and tractors.[98] Coimbatore has more than 700 wet grinder manufacturers with a monthly output 75,000 units as of March, 2005 [99] and the term "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a Geographical indication.[15][100]

Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies two thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps.[15] The city is one of the largest exporters of jewellery[13] renowned for making cast jewellery and machine made jewellery . It is also a major diamond cutting center in South India.[101][102][103][104] The city is home to about 3000 jewellery manufacturing companies and to over 40,000 goldsmiths.[105][106][107]

Coimbatore has a large number of poultry farms and is one of the major producers of chicken eggs and processed meat amounting to nearly 95% of the chicken meat exports from the country.[14] Coimbatore has some of the oldest flour mills in India. The large scale flour mills, which cater to all the southern states, have a combined grinding capacity of more than 50,000 MT per month. In the recent years, the city has seen growth in the hospitality industry with more upscale hotels being set up.[108][109][110][111][112] Coimbatore is the largest non-metro city for e-commerce in South India.[113]

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Coimbatore

Coimbatore and its people have a reputation for entrepreneurship.[114][115] Though it is generally considered a traditional city, Coimbatore is more diverse and cosmopolitan than other cities in Tamil Nadu.[69][114] The city conducts its own music festival every year.[116] Art, dance and music concerts are held annually during the months of September and December (Tamil calendar month – Margazhi).[117] The World Classical Tamil Conference 2010 was held in Coimbatore.[118][119] The heavy industrialisation of the city has also resulted in the growth of trade unions.[120]

Religion[edit]

The city's population is predominantly Hindu with minor Muslim population. Christians, Sikhs and Jains are also present in small numbers. There are numerous Hindu temples in and around the city including the Perur Patteeswarar Temple, Naga Sai Mandir, Konniamman temple, Thandu Mariamman temple, Vazhai Thottathu Ayyan temple, ISKCON Temple, Eachanari Vinayagar Temple, Karamadai temple, Marudamalai Murugan temple, Loga Nayaga Shani Eswaran shrine, Ashtamsa Varadha Anjaneyar Temple, Panchamuga Anjaneya temple, Anuvavi Subramaniar Temple and Dhyanalinga Yogic Temple.[121] The Mariamman festivals, at the city’s numerous Amman temples, are major events in summer.[122]

The mosques on Oppanakara Street and Big Bazaar Street date back to the period of Hyder Ali.[123] Christian missions date back to 1647 when permission was granted by the Nayak rulers to set up a small church in Karumathampatti 12 km (7.5 mi). Sikh Gurudwaras and Jain Temples are also present in Coimbatore.

Media and communication[edit]

Main article: Media in Coimbatore

Four major English newspapers The Hindu,The Times of India, Deccan Chronicle and The New Indian Express bring out editions from the city. Business Line, a business newspaper also brings out a Coimbatore edition. Tamil newspapers which have Coimbatore editions include Dina Malar, Dina Thanthi, Dina Mani, Dinakaran (all morning newspapers) and Tamil Murasu and Malai Malar (both evening newspapers). Two Malayalam newspapers – Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi also have considerable circulation in the city.

A Medium wave radio station is operated by All India Radio, with most programs in Tamil, English and Hindi. Five FM radio stations operate from Coimbatore – Rainbow FM from All India Radio, Suryan FM[124] from Sun Network,[125] Radio Mirchi,[126] Radio City, and Hello FM.[127][128] All these private radio stations air exclusively Tamil based programs, including film music. The range of these stations cover Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Erode and Nilgiri districts of Tamil Nadu and Palakkad and Wayanad districts of Kerala. Television relay started in 1985 from Delhi Doordarshan. In 1986, after inception of a repeater tower at Kodaikanal, telecast from Madras Doordarshan commenced. The people of Coimbatore witnessed the 1980 Olympics and 1983 Cricket World Cup on a giant screen in VOC Park when the city-based UMS developed a dish antenna for satellite signal reception. Currently television reception is through DTH or by cable, while Doordarshan reception is still available using an external antenna. In 2005, Doordarshan opened its studio in Coimbatore.[129]

Coimbatore has a well connected communications infrastructure. Till the 1990s the state owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) was the only telecommunition service provider in the city. In the 1990s, private telecom companies too started offering their services. Currently besides BSNL, fixed line telephone services are offered by Reliance Communications and Bharti Airtel. Dial up internet connections were first introduced (by HCL and BPL) in 1996 and broadband internet (by BSNL) in 2005. As of 2010, BSNL, Reliance Communications, Bharti Airtel, Tata Teleservices all offer broadband service through fixed lines and mobiles; MTS offers mobile broadband alone.[130] Cellular telephony was first introduced in 1997.[131] Coimbatore is the headquarters of the Tamil Nadu circle of cellular service providers. The telecom company Aircel is headquartered in the city.[132] Mobile telephone services available in the city include both CDMA and GSM connections.

Coimbatore is home to some of the oldest film studios in South India. Swamikannu Vincent, a film exhibitor, set up the first movie studios in the city.[133] Rangaswamy Naidu established the Central Studios in 1935 while S. M. Sriramulu Naidu set up the Pakshiraja Studios in 1945.[134]

Cuisine[edit]

See also: Tamil cuisine

Coimbatore cuisine is predominantly south Indian with rice as its base. However, the population of Coimbatore is multi-cultural due to the influx of migrant population from various regions of the country. Most locals still retain their rural flavour, with many restaurants serving food over a banana leaf. North Indian, Chinese and continental cuisines are also available. Mysore pak (a sweet made from lentil flour and ghee), idly, dosa, Halwa (a sweet made of different ingredients like milk, wheat, rice). The Annapoorna Gowrishankar Hotels are known for its unique taste of Sambar. Biryani is also popular among the locals. Apart from this Coimbatore has a very active street food culture, thanks to the migratory North Indian population that settled down here a few generation ago. Kaalaan is a dish that originated in Coimbatore and is prepared by simmering deep fried mushrooms (usually chopped mushroom) in a spicy broth, until it reaches a porridge like consistency and served sprinkled with chopped onions and coriander leaves.

Transport[edit]

Mettupalayam Road Bus Station, all north bound buses towards Nilgiris district start from here
A intra city bus operated by Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation
Coimbatore North flyover
Sungam bypass flyover above Ukkadam-Valankulam Lake

Air[edit]

The city is served by the Coimbatore International Airport at Peelamedu 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city and an air-force base at Sulur 23 km (14 mi). The Coimbatore International Airport caters to domestic flights to major Indian cities like Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Vijayawada etc., and international flights to Sharjah and Singapore. According to statistics available with the AAI, 12,95,977 passengers were flown from and to Coimbatore in 2013-14, including 11,76,428 domestic and 1,19,549 international passengers.[135] Its runway is 9,760 feet (2,970 m) in length and is capable of handling wide-bodied and "fat-bellied" aircraft used for international flights.[136] Sulur Air Force Station, located at Kangayampalayam near the periphery of the city, is an air base of the Indian Air Force. Air Carnival, a proposed airline promoted by the CMC group is expected to commence operations in April 2015 with the Coimbatore International Airport as the hub.[137]

Rail[edit]

Train service in Coimbatore started in 1863, upon construction of the PodanurMadras line connecting Kerala and the west coast with the rest of India.[40] Broad gauge trains connect Coimbatore to all parts of India and Tamil Nadu. Meter gauge line existed between Podanur and Dindigul got closed on May 2009 and is under gauge conversion. The Coimbatore Junction is well connected to all the major Indian cities. The Coimbatore Junction comes under the Jurisdiction of the Salem Division and contributes 43.5% of its divisional income. This is the second largest income generating station in the Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways after Chennai Central. Coimbatore North Junction is another important railway junction in the city apart from Coimbatore Junction and Podanur Junction. The other stations include Peelamedu, Singanallur, Irugur, Perianaikanpalayam, Madukkarai, Somanur and Sulur Road. There is also a bypass line between Irugur and Podanur which is used by some Kerala-bound trains which do not enter Coimbatore city.

Monorail[edit]

Main article: Coimbatore Monorail

Three monorail routes have been proposed. Two circular routes, in the northern and southern parts of the city and a dual linear line connecting the Eastern and Western parts. The Northern Route starts from Gandhipuram via Ganapathy, Sivanandha colony, Saibaba colony, RS Puram, Townhall, City Railway Station and ends in Gandhipuram. The second circular Route starts from Podanur via Trichy Road, Sungam, Redfields, Race Course, City Railway Station, Ukkadam and ends at Podanur. A linear line was also proposed from Chinniampalayam, Coimbatore International Airport, CODISSIA, PSG Tech, Lakshmi Mills, Gandhipuram, Coimbatore North Junction, Cowley Brown Road and TNAU. Recently Vadavalli and Thondamuthur are the two new areas that has been included in the linear line as part of the phase extension.[138][139]

Road[edit]

There are six major arterial roads in the city: Avinashi Road, Trichy Road, Sathyamangalam Road, Mettupalayam Road, Palakkad Road and Pollachi Road. There are three National Highways passing through the city:

Apart from state and National Highways, the city corporation maintains a 635.32 kilometres (394.77 miles) long road network.[40] Coimbatore has several major bus stations. The town buses (intra-city) operate from the town bus stand in Gandhipuram to other bus stations across the city. Inter-city and intra-city buses that connect Coimbatore operate from different bus stands:

Bus station Services
Gandhipuram Central Tirupur, Erode, Salem, Gobichettipalayam, Sathyamangalam, Mettur dam etc.
Gandhipuram Town Town services
Singanallur Madurai, Tirunelveli, Trichy, Thanjavur, Kumbakonam etc.
Ukkadam Palakkad, Palani, Pollachi, Udumalpet etc.
Coimbatore North (Mettupalayam Road) Mettupalayam, Ooty, Mysore etc.[140][141][142]
SETC, Gandhipuram Express buses to Chennai, Ernakulam, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Tirupati, Puducherry, Thiruvananthapuram etc.
Omni Bus Stand, Gandhipuram Private mofussil buses.[143]

Town buses started operating in 1921 and serve most parts of the city, as well as other towns and villages in the district. Buses also connect the district with all major towns in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh. The number of inter-city routes operated by Coimbatore division is 119 with a fleet of more than 500 buses.[144] It also operates town buses on 257 intra-city routes.[145] The city is also served by auto rickshaws and radio taxi services.[146]

Education[edit]

PSG College of Technology in Peelamedu, Coimbatore

Coimbatore is an educational hub of south India. As of 2010, the Coimbatore district is home to 7 universities, 78 engineering colleges, 3 medical colleges, 2 dental colleges, 35 polytechnics Colleges and more than 150 Arts and Science Colleges and a large number of schools.[147][148][149] The city has reputed universities like Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (est. 1971), Bharathiar University (1982), Anna University Coimbatore (2007) and Avinashilingam university (1987).[150] The city also houses research institutes like Central Institute for Cotton Research, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding (IFGTB), Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and Tamil Nadu Institute of Urban Studies.[151] There are also plans to establish a world class university in the region and to convert the Government Arts college into a unitary type university.[152][153]

The first college opened in Coimbatore was the Government Arts College (1875–76).[154] The forest college and research institute was opened in 1916. The first engineering college in the city was started by G.D. Naidu as the Arthur Hope College of Technology in 1945. Later it became the Government College of Technology, Coimbatore. PSG College of Technology was established later in 1951. The Air Force Administrative College was established in 1949 to train Indian Air Force personnel. Coimbatore Institute of Technology (CIT) was started in the 1950s. Coimbatore Medical College was opened in 1966 and the Government law college started functioning from 1978. The agricultural school established in 1868 was converted into a full-fledged agricultural university (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University) in 1971 and the Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History was opened in 1990. Several private engineering and arts & science colleges were started during the education boom in the 1990s.

In 1867, the first group of students appeared for the SSLC Examinations from Coimbatore. Presently there are three types of schools in Coimbatore – 1) government run schools (corporation schools) 2) schools funded by the government but run by private trusts (aided schools) and 3) schools funded and administered by private trusts. They are classified as Tamil Nadu Anglo Indian School Board, Tamil Nadu State Board, Matriculation and CBSE schools according to the syllabus taught in them. The Coimbatore Education District (not the same as the revenue district) is the unit of administration for education in the city. In 2010, the number of students who wrote the SSLC (Standard 10) and Higher Secondary (Standard 12) examinations was both around 30,000.[155][156] The literacy rate in the city is 80%.[40]

Welfare[edit]

Healthcare[edit]

The size of the Coimbatore health care industry has been estimated as 1500 Crore (150 million) in 2010.[157] There are nearly 750 hospitals in and around Coimbatore with a capacity of 5000 beds.[158] The first health care centre in the city was started in 1909. In 1969, it was upgraded to Coimbatore Medical College Hospital (CMCH). It is a government run hospital with a bed strength of 1020 and provides free health care.[159] Including the CMCH, corporation maintains 16 dispensaries and 2 maternity homes.[40] The city also has many large multi-facility private hospitals like the PSG Hospitals, Kovai Medical Center and Hospital (KMCH), KG Hospital, Coimbatore Kidney Centre, G. Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital(GKNM), Sri Ramakrishna Hospital, Sheela Hospital, Kongunadu Hospital, Gem Hospital, Ganga Hospital, Aravind Eye Hospital, Sankara Netralaya, Sankara Eye Centre, Lotus Eye Hospital, Ashwin Hospital, Vikram ENT Hospital, Sheela Hospital, Coimbatore Cancer Foundation, G. P. Hospital, Dr Muthus Hospital, Diabetes Care and Research Centre. The city is also a major centre for medical tourism.[160][161][162] The city remains the preferred healthcare destination for people from nearby districts and also from the neighboring state of Kerala.[163]

Sports[edit]

A typical raceday scene at Kari Motor Speedway
Cross-cut road in Gandhipuram, one of the largest shopping hubs in Coimbatore

Motor sports plays a large part in the city, with Coimbatore often referred to as the "Motor sports Capital of India" and the "Backyard of Indian Motorsports".[164] S.Karivardhan spearheaded motor racing in the city making Coimbatore the country's motor racing hub when he designed and built entry level race cars. Kari Motor Speedway is a Formula 3 Category circuit where formula cars manufacturers and FIA member motorsport associations conduct championship races and rallies.[165] Tyre manufacturer MRF assembles Formula Ford cars in Coimbatore in association with former F3 Champion J.Anand and racing company Super Speeds designs Formula cars.[166] Rallying is another major event with all teams based in Coimbatore and rallies conducted in closed roads around Coimbatore. Narain Karthikeyan, India's first Formula One driver hails from the city. Other motorsport drivers from Coimbatore include J. Anand and V. R. Naren Kumar.[167][168]

Nehru Stadium, built originally for football also hosts athletic meets. The stadium has been renovated with Korean grass for the field and a synthetic track around it for athletics.[169] Apart from the stadium, the city also has several sports clubs including Coimbatore Golf Club, home to a major 18-hole golf course [170] and Coimbatore Cosmopolitan Club, which is more than 100 years old,[171] was founded for Indian members only, in response to the English Coimbatore Club which did not admit Indians until the 1950s. Coimbatore Flying Club is located in the Coimbatore airport premises.[172] The city hosts its own annual marathon called Coimbatore Marathon as an event to raise cancer awareness.[173] Retired tennis player Nirupama Vaidyanathan, who became the first Indian woman in the modern era to feature and win a round at a main draw Grand Slam, beating Italy's Gloria Pizzichini in 1998 Australian Open hails from Coimbatore.[174]

Recreation[edit]

Swamikannu Vincent built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore and introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films.[175] Coimbatore also houses a number of museums and art galleries like G.D. Naidu Museum & Industrial Exhibition, H A Gass Forest Museum, Government Museum, Kadhi Gandhi Gallery and Kasthuri Srinivasan Art Gallery and Textile Museum.[176][177][178][179]

There are several amusement parks in and around the city namely, Black Thunder water theme park near Mettupalayam, Kovai Kondattam amusement park at Perur and Maharaja Theme Park at Nillambur. [180] Since the 1980s, the city has had a few small shopping complexes.[181] Lately, malls have come up including Brookefields Mall and Fun Republic Mall.[182] The city also has a number of parks including VOC park, the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University park, Race Course children's park, Bharathi park in Saibaba Colony and many more parks. Coimbatore Zoo houses a number of animals and birds and is located near VOC park.[183] Singanallur lake is a popular tourist place and bird watcher destination.[184] Though there are a lot of entertainment centres mushrooming in the city, visiting the cinema still remains the city's most popular recreational activity.[185]

Environmental issues[edit]

Air pollution, lack of proper waste management infrastructure and degradation of water bodies are the major environmental issues in Coimbatore. Coimbatore has no proper underground drainage or sewage system. There is a sewage treatment plant at Ukkadam in operation with the capacity to process 70 mld of sewage water of which 20 mld is the current treating level.[186][187] Garbage is collected by the Corporation[188] and sometimes by systems developed by the local residents. Sewage is pumped into the water tanks and the Noyyal through streams. This along with garbage dumping and encroachments has led to degradation of the water bodies and depletion in the groundwater table.[189][190][191] The tanks are renovated by the city's environmental groups with their own fund-raising and the corporation.[192][193] Siruthuli,[194] an environmental organisation founded by the city's industrial houses, undertakes de-silting of tanks and cleaning of the Noyyal river.[195] The corporation is also taking efforts to clear encroachment of the tanks.[196][197]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Coimbatore has sister city relationships with the following cities of the world.

Country City State / Region Since
United States United States Toledo[198][199] Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio 2010

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Major Agglomerations" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2015. 
  2. ^ a b and municipalities of Kuniyamuthur, Kurichi and Goundampalayam. "Constituents of Urban Agglomeration, Census 2011" (PDF). Census of India. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c Karthik Madhavan (19 July 2011). "Slim chances for 3 local bodies to be a part of Corporation". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Tamil Nadu GO N0 219" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  5. ^ "Coimbatore set for expansive development". Hindu.com. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  6. ^ "Area, Population and Density of Cities and Towns of India – 2001". Docstoc.com. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c This is the population of the city limits prior to 2011 expansion"Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c "Primary Census Abstract – Census 2001". Directorate of Census Operations – Tamil Nadu. Government of Tamil Nadu. 2001. Retrieved 14 June 2010. 
  9. ^ "Tamil Nādu (India): State, Major Cities, Towns & Agglomerations - Statistics & Maps on City Population". Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  10. ^ "Indian Government press release". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  11. ^ "Nicknames of places in India". Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  12. ^ "Manchester of South India". The Indian Express. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  13. ^ a b "India's Gems and Jewellery Market is Glittering". Resource Investor. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  14. ^ a b "Tamil Nadu Poultry Industry Seeks Export Concessions". Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Industry of Coimbatore". Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  16. ^ a b Subramanian, T. S (28 January 2007). "Roman connection in Tamil Nadu". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  17. ^ a b "Kovai’s Roman connection". The Hindu. 8 January 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  18. ^ a b "On the Roman Trail". The Hindu. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  19. ^ a b Vanavarayar, Shankar (21 June 2010). "Scripting history". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  20. ^ a b M, Soundariya Preetha (30 June 2007). "Tale of an ancient road". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  21. ^ a b "The land called Kongunad". The Hindu. 19 November 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  22. ^ a b "Remembering Dheeran Chinnamalai". The Hindu. 3 August 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  23. ^ a b c "Namma Kovai". The Hindu. 31 December 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  24. ^ a b c "The city that is Coimbatore". The Hindu. 30 April 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  25. ^ a b S. Muthiah (14 April 2003). "'Golden Tips' in the Nilgiris". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  26. ^ a b c "The cotton classic". Frontline. 30 January 2004. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  27. ^ "India Today Best City Awards 2014: Chennai bags top honour". India Today. 
  28. ^ "Indian cities by investment climate". Confederation of Indian Industry. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  29. ^ a b "Indian cities among global outsourcing cities". The Economic Times. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  30. ^ "Coimbatore: turning modern, yet retaining its old charm". Hindu.com. 18 June 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  31. ^ Whitehead, Henry (1921). The Village Gods of South India. pp. 121–2. 
  32. ^ S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar (2009). Some Contributions of South India to Indian Culture. BiblioBazaar. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-113-17175-7. 
  33. ^ a b "Dams and earthquakes". Frontline. 25 December 1999. 
  34. ^ "The perils of the past". The Hindu. 28 May 2005. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  35. ^ "Chronicling the spirit of Coimbatore". The Hindu. 3 January 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  36. ^ "The Mahatma's link with Coimbatore". The Hindu. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  37. ^ a b "`Keep politics out of Corporation Council'". The Hindu. 25 December 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  38. ^ "35 convicts sentenced in Coimbatore blast case – Oneindia News". News.oneindia.in. 9 October 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  39. ^ a b c L. Joseph Reginald, C. Mahendran, S. Suresh Kumar and P. Pramod (December 2007). "Birds of Singanallur lake, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Zoos' Print Journal 22 (12): 2944–2948. doi:10.11609/jott.zpj.1657.2944-8. 
  40. ^ a b c d e f g "Business Plan for Coimbatore Corporation" (PDF). Wilbur Smith Associates. Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  41. ^ "Noyyal flows on like a quiet killer". Deccan Chronicle. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  42. ^ "A river runs through it". The Hindu. 28 January 2006. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  43. ^ "Maintenance of tanks not at cost of environment". The Hindu. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  44. ^ "Corporation begins storm water drain project in Coimbatore". The Hindu. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  45. ^ "Conservation of bird life". International Conference on CBEE, 2009. World Scientific Publishing Company. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  46. ^ "Coimbatore – a hot spot of bio-diversity". The Hindu. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  47. ^ a b "Coimbatore Corporation – SHB002" (PDF). Coimbatore Corporation. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  48. ^ "Historical Weather for Coimbatore, India". Weatherbase. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  49. ^ "Experts to study feasibility of Athikadavu – Avanashi scheme". The Hindu. 18 February 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  50. ^ "Coimbatore Corporation begins efforts to avoid water scarcity". The Hindu. 18 March 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  51. ^ "Coimbatore Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 11 April 2015. 
  52. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 11 April 2015. 
  53. ^ Imperial Gazetter of India, Volume 10. Clarendon Press. 1908. 
  54. ^ a b Elangovan, K. "Site Suitability Analysis using GIS for Coimbatore City". GIS Development:. September 2005:. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  55. ^ a b c "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  56. ^ "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Coimbatore". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  57. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 1 January 2008. 
  58. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  59. ^ "Incidence & Rate Of Total Cognizable Crimes (IPC) In States, UTs & Cities During 2005" (PDF). National Crime Records Bureau. 2005. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  60. ^ "Indian Muslim Population Data". Aicmeu.org. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  61. ^ "KMK plans to overcome casteist tag". The Hindu. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  62. ^ "Roots of capital". Frontline. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  63. ^ Severine Silva. Toponomy of Canara. p. 34. In the southern part of Mysore the Tamil language is at this day named the Kangee, from being best known to them as the language of the people of Kangiam 
  64. ^ F. Poezold, William Simpson (1809). Tamil̲umaiṅakilēcumāyirukakir̲a akarāti. Oxford University. 
  65. ^ "Census of India, 1971: Tamil Nadu". Govt of India. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  66. ^ Rajan, M.C (7 February 2010). "It's passion for the mother tongue not chauvinism". India Today. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  67. ^ "Majority should protect the minority". The Hindu. 4 October 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  68. ^ "Keralites’ wishes take flight on Paramount’s wings". The Indian Express. 8 November 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  69. ^ a b "Residential space: Coimbatore spins a growth story". The Economic Times. 17 January 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  70. ^ "Providing quality education". The Hindu. 24 September 2006. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  71. ^ Urban labour market structure and job access in India: a study of Coimbatore. International Institute for Labour Studies,. 1990. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-92-9014-468-7. 
  72. ^ ""City development plan" (PDF). Coimbatore Municipal Corporation. p. 82. There are 195 slums in 23 major identified locations inside the corporation limits with a total population of around 352,219, which include BPL population as well. Around 8 percent of the total population reside in slums 
  73. ^ "AIADMK's Chinnadurai elected Deputy Mayor". The Hindu. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  74. ^ "Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation – Commissioner Profile". Coimbatore Corporation. 
  75. ^ "Corporation to have five zones". The Hindu. 2011-09-22. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  76. ^ "Coimbatore Corporation Citizens Charter" (PDF). Coimbatore Corporation. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  77. ^ a b "Enact anti-defection law for councillors, says Jayalalithaa". The Hindu. 22 September 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  78. ^ "List of Coimbatore Police stations". Coimbatore Police. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  79. ^ "Corporation seeks to expand its area". The Hindu. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  80. ^ "Directorate of Town Panchayats". Government of Tamil Nadu. 
  81. ^ "Bill on Pongal as New Year day introduced". The Hindu. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  82. ^ "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  83. ^ "Assembly Elections May 2011 Results". Election Commission of India. 
  84. ^ "SME sector: Opportunities, challenges in Coimbatore". CNBC-TV18. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  85. ^ "Governor congratulates 'Manchester of South India'". The Indian Express. 27 June 1936. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  86. ^ "Bosch picks up 1-lakh-sqft space in Kovai". The Times of India. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  87. ^ "Coimbatore Administration – District Admin". Coimbatore.tn.nic.in. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  88. ^ "Gross District Domestic Product at Current and Constant Prices-Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  89. ^ "India – Most Competitive Cities". .hindustantimes.de. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  90. ^ "About Intec Expo". Intecexpo.com. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  91. ^ "First pillar free trade complex". Hindu.com. 2007-08-20. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  92. ^ "China to face power crisis this winter". Smetimes.tradeindia.com. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  93. ^ D Govardan. "City of future". mydigitalfc.com. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  94. ^ "Bosch picks up 1 lakh sqft space in Coimbatore". The Times of India. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  95. ^ "Coimbatore: IT sector on the fast track : NATION: India Today". India Today. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  96. ^ "G.D.Naidu". Tamilnadu.com. 3 February 2013. 
  97. ^ "A non-conformist genius Architects of Coimbatore". The Hindu (Coimbatore, India). 10 January 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  98. ^ R. Yegya Narayanan. "Coimbatore's small auto component makers find the going tough". The Hindu Business Line. 
  99. ^ "Wet grinder units form group to get SIDBI aid". Business Line. 24 March 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  100. ^ "Common facility for wet grinders". The Hindu. 5 August 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  101. ^ "Kirtilal on an expansion spree – Apparel – news – Fashion News India, jobs, network, apparel, business". Fashionunited.in. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  102. ^ "India's gold & diamond exports fall by 20%". commodityonline.com. 15 March 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  103. ^ "India's Gems and Jewellery Market is Glittering – Mining Investments". Resource Investor. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  104. ^ "Labor intensity report" (PDF). National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC). Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  105. ^ "Tamil Nadu / Coimbatore News : Common facilities for jewellery cluster". The Hindu. 17 August 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  106. ^ Palaniappan, V. S. (16 August 2010). "Cities / Coimbatore : ID card mooted for migrant workers in jewellery units". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  107. ^ "Kirtilal plans more jewellery stores in N. India". Business Line. 8 September 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  108. ^ Srinivasan, Pankaja (14 September 2011). "Suite promises". The Hindu. 
  109. ^ "Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide plans more Aloft hotels in India". The Times of India. 11 September 2011. [dead link]
  110. ^ Sivashankar, Nithya (15 September 2011). "For the young and restless". The Hindu. 
  111. ^ "::Convention Hotels::". Chi.in. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  112. ^ "Surya, Coimbatore". Vivanta by Taj. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  113. ^ "Tier II And III Cities Driving E-Commerce In India". Siliconindia.com. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  114. ^ a b "Is Coimbatore the next BPO city?". CNBC-TV18. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  115. ^ "German state keen to share expertise with Coimbatore". Business Line. 22 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  116. ^ "Some music lovers still travel to Chennai for cultural overdoze". The Times of India. 14 December 2011. 
  117. ^ "In December, all the city's a stage". The Times of India. 14 December 2011. 
  118. ^ "World Tamil Conference begins on Wed in Coimbatore". NDTV. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  119. ^ "World Tamil Conference-2010". Dinamalar. 22 June 2010. 
  120. ^ "A time of troubles". Frontline. 7 March 1998. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  121. ^ "Temples of Coimbatore". The City Visit. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  122. ^ "Rajagopuram for Kovai Koniamman temple too". The Indian Express. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  123. ^ Madras District Gazetteers: Coimbatore. Superintendent, Govt. Press,. 2000. 
  124. ^ "Welcome To Sun Network". Suntv.in. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  125. ^ "Radio Stations in Coimbatore". Asiawaves.net. 2012-01-08. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  126. ^ "Radio mirchi". Thehindujobs.com. 2007-11-01. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  127. ^ Hello Fm
  128. ^ Ashmita Pillay. "Radio city". Indiaprwire.com. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  129. ^ Coimbatore gets modern Doordarshan Studio Centre, The Hindu, 16 August 2005
  130. ^ "BSNL's broadband facility launched in Coimbatore, Tirupur". Business Line. 25 January 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  131. ^ "Infrastructure advantage". Frontline. 17 January 2004. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  132. ^ "Aircel to create blood group database". Business Line. 3 October 2002. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  133. ^ "Brahmanyan". The Times of India. 21 July 2007. 
  134. ^ M. Allirajan (17 November 2003). "Reel-time nostalgia". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 
  135. ^ "Front Page : Coimbatore sees growth in air passenger traffic". The Hindu. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  136. ^ "Front Page : Extended runway ready at Coimbatore Airport". The Hindu. 20 April 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  137. ^ "Air Carnival sees no air pockets, to launch by April - The Financial Express". The Financial Express. 31 December 2014. 
  138. ^ TNN 22 Aug 2012, 04.19AM IST (22 August 2012). "Corporation speeds up work to begin mono rail project". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  139. ^ Karthik Madhavan (2012-09-04). "A fresh look at Mass Public Transport System for city". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  140. ^ "Buses to ply from Mettupalayam Road bus stand from today". The Hindu. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  141. ^ "Special buses to clear Pongal rush". The Hindu. 8 January 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  142. ^ "Coimbatore waits for shuttle train services". The Hindu. 29 June 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  143. ^ "Minister inaugurates omnibus stand". The Hindu. 2 July 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  144. ^ "TNSTC". Retrieved 3 July 2015. 
  145. ^ "Town bus services, Coimbatore". Coimbatore Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 3 July 2015. 
  146. ^ "Hello Taxi Coimbatore Cabs". Hellotaxitrip.co.in. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  147. ^ Kumar, D Suresh (19 April 2009). "Chennai, Kovai engineering colleges, a hit". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  148. ^ "Medical college plan on ESI hospital premises". The Hindu. 25 October 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  149. ^ "Coimbatore calling". Business Line. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  150. ^ "Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, India". avinuty.ac.in. 
  151. ^ "Coimbatore District Administration Welcomes You". Coimbatore.nic.in. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  152. ^ "Land to be identified for World-Class University". The Hindu. 9 August 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  153. ^ Subramanian, T. S (19 July 2008). "Tailor-made courses". Frontline. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  154. ^ "government arts". Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  155. ^ "Class 10 examinations get under way". The Hindu. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  156. ^ "Marginal increase in Plus-Two pass percentage in Coimbatore district". The Hindu. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  157. ^ "Super specialty hospitals: The latest fad in texcity". The Economic Times. 19 April 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  158. ^ "Coimbatore health care sector facing staff shortage". Business Line. 31 May 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  159. ^ "Coimbatore Medical College Hospital". Govt of Tamil Nadu. 
  160. ^ "Super specialty hospitals: The latest fad in texcity". The Economic Times. 19 April 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  161. ^ "The caregivers". indiablooms.com. 
  162. ^ "Medical tourism on upswing in Coimbatore". The Hindu. 4 April 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  163. ^ Swaminathan, Sudha (31 January 2002). "Coimbatore: An emerging healthcare destination -". Express Healthcare. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  164. ^ "City of speed". The Hindu. 24 April 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
  165. ^ "To Kari, with Love". The Hindu. 1 December 2003. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  166. ^ "MRF to assemble advanced F1 cars next year: Scouting for component suppliers". Machinist.in. 2011-10-26. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  167. ^ "A rage on the rally circuit". sportstaronnet. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  168. ^ "Naren Kumar aims to be best in Asia-Pacific zone". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  169. ^ "Nehru stadium gets a makeover". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  170. ^ "Location of Coimbatore golf club". Coimbatore Golf Club. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  171. ^ "100-year-old club of Coimbatore". Hinduonnet.com. 25 September 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  172. ^ "List of Flying Clubs" (PDF). DGCA. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  173. ^ "Coimbatore Marathon". coimbatoremarathon.com. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  174. ^ "Nirupama Vaidyanathan". Hinduonnet.com. 13 January 2001. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  175. ^ "He brought cinema to South". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  176. ^ "G.D.Naidu Museum & Industrial Exhibition in Coimbatore". destinationinfinity.org. 
  177. ^ "H A Gass Forest Museum, Coimbatore". Destination Infinity. 2011-01-28. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  178. ^ "Museums coimbatore - coimbatore museums,Forest College Museum,Khadi Gandhi Gallery". Coimbatoresite.com. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  179. ^ "Tourist Spots in Coimbatore - Museums/Art Gallery". Coimbatore City. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  180. ^ "Nilgiri Biosphere Nature Park - Nature conservation organisation coimbatore". Nbnaturepark.com. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  181. ^ "Shopping Centres in Coimbatore". Netexpress.co.in. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  182. ^ "Coimbatore-based retail chain, Shri Kannan on expansion mode". The Economic Times. 30 October 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  183. ^ "V.O.C Zoo and Park in Coimbatore". Destination Infinity. 2010-10-24. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  184. ^ "Singanallur lake". The Hindu. 30 July 2006. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  185. ^ "kovaidreams – KovaiDreamsOne stop guide on Coimbatore. Home | Air". Kovaidreams.googlepages.com. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  186. ^ "Sewage treatment plant inaugurated". The Hindu (The Hindu). 2 March 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  187. ^ Vidhya Sivaramakrishnan, John Samuel Raja D. (27 January 2008). "Coimbatore struggles to address its civic infrastructure woes". The Mint. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  188. ^ Madhavan, Karthik (14 December 2010). "Waste management to improve". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  189. ^ "Water resources under constant abuse". The Hindu. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  190. ^ Lenin Sundar M, M Sasidharan. "Ground water quality in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu along Noyyal River" (PDF). Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  191. ^ Vinoj Kumar, PC (24 February 2007). "TN will face crisis warn experts". Tehelka. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  192. ^ "PWD hands over custody of tanks to Coimbatore Corporation". The Hindu. 29 January 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  193. ^ "Two major tanks in city to be linked". The Hindu. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  194. ^ Official website of Siruthuli, Siruthuli
  195. ^ Narayanan, R.Y. (25 July 2003). "Drive to rejuvenate Coimbatore water tanks". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  196. ^ "Corporation removes encroachment on tank". The Hindu. 1 August 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  197. ^ "Fresh efforts to remove encroachments". The Hindu. 26 December 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  198. ^ "10th sister to join in Toledo's alliances". Toledo Blade. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  199. ^ "Coimbatore, India". toledosistercities.org. 

External links[edit]