|Nickname(s): Manchester of South India|
|• Mayor||Ganapathy P Rajkumar|
|• Corporation Commissioner||Dr K Vijay Karthikeyan IAS|
|• Commissioner of Police||A Amalraj IPS|
|• Metropolis||246.75 km2 (95.27 sq mi)|
|• Metro||642.12 km2 (247.92 sq mi)|
|Elevation||411.2 m (1,349.1 ft)|
|• Metro rank||16th|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||TN 37 (South), TN 38 (North), TN 66 (Central), TN 99 (West)|
Area Note 1: The pre-expansion area of city limits was 105.6 sq.km. The 2010 expansion order added 12 local bodies and increased the total area to 265.36 sq.km. In 2011, three of the local bodies Vellalore (16.64 sq.km), Chinniampalayam (9.27 sq.km) and Perur (6.40 sq.km) were dropped from the expansion and Vellakinar (9.20 sq.km) and Chennavedampatti (4.5 sq.km) were added. The area post expansion is 246.75 sq.km.
Coimbatore, also known as Kovai [koːʋəj], is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the banks of the Noyyal River surrounded by the Western Ghats, it is the second largest city in the state after Chennai and 16th largest urban agglomeration in India. It is administered by the Coimbatore Municipal Corporation and is the administrative capital of Coimbatore district. It is one of the fastest growing tier-II cities in India and a major hub for textiles, industries, commerce, education, information technology, healthcare and manufacturing in Tamil Nadu. It is often referred to as the "Manchester of South India" due to its cotton production and textile industries. Coimbatore is also referred to as the "Pump City" and it supplies nearly half of India's requirements of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of jewellery, wet grinders, poultry and auto components with "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" and "Kovai Cora Cotton" recognised as Geographical Indications by the Government of India.
Coimbatore was part of Kongu Nadu during the Sangam period between c. 1st and the 4th centuries CE and was ruled by the Cheras as it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu. Coimbatore was located along the ancient Roman trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu in South India. The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE. The region was ruled by Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century followed by the Nayaks who introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu Nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams. In the later part of the 18th century, the Coimbatore region came under the Kingdom of Mysore and following the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed Coimbatore to the Madras Presidency in 1799. The Coimbatore region played a prominent role in the Second Poligar War (1801) when it was the area of operations of Dheeran Chinnamalai.
In 1804, Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed Coimbatore district and in 1866 it was accorded municipality status with Robert Stanes as its Chairman. The city experienced a textile boom in the early 19th century due to the decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai. Post independence, Coimbatore has seen rapid growth due to industrialisation. Coimbatore was ranked the best emerging city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. The city was ranked fourth among Indian cities in investment climate by Confederation of Indian Industry and 17th among the top global outsourcing cities by Tholons. Coimbatore has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Administration and politics
- 7 Economy
- 8 Culture
- 9 Transport
- 10 Education
- 11 Utility services
- 12 Sports and recreation
- 13 Environmental issues
- 14 International relations
- 15 References
- 16 External links
There are multiple theories regarding the origin of the name Coimbatore. According to one theory, "Coimbatore" is a derivation of Kovanputhur (literally 'new town of Kovan'), after chieftain Kovan or Koyan, evolved into Koyambatoor and later anglicised as Coimbatore. Koyamma, the goddess worshiped by Koyan evolved into Koniamma and later Kovaiamma. Another theory states that the name could have been derived from Kovaiamma.
The region around Coimbatore was ruled by the Cheras during Sangam period between c. 1st and the 4th centuries CE and it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu. The Kosar tribe mentioned in the second century CE Tamil epic Silappathikaram and other poems in Sangam literature is associated with the Coimbatore region. The region was located along an ancient Roman trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu. The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE. A Chola highway called Rajakesari Peruvazhi ran through the region. Much of Tamil Nadu came under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire by the 15th century. In the 1550s, Madurai Nayaks, who were the military governors of the Vijaynagara Empire, took control of the region. After the Vijayanagara Empire fell in the 17th century, the Madurai Nayaks established their state as an independent kingdom. They introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu Nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams.
In the latter part of the 18th century, the region came under the Kingdom of Mysore, following a series of wars with the Madurai Nayak dynasty. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed Coimbatore to the Madras Presidency in 1799. The Coimbatore region played a prominent role in the Second Poligar War (1801), when it was the area of operations of Dheeran Chinnamalai. In 1804, Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed Coimbatore district and in 1866 it was accorded municipality status. Sir Robert Stanes became the first Chairman of the Coimbatore City Council. The region was hard hit during the Great Famine of 1876–78 resulting in nearly 200,000 famine related fatalities. The first three decades of the 20th century saw nearly 20,000 plague-related deaths and acute water shortage.
The decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai fuelled an economical boom in Coimbatore in the 1920s and 1930s. The region played a significant role in the Indian independence movement with Mahatma Gandhi visiting the city thrice. Coimbatore was the base of operations for political figures such as S. P. Narasimhalu Naidu, R. K. Shanmukham Chetty, C.S. Rathinasabapathy and C. Subramaniam during the freedom movement. Post independence, Coimbatore has seen rapid growth due to industrialisation and in 1981, Coimbatore was constituted as a Municipal corporation. On February 14, 1998, the radical Islamist group Al Ummah bombed 11 places across the city killing 58 people and injuring more than 200.
Coimbatore lies at south India at 411 metres (1349 ft) above sea level on the banks of the Noyyal River, in southwestern Tamil Nadu. It covers an area of 642.12 km2 (247.92 sq mi). It is surrounded by the Western Ghats mountain range to the West and the North, with reserve forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve on the northern side. The Noyyal River forms the southern boundary of the city, which has an extensive tank system fed by the river and rainwater. The eight major tanks and wetland areas of Coimbatore are namely, Singanallur, Valankulam, Ukkadam Periyakulam, Selvampathy, Narasampathi, Krishnampathi, Selvachinthamani, and Kumaraswami. Multiple streams drain the waste water from the city.in
The city is divided into two distinctive geographic regions: the dry eastern side which includes majority of the urban area of the city and the western region which borders the Nilgiris, Anaimalai and Munnar ranges. Palghat Gap, a mountain pass which connects the neighbouring state of Kerala to Tamil Nadu, lies to the west of the city. Because of its location in the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats, it is rich in fauna and flora. The Coimbatore urban wetlands harbours around 116 species of birds, of which 66 are resident, 17 are migratory and 33 are local migrants. The spot-billed pelican, painted stork, openbill stork, ibis, spot-billed duck, teal and black-winged stilt visit the Coimbatore wetlands on their migration. Apart from the species common to the plains, various threatened and endangered species such as Indian elephants, wild boars, leopards, Bengal tigers, gaurs, Nilgiri tahr, sloth bear and black-headed oriole are found in the region.
The northern part of the city has a rich tropical evergreen forest with commercially significant trees such as teak, sandalwood, rosewood and bamboo. The soil is predominantly black, which is suitable for cotton cultivation, but some red loamy soil is also found. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, Coimbatore falls under the Class III/IV Seismic Zone, having experienced an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 on the Richter scale on February 8, 1900.
Coimbatore has a pleasant climate due to the presence of forests to the north and the cool winds blowing through the Palghat gap in the Western Ghats. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a tropical wet and dry climate, with the wet season lasting from October to December due to the northeast monsoon. The mean maximum temperature ranges from 35.9 °C (97 °F) to 29.2 °C (85 °F) and the mean minimum temperature ranges from 24.5 °C (76 °F) to 19.8 °C (68 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded is 40.4 °C (105 °F) on May 5, 1983 while the lowest is 11.7 °C (53 °F) on January 8, 1912.
Due to the south west monsoon winds passing through the Palghat gap, elevated regions of the city receive rainfall in the months from June to August. After a warm and humid September, the north east monsoon starts from October lasting till early November. The average annual rainfall is around 700 mm (27.6 in) with the northeast and the southwest monsoons contributing to 47% and 28% respectively to the total rainfall. This periodic rainfall does not satisfy the water requirements of the city throughout the year and water supply schemes like Siruvani and Pilloor help to sustain the needs of the city during the non-monsoon months. Siruvani is world's second sweetest water.
|Climate data for Coimbatore (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.6
|Average high °C (°F)||30.5
|Average low °C (°F)||18.2
|Record low °C (°F)||11.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||5.4
|Average rainy days||0.3||1.0||1.0||3.0||4.2||2.7||2.6||2.6||4.6||7.4||5.8||2.8||38.3|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
Coimbatore has a population of 1,601,438. As per the 2011 census based on pre-expansion city limits, Coimbatore had a population of 1,050,721 with a sex ratio of 997 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. It is the second largest city in the state after capital Chennai and the sixteenth largest urban agglomeration in India. A total of 102,069 were under the age of six, comprising 52,275 males and 49,794 females.The average literacy of the city was 82.43%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. There were a total of 425,115 workers, comprising 1,539 cultivators, 2,908 main agricultural labourers, 11,789 in house hold industries, 385,802 other workers, 23,077 marginal workers, 531 marginal cultivators, 500 marginal agricultural labourers, 1,169 marginal workers in household industries and 20,877 other marginal workers.
As per the 2001 census, Coimbatore had a population of 930,882 within the municipal corporation limits. The population of the urban agglomeration as per 2011 census is 2,136,916 with males constituting 50.08% of the population and females 49.92%. Coimbatore has an average literacy rate of 89.23%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. Male literacy is 93.17% and female literacy is 85.3% with 8.9% of the population under six years of age. The sex ratio was 964 females per 1000 males. In 2005, the crime rate in the city was 265.9 per 100,000 people, accounting for 1.2% of all crimes reported in major cities in India. It ranked 21st among 35 major cities in India in the incidence of crimes. In 2011, the population density in the city was 10,052 per km2 (26,035 per mi2). Around 8% of the city's population lives in slums.
Administration and politics
|Mayor||Ganapathy P. Rajkumar|
|Deputy Mayor||S. Leelavathiunni|
|Commissioner||Dr K Vijay Karthikeyan, IAS|
|Police Commissioner||A Amalraj, IPS|
Coimbatore is a Municipal corporation administered by the Coimbatore Municipal Corporation and is the administrative headquarters of Coimbatore district. Coimbatore was established as the capital of Coimbatore district in 1804 and in 1866 it was accorded municipality status. In 1981, Coimbatore was elevated as a municipal corporation. The city is divided into five administrative zones – East, West, North, South and Central, each further subdivided into 20 wards. Each ward is represented by a councillor who is elected by direct election and the Mayor of Coimbatore is elected by Councillors. The executive wing of the corporation is headed by a Corporation Commissioner and maintains basic services like water supply, sewage and roads. The district itself is administered by the District collector and the district court in Coimbatore is the highest court of appeal in the district. The Coimbatore City Police is headed by a Commissioner and there are 18 police stations in the city.
A large part of the Coimbatore urban agglomeration falls outside the Municipal corporation limits. These suburbs are governed by local bodies called Village Panchayats and Town Panchayats. Besides the Coimbatore Municipal Corporation, the Coimbatore UA comprises the town panchayats of Vellalur, Irugur, Pallapalayam, Kannampalayam, Veerapandi, Periyanaickenpalayam, Narasimhanaickenpalayam, Idikarai, Vedapatti, Perur, Madukkarai, Ettimadai, Thondamuthur, Uliyampalayam, Thirumalayampalayam, Othakalmandapam, Alanthurai, Pooluvapatti, Thenkarai, Karumathampatti, Sarcarsamakulam, Mopperipalayam and Gudalur, census towns of Ashokapuram, Kurudampalayam, Malumichampatti, Selvapuram, Chettipalayam, Sulur, Chinniampalayam, Somayampalayam, Muthugoundan Pudur, Arasur, Kaniyur, Neelambur and municipalities of Kuniyamuthur, Kurichi and Kavundampalayam. These local bodies are in turn split into wards each electing a councillor through direct election. The head of the local body known as president is elected by the councillors from among their number.
Coimbatore elects ten members to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and one member to the Indian Parliament. The five legislative assembly constituencies in the city are Coimbatore North, Coimbatore South, Kaundampalayam, Singanallur and Sulur which form a part of the Coimbatore Parliamentary Constituency. Part of the urban agglomeration comes under the Nilgiris and Pollachi constituencies. In the Indian general election held in 2014, AIADMK candidate A. P. Nagarajan defeated C. P. Radhakrishnan of the BJP in the Coimbatore Lok Sabha constituency. In the last legislative assembly election held in 2011, the AIADMK led front won in all five assembly constituencies.
Coimbatore is amongst the fastest growing tier-II cities in India and a major hub for textiles, industries, commerce, education, information technology, healthcare and manufacturing in Tamil Nadu. Coimbatore houses more than 25,000 small, medium and large industries with the city's primary industries being engineering and textiles. Coimbatore is called the "Manchester of South India" due to its extensive textile industry, fed by the surrounding cotton fields. TIDEL Park Coimbatore in ELCOT SEZ was the first special economic zone (SEZ) set up in 2006. In 2010, Coimbatore ranked 15th in the list of most competitive (by business environment) Indian cities. Coimbatore also has CODISSIA Trade Fair Complex which contain 5 blocks with total area of 160000 Sqm, built in 1999 and is owned by CODISSIA. It is also the country's largest pillar-free hall, according to the Limca Book of Records.
Coimbatore region experienced a textile boom in the 1920s and 1930s. Though, Robert Stanes had established Coimbatore's first textile mills as early as the late 19th century, it was during this period that Coimbatore emerged as a prominent industrial centre. Coimbatore is home to more than 17% of the fibre textile mills in India. Coimbatore has trade associations such as CODISSIA, COINDIA and COJEWEL representing the industries in the city. Coimbatore houses a number of textile mills and is the base of textile research institutes like the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International School of Textiles & Management, Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) and the South India Textile Research Institute (SITRA). Kovai Cora Cotton saree is a recognised Geographical Indication.
Coimbatore is the second largest producer of software in the state, next only to capital Chennai. TIDEL Park Coimbatore and other Information technology parks in the city has aided in the growth of IT and Business process outsourcing industries in the city. It is ranked at 17th among the top global outsourcing cities by Tholons. The City has major software companies like Cognizant, Bosch, Dell, Ford, TCS, Wipro, HCL, Hexaware, UST Global,Tata Elxsi and Cameron International. Coimbatore is the second largest hub in India for Cognizant Technology Solutions employing more than 10,000 people  and Robert Bosch GmbH employing more than 6000 people,also has largest development center here, outside Germany. Coimbatore is one of the top 10 cities in India which has large number of Start-ups. Software exports stood at ₹7.1 billion (US$110 million) for the financial year 2009–10 up 90% from the previous year. Coimbatore has a large and diversified manufacturing sector facilitated by the presence of Larsen & Toubro, GE, Alstom, Suzlon, ZF, Pricol, LMW, ITC, ELGI, Shanti Gears, LGB, Roots Industries, Salzer Electronics, SE Electricals...etc. and research institutes like Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, SITRA and large number of engineering colleges producing about 50,000 engineers annually. TICEL Biotechnology Park III is being constructed on 10 acres of land in Anna University Campus,Coimbatore at a project cost of Rs.55 crores.
Coimbatore is a major centre for the manufacture of automotive components in India with car manufacturers Maruti Udyog and Tata Motors sourcing up to 30%, of their automotive components from the city. G.D. Naidu developed India's first indigenous motor in 1937. India's first indigenously developed diesel engine for cars was manufactured in the city in 1972. The city is also a major centre for small auto component makers catering to the automobile industry, from personal to commercial and farm vehicles. The city contributes to about 75% of the 1 lakh total monthly output of wet grinders in India. The industry employs 70,000 people and had a yearly turnover of ₹2,800 crore (US$420 million) in 2015. The term "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a Geographical indication.
Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies nearly 50% of India's requirements of motors and pumps. Major pump manufacturers include Texmo Industries, Aquasub Engineering, COTATEX Enterprises, Deccan Pumps, Mahendra Pumps, Karvel Pumps, Suguna Pumps, Sharp Industries, CRI Pumps, Flowserve, Kirloskar Brothers, Deccan Industries and KSB Pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of jewellery renowned for diamond cutting, cast and machine made jewellery. There are about 3,000 jewellery manufacturers employing over 40,000 goldsmiths.
Coimbatore has a large number of poultry farms and is a major producer of chicken eggs. The city contributes to nearly 95% of processed chicken meat exports. Coimbatore has some of the country's oldest flour mills and these mills which cater to all the southern states, have a combined grinding capacity of more than 50,000 MT per month. ACC has cement factory plant here in Madukkarai and National Textile Corporation also have a plant here in the city. The hospitality industry has seen a growth in the 21st century with new upscale hotels being set up like Vivanta By Taj, Le Meridien, The Residency Hotels, Aloft...etc. Coimbatore is the largest non-metro city for e-commerce in South India.
Coimbatore and its people have a reputation for entrepreneurship. Though it is generally considered a traditional city, Coimbatore is diverse and cosmopolitan. The World Classical Tamil Conference 2010 was held in Coimbatore. The heavy industrialisation of the city has also resulted in the growth of trade unions.
Tamil is the official language and Kongu Tamil (also called Kangee or Kongalam), a dialect, is predominantly spoken. Coimbatore also has a significant number of Kannadigas, Telugus, Malayalis and North Indians, mainly Gujaratis. As per the 2001 census, the number of speakers by native language are as follows : Tamil (707,263) followed by Telugu (125,616), Malayalam (46,645) and Kannada (30,195). During the 1970s the city witnessed a population explosion as a result of migration fuelled by increased economic growth and job opportunities.
The city's population is predominantly Hindu with minor Muslim and Christian population. Jains, Sikhs and Buddhists are also present in small numbers. According to the religious census of 2011, Coimbatore has 83.31% Hindus, 8.63% Muslims, 7.53% Christians, 0.28% Jains, 0.05% Sikhs, 0.02% Buddhists and 0.01% Others. 0.17% of the respondents did not state their religion.
The Mariamman festivals at the city's numerous Amman temples are major events in summer. Major Hindu temples in the city include the Perur Patteeswarar Temple, Naga Sai Mandir, Koniamman Temple, Thandu Mariamman Temple, Eachanari Vinayagar Temple, Karamadai Ranganathaswamy Temple, Marudamalai Murugan Temple, Loga Nayaga Shaniswara Temple, Ashtamsa Varadha Anjaneyar Temple and Dhyanalinga Yogic Temple. The mosques on Oppanakara Street and Big Bazaar Street date back to 18th century CE. Christian missions date back to the 17th century when permission was granted by the Nayak rulers to set up churches in the region. Sikh Gurudwaras and Jain temples are also present in Coimbatore.
Coimbatore cuisine is predominantly south Indian with rice as its base. Most local restaurants still retain their rural flavor, with many restaurants serving food over a banana leaf. Eating on a banana leaf is an old custom and imparts a unique flavor to the food and is considered healthy. North Indian, Chinese and continental cuisines are also available. Idly, dosa, paniyaram and appam are popular dishes. Coimbatore has an active street food culture and various cuisine options for dining. Arisi Paruppu Sadam, made from a mixture of dal and rice is a recipe that existed from fourth century CE and unique to the area. Kaalaan is a popular dish prepared by simmering deep fried mushrooms (usually chopped mushroom) in a spicy broth, until it reaches a porridge like consistency and served sprinkled with chopped onions and coriander leaves.
Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of south India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of Tent Cinema in which a tent was erected on an open land to screen the films. Central Studios was set up in 1935 while S. M. Sriramulu Naidu established Pakshiraja Studios in 1945. The city conducts its own music festival every year. Art, dance and music concerts are held annually during the months of September and December (Tamil calendar month – Margazhi). Coimbatore also houses a number of museums and art galleries like G.D. Naidu Museum & Industrial Exhibition, H A Gass Forest Museum, Government Museum, Kadhi Gandhi Gallery and Kasthuri Srinivasan Art Gallery and Textile Museum.
The city is served by the Coimbatore International Airport at Peelamedu 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city centre. The airport commenced operations in 1940 as a civil aerodrome with Indian Airlines operating Fokker F27, Douglas DC-3 and later Hawker Siddeley HS 748 aircraft. The then Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh declared the government's intention to upgrade the Coimbatore Airport to International status in a meeting with senior ministers on 6 June 2012 and it was granted the status of international airport by the Union Cabinet on 2 October 2012. The airport is operated by Airports Authority of India and caters to domestic flights to major Indian cities and international flights to Sharjah and Singapore. As of 2014[update]-15, the airport was the 15th largest airport in India in terms of total aircraft movement, 18th largest in terms of passengers handled and 13th largest in terms of cargo handled. It has a single runway, which is 9,760 feet (2,970 m) in length and is capable of handling large aircraft. Air Carnival, a private airline commenced its operations in 2016 with the Coimbatore International Airport as its hub.
Sulur Air Force Station, located at Kangayampalayam is an air base operated by the Indian Air Force and accommodates Antonov An-32 heavy air lifter aircraft, Mil Mi-8 transport helicopters and the HAL Dhruv helicopters of the Sarang helicopter display team. The first squadron of ingeniously built HAL Tejas will be inducted at Sulur AFS and Sukhoi Su-30MKI aircraft will be stationed at the base by 2016.
The Passport Seva Kendra office at Coimbatore caters to the needs of people living in the Coimbatore, Nilgiris, Tirupur, Erode, Namakkal and Salem districts.
Train service in Coimbatore started in 1861, upon the construction of the Podanur – Madras line connecting Kerala and the west coast with the rest of India. Coimbatore lies on the Coimbatore - Shoranur Broad gauge railway line and the city falls under the Salem Division of the Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways. The major railway station is the Coimbatore Junction which is the second-largest income generating station in the Southern Railway zone after Chennai Central and is amongst the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railways. Other major railway stations catering to the city include Coimbatore North Junction, Podanur Junction and minor stations at Peelamedu, Singanallur, Irugur Junction, Perianaikanpalayam, Madukkarai, Somanur and Sulur.
The city houses Southern Railway Signal & Telecom Workshop at Podanur, which is one of the Indian railway's Electrical & Communication workshop in the country.
In 2012, Coimbatore Municipal Corporation proposed three monorail routes. The first circular route will connect Gandhipuram with Ganapathy, Sivananda Colony, Sai Baba colony, RS Puram, Townhall and City Railway Station. The second circular route will connect Podanur with Trichy Road, Sungam, Redfields, Race Course, City Railway Station and Ukkadam. A linear line was proposed from Chinniampalayam to TNAU via airport, CODISSIA, PSG Tech, Lakshmi Mills, Gandhipuram, Coimbatore North Junction and Cowley Brown Road. Vadavalli and Thondamuthur were included in the linear line as part of the phase extension.
There are six major arterial roads in the city: Avinashi road, Trichy road, Sathy road, Mettupalayam road, Palakkad road and Pollachi road. Coimbatore bypass is a series of bypasses connecting the various National Highways and State Highways passing through and originating from Coimbatore. The first section of the bypass, a 28-kilometre (17 mi) stretch from Neelambur to Madukkarai on National Highway 544 opened for traffic in 2000. It was the first road privatisation project to be implemented on a build–operate–transfer model in South India. In 2008, the State Highways department came up with a proposal to create a Ring road to help de-congest the main arterial roads and the 12 km road would extend from Peelamedu to Mettupalayam road. In 2011, the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu announced the construction of two new flyovers at Ukkadam and Athupalam to help de-congest the Palakkad Road. In 2012, the Government of Tamil Nadu decided in favour of an eastern road that connected Mettupalayam Road with Avinashi Road and the existing bypass. The city municipal corporation is undertaking the construction of six rail-over-bridges in the city. There are five National Highways passing through the city:
|83||Nagapattinam||Pollachi, Dindigul, Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur|
Apart from State and National Highways, the city corporation maintains a 635.32 kilometres (394.77 miles) long road network. Town buses started operating in 1921 and serve most parts of the city, as well as other towns and villages in the district. The number of inter-city routes operated by Coimbatore division is 119 with a fleet of more than 500 buses. It also operates town buses on 257 intra-city routes. The intra-city buses operate from major bus stations in Gandhipuram, Singanallur and Ukkadam to other parts across the city. Inter-city and intra-city buses that connect Coimbatore operate from different bus stands:
|Gandhipuram||Central||Tiruppur, Erode, Salem, Gobichettipalayam, Sathyamangalam, Mettur Dam|
|SETC||Chennai, Ernakulam, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Tirupati, Puducherry, Thiruvananthapuram|
|Omni Bus Stand||Private mofussil buses|
|Singanallur||Singanallur||Madurai, Tirunelveli, Trichy, Thanjavur, Kumbakonam|
|Ukkadam||Ukkadam||Palakkad, Palani, Pollachi, Udumalpet|
|Mettupalayam Road||Coimbatore North||Mettupalayam, Ooty, Mysore|
Coimbatore BRTS is a proposed bus rapid transit project under the JNNURM scheme of the Government of India. It is planned along a 27.6 kilometres (17.1 mi) stretch connecting Avinashi road and Mettupalayam road. The city is also served by auto rickshaws and radio taxi services. Coimbatore has four Regional Transport Offices viz. TN 37 (South), TN 38 (North), TN 66 (Central), TN 99 (West).
Coimbatore is a major educational hub. The first college of Coimbatore, Government Arts College, was opened in 1875. The first engineering college in the city, the Arthur Hope College of Technology (now known as the Government College of Technology, Coimbatore), was started by G.D. Naidu in 1945 followed later by private engineering colleges PSG College of Technology and Coimbatore Institute of Technology in the 1950s. The Air Force Administrative College, established in 1949, is the oldest training institute of the Indian Air Force. Coimbatore Medical College was opened in 1966 and the Government law college started functioning from 1978. The agricultural school established in 1868 was converted into a full-fledged agricultural university Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in 1971 and the Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History was opened in 1990.
As of 2010[update], the district is home to 7 universities, 78 engineering colleges, 3 medical colleges, 2 dental colleges, 35 polytechnics and 150 arts and science colleges. The city houses three government run universities Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Bharathiar University, Anna University and four private universities. The city houses Government research institutes including the Central Institute for Cotton Research, Sugarcane Breeding Research Institute, Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding (IFGTB), Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and Tamil Nadu Institute of Urban Studies. The city also houses more government colleges like Coimbatore Medical College, ESIC Medical College, Government Law College, Government Industrial Training Institute, Government Polytechnic College and Government Polytechnic College For Women. In 2008, Government of India announced a plan to establish a world class university in the region.
Three types of schools operate in Coimbatore: government run schools, schools funded by the government but run by private trusts (aided schools) and schools funded completely by private trusts. Schools may follow Tamil Nadu Anglo Indian School Board, Tamil Nadu State Board, Matriculation or CBSE syllabus. The city falls under the purview of Coimbatore Education District. In 2013, 45,863 students appeared for SSLC examinations and the pass percentage was 94.12%.
Four major English newspapers The Hindu,The Times of India, Deccan Chronicle and The New Indian Express bring out editions from the city. Business Line, a business newspaper also brings out a Coimbatore edition. Tamil newspapers which have Coimbatore editions include Dinamalar, Dina Thanthi, Dinamani, Dinakaran, Tamil Murasu and Maalai Malar (both evening newspapers). Two Malayalam newspapers – Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi also have considerable circulation in the city. Lotus News is headquartered in Coimbatore.
A Medium wave radio station is operated by All India Radio, with programs in Tamil, English and Hindi. Five FM radio stations operate from Coimbatore – Rainbow FM, Suryan FM, Radio Mirchi, Radio City and Hello FM. All these private radio stations air exclusively Tamil based programs, including film music. Television relay started in 1985 from Delhi Doordarshan and in 1986, after inception of the repeater tower at Kodaikanal, telecast from Madras commenced. In 2005, Doordarshan opened its studio in Coimbatore. Television services are accessible through DTH or digital cable.
Coimbatore has a well-connected communications infrastructure. Till the 1990s the state owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) was the only telecommunication service provider in the city. In the 1990s, private telecom companies too started offering their services. As of 2010[update], BSNL, Reliance Communications, Bharti Airtel and Tata Teleservices offer broadband service and fixed line services. MTS offers mobile broadband services. Cellular telephony was first introduced in 1997 and mobile telephone services available. Coimbatore is the headquarters of the Tamil Nadu circle of cellular service providers.
As of 2010, the size of the health care industry in Coimbatore is estimated at ₹1,500 crore (US$220 million). There are around 750 hospitals in the city with an in-patient capacity of more than 5,000 beds. The first health care centre in the city was started in 1909. In 1969, it was upgraded to Coimbatore Medical College Hospital, a government run tertiary care hospital with 1020 beds and provides free health care and also city houses ESI Hospital. The city corporation maintains 16 dispensaries and 2 maternity homes. People from nearby districts and the state of Kerala visit Coimbatore for medical tourism due to the availability of hospitals and healthcare facilities.
Sports and recreation
Coimbatore is often referred to as the "India's motorsports hub" and the "Backyard of Indian Motorsports". S.Karivardhan designed and built entry level race cars and the Kari Motor Speedway, a Formula 3 Category circuit is named after him. Tyre manufacturer MRF assembles Formula Ford cars in Coimbatore in association with former F3 Champion J. Anand and racing company Super Speeds designs Formula cars. Rallying is another major event with rallies conducted in closed roads around Coimbatore. Narain Karthikeyan, India's first Formula One driver hails from the city and other motorsport drivers from Coimbatore include J. Anand and V. R. Naren Kumar.
Nehru Stadium, built originally for football also hosts athletic meets. The stadium has been renovated with Korean grass for the field and a synthetic track around it for athletics. Apart from the stadium, other sporting venues include the Coimbatore Golf Course, a 18-hole golf course and Coimbatore Cosmopolitan Club, which is more than 100 years old. Coimbatore Flying Club is located in the Coimbatore airport premises. The city hosts its own annual marathon called Coimbatore Marathon as an event to raise cancer awareness. Retired tennis player Nirupama Vaidyanathan, who became the first Indian woman in the modern era to feature and win a round at a main draw Grand Slam in 1998 Australian Open hails from Coimbatore. Coimbatore District Chess Association (CDCA), established in 1940 is the oldest chess association in the country.
There are several amusement parks around the city, namely: Black Thunder water theme park near Mettupalayam, Kovai Kondattam amusement park at Perur and Maharaja Theme Park at Nillambur.  Since the 1980s, the city has had a few small shopping complexes and major shopping malls include Brookefields Mall and Fun Republic Mall. The city also has a number of parks including the VOC park, the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University park, Race Course Children's park and Bharathi park in Saibaba Colony. Coimbatore Zoo houses a number of animals and birds and is located near VOC park. The grounds are used for conducting fairs and events including the annual Independence day and Republic day celebrations. Singanallur Lake is a popular tourist place and bird watcher destination. Popular cinemas include KG Cinemas, The Cinema -by SPI Cinemas and Cinépolis.
Air pollution, lack of proper waste management infrastructure and degradation of water bodies are the major environmental issues in Coimbatore. There is a sewage treatment plant at Ukkadam with the capacity to process 70 million litres of sewage water per day. Garbage is collected by the corporation and sewage is pumped into the water tanks and the Noyyal river through streams. This along with garbage dumping and encroachments has led to degradation of the water bodies and depletion in the groundwater table. The tanks are renovated by the city's environmental groups with their own fund-raising and the corporation. The corporation is responsible and involved in clearing encroachment of the tanks. Siruthuli, an environmental organisation founded by the city's industrial houses, undertakes de-silting of tanks and cleaning of the Noyyal river. Environment Conservation Group based out of the city is also involved in conservation of trees and wetlands, monitoring wildlife crime and conducting awareness sessions for students.
Coimbatore has sister city relationship with Toledo, Ohio. The relation has enabled exchange in the fields of arts and education between the cities. A twin city pact with the German city of Esslingen was signed in July 2016 with the relation enabling the cities to collaborate on areas of mutual interest, health, education, culture and social development.
|Country||City||State / Region||Since|
- "Smart city challenge, Coimbatore". Government of India. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- "INDIA: Tamil Nādu". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Madhavan, Karthik (19 July 2011). "Slim chances for 3 local bodies to be a part of Corporation". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Tamil Nadu GO N0 219" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Coimbatore set for expansive development". The Hindu. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Area, Population and Density of Cities and Towns of India – 2001". Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- This is the population of the city limits prior to 2011 expansion"Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Primary Census Abstract – Census 2011" (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations – Tamil Nadu. Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Coimbatore: turning modern, yet retaining its old charm". The Hindu. 18 June 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Whitehead, Henry (1921). The Village Gods of South India. Read Books. pp. 121–2. ISBN 978-1-4067-3214-6.
- Subramanian, T. S (28 January 2007). "Roman connection in Tamil Nadu". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar (2009). Some Contributions of South India to Indian Culture. BiblioBazaar. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-113-17175-7.
- "Kovai's Roman connection". The Hindu. 8 January 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "On the Roman Trail". The Hindu. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- Vanavarayar, Shankar (21 June 2010). "Scripting history". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- M, Soundariya Preetha (30 June 2007). "Tale of an ancient road". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "The land called Kongunad". The Hindu. 19 November 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Remembering Dheeran Chinnamalai". The Hindu. 3 August 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Namma Kovai". The Hindu. 31 December 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "The city that is Coimbatore". The Hindu. 30 April 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- Muthiah, S (14 April 2003). "'Golden Tips' in the Nilgiris". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "The cotton classic". Frontline. 30 January 2004. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "The perils of the past". The Hindu. 28 May 2005. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- "Chronicling the spirit of Coimbatore". The Hindu. 3 January 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- "The Mahatma's link with Coimbatore". The Hindu. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Namma Coimbatore". The Hindu. 31 December 2013.
- "'Keep politics out of Corporation Council'". The Hindu. 25 December 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "35 convicts sentenced in Coimbatore blast case". One India. 9 October 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- L. Joseph Reginald; C. Mahendran; S. Suresh Kumar; P. Pramod (December 2007). "Birds of Singanallur lake, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Zoos' Print Journal. 22 (12): 2944–2948. doi:10.11609/jott.zpj.1657.2944-8.
- "Business Plan for Coimbatore Corporation" (PDF). Wilbur Smith Associates. Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "A river runs through it". The Hindu. 28 January 2006. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Maintenance of tanks not at cost of environment". The Hindu. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Corporation begins storm water drain project in Coimbatore". The Hindu. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Conservation of bird life". International Conference on CBEE, 2009. World Scientific Publishing Company. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Coimbatore – a hot spot of bio-diversity". The Hindu. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Dams and earthquakes". The Hindu. 25 December 1999. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Coimbatore Corporation" (PDF). Coimbatore Corporation. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Experts to study feasibility of Athikadavu – Avanashi scheme". The Hindu. 18 February 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Coimbatore Corporation begins efforts to avoid water scarcity". The Hindu. 18 March 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Coimbatore Climatology Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Hunter, William Wilson (2015) . Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 10. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1-343-35262-9.
- Elangovan, K (2006). GIS: Fundamentals, Applications and Implementations. New India Publishing. p. 143. ISBN 978-81-89422-16-5.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 January 2008.
- "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Major Agglomerations" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Coimbatore". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Incidence & Rate of Total Cognizable Crimes Under Indian Penal Code (IPC)and Special And Local Laws (SLL)(2002–2012)" (PDF). National Crime Records Bureau. 2005. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- ""City development plan" (PDF). Coimbatore Municipal Corporation. p. 82. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
There are 195 slums in 23 major identified locations inside the corporation limits with a total population of around 352,219, which include BPL population as well. Around 8 percent of the total population reside in slums
- "Rs. 76 crore deficit budget for Coimbatore Corporation". The Hindu. 26 February 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "AIADMK's Chinnadurai elected Deputy Mayor". The Hindu. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation – Commissioner Profile". Coimbatore Corporation. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Amalraj assumes charge as Coimbatore city police commissioner". The Times of India. 6 November 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Corporation to have five zones". The Hindu. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Coimbatore Corporation Citizens Charter" (PDF). Coimbatore Corporation. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- "Enact anti-defection law for councilors, says Jayalalithaa". The Hindu. 22 September 2006. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Right to Information: Coimbatore City Police" (PDF). Coimbatore Police. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Corporation seeks to expand its area". The Hindu. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Directorate of Town Panchayats". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Constituents of Urban Agglomeration, Census 2011" (PDF). Census of India. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Bill on Pongal as New Year day introduced". The Hindu. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Report on General Election to the assembly of Tamil Nadu, 2011" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Tamil Nadu Assembly Election Results in 2011". elections.in. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "When the Gods came down". The Hindu Business Line. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Verghese, Luke (8 January 2011). "Lakshmi Mills: 100 years old and showing its age". equitymaster.com. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Chakrapani, Saranya (20 November 2014). "Coimbatore: Rise of the self-made city". India Today. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Sujatha, S (13 January 2010). "Coimbatore gears up for IT revolution, Tidel park to be ready by April end". The Economic Times. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "Indian Government press release". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "BJP Working Hard for PM Modi Visit's Success". The New Indian Express. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "SME sector: Opportunities, challenges in Coimbatore". CNBC-TV18. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Governor congratulates 'Manchester of South India'". The Indian Express. 27 June 1936. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Bosch picks up 1-lakh-sqft space in Kovai". The Times of India. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "Delhi tops 2010 ranking of India's most competitive city". The Economic Times. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "About Intec Expo". Intecexpo.com. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "First pillar free trade complex". The Hindu. 20 August 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "State wise number of cotton mills" (PDF). Confederation of Textile Industry. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
- "About us, SITRA". SITRA. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "FE Editorial Indication of incompetence". Financial Express. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "31 ethnic Indian products given GI protection". Financial Express. 4 April 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Indian cities among global outsourcing cities". The Economic Times. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- Govardan, D. "City of future". mydigitalfc.com. Financial Chronicle. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Bosch picks up 1 lakh sqft space in Coimbatore". The Times of India. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Coimbatore: IT sector on the fast track". India Today. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "A non-conformist genius Architects of Coimbatore". The Hindu. Coimbatore, India. 10 January 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Yegya Narayanan, R. "Coimbatore's small auto component makers find the going tough". Business Line.
- "Poll code set to hit wet grinders business". Live Mint. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "Wet grinder units form group to get SIDBI aid". Business Line. 24 March 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Common facility for wet grinders". The Hindu. 5 August 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Poor sales hit pump unit owners, workers". Times of India. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "India's Gems and Jewellery Market is Glittering". Resource Investor. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "Kirtilal on an expansion spree". Fashion United. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "India's gems and jewellery market is glittering". Resource Investor. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "Labor intensity report" (PDF). National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC). Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "Common facilities for jewellery cluster". The Hindu. 17 August 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- Palaniappan, V. S. (16 August 2010). "ID card mooted for migrant workers in jewellery units". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "Kirtilal plans more jewellery stores in N. India". Business Line. 8 September 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "Tamil Nadu Poultry Industry Seeks Export Concessions". Financial Express. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- Srinivasan, Pankaja (14 September 2011). "Suite promises". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide plans more Aloft hotels in India". The Times of India. 11 September 2011. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012.
- Sivashankar, Nithya (15 September 2011). "For the young and restless". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Tier II And III Cities Driving E-Commerce In India". Siliconindia.com. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Is Coimbatore the next BPO city?". CNBC-TV18. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "German state keen to share expertise with Coimbatore". Business Line. 22 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Residential space: Coimbatore spins a growth story". The Economic Times. 17 January 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Some music lovers still travel to Chennai for cultural overdoze". The Times of India. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "World Tamil Conference begins on Wed in Coimbatore". NDTV. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- "A time of troubles". Frontline. 7 March 1998. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- Silva, Severine (1963). Toponomy of Canara. University of Michigan. p. 34.
In the southern part of Mysore the Tamil language is at this day named the Kangee, from being best known to them as the language of the people of Kangiam
- Poezold, F; Simpson, William (1809). Tamil̲umaiṅakilēcumāyirukakir̲a akarāti (2nd ed.). Oxford University.
- Census of India, 1971: Tamil Nadu. Government of India. 1979. pp. 88–89.
- Rajan, M.C (7 February 2010). "It's passion for the mother tongue not chauvinism". India Today. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- "Majority should protect the minority". The Hindu. 4 October 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Keralites' wishes take flight on Paramount's wings". The Indian Express. 8 November 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Providing quality education". The Hindu. 24 September 2006. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Census India Library". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Harriss, John; Kannan, Kappadath Parameswara; Rodgers, Gerry (1990). Urban labour market structure and job access in India: a study of Coimbatore. International Institute for Labour Studies, Centre for Development Studies, University of East Anglia. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-92-9014-468-7.
- "Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu" (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "KMK plans to overcome casteist tag". The Hindu. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Roots of capital". Frontline. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Rajagopuram for Kovai Koniamman temple too". The Indian Express. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Suryanarayanan, R (27 May 2005). "Rich in history and architecture". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- R, Balapattabi (1 August 2006). Nectarine Leelas of Bhagawan Sri Sathya Sai Baba. Sai Towers. p. 108. ISBN 978-81-7899-009-5.
- N, Kasthuri (16 April 2014). Sathyam Shivam Sundaram - Volume 1. Sri Sathya Sai Sadhana Trust. ISBN 978-93-5069-170-0.
- "Traffic diversions for temple festival tomorrow". The Hindu. 21 April 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "About us, Eachanari Vinayagar Temple". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "Eachanari Vinayagar Temple" (in Tamil). Dinamalar. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- Knapp, Stephen (2009). Spiritual India Handbook. Jaico Publishing House. pp. 428–30. ISBN 978-81-8495-024-3.
- Subburaj, A (27 September 2015). "Domestic tourism flourishes in Coimbatore district". Times of India. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "Thai Poosam celebrated with fervourt". The Hindu. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "Shani peyarchi celebrated in Shiva temples". Dina Thanthi (in Tamil). 16 December 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "Shani peyarchi celebrated in Puliakulam temple". Dinamani (in Tamil). 17 December 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "Sri Ashtamsa Varadha Anjaneyar Temple" (in Tamil). Dinamalar. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- Vasudev, Sadhguru Jaggi (2000). Dhyanalinga: The Silent Revolution. Isha Foundation. ISBN 978-81-87910-00-8.
- Rangaswamy, Sudhakshina (25 July 2003). "Transformation of the inner Self". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Baliga, B.S. (1966). Madras District Gazetteers: Coimbatore. Superintendent, Government Press.
- Hiltebeitel, Alf (2011). When the Goddess was a Woman. BRILL. p. 388. ISBN 978-90-04-19380-2.
- "This road leads to Kovai's only gurdwara". The Times of India. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Serving on a banana leaf". ISCKON. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- "The Benefits Of Eating Food On Banana Leaves". India Times. 9 March 2015.
- "Snack Street combines taste of street food with hygiene of restaurant". The Hindu. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Achaya, K.T. (1 November 2003). The story of our food. Universities Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-81-7371-293-7.
- Balasubramanian, D (21 October 2014). "Changes in the Indian menu over the ages". The Hindu.
- "Kovakkai, Kongunadu and Quizzing". The Hindu. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Nagarajan, Rema (26 March 2011). "Taste some cuisine from Kongunadu". Times of India. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- Kannadasan, Akila (2 November 2012). "A rainy day". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Nath, Parthasarathy (27 May 2013). "A taste of tradition". The Hindu. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "He brought cinema to South". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Brahmanyan". The Times of India. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- M. Allirajan (17 November 2003). "Reel-time nostalgia". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "In December, all the city's a stage". The Times of India. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "The natural witness". The Hindu. 19 October 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Gass Forest Museum to be reopened". The Hindu. 21 January 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
- "Prime Minister holds infrastructure meet, but Mukul Roy is missing". NDTV. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
Prime Minister said this year will see a series of new projects being commissioned, including international airports for Lucknow, Varanasi, Coimbatore, Trichy and Gaya
- "Cabinet grants international airport status to five airports". The Economic Times. New Delhi. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- G, Gurumurthy (4 February 2006). "It's now a buzzing airport!". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Traffic Statistics-2015" (PDF). AAI. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Aircraft Movements-2015" (PDF). AAI. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Cargo Statistics-2015" (PDF). AAI. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Coimbatore sees growth in air passenger traffic". The Hindu. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "Extended runway ready at Coimbatore Airport". The Hindu. 20 April 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- "Air Carnival sees no air pockets, to launch by April". Financial Express. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Srinivasan, Pankaja (10 August 2015). "Air Fest: The flight of the Peacock". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "IAF begins establishing first LCA squadron". Deccan Herald. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Sukhoi-30 MKI aircraft for Sulur IAF station by 2016". The Hindu. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "IR History – Early days". IRFCA. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "Indian Railways Passenger Reservation Enquiry". Availability in trains for Top 100 Booking Stations of Indian Railways. Indian Railways. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "Railways in Coimbatore". raac.co.in. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "Coimbatore Junction neglected". The Hindu. 31 August 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Trains to be diverted near Coimbatore". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 26 January 2004. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Podanur Junction". Indian Rail Info. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- Palaniappan, V.S. (11 June 2012). "Will Coimbatore's gain be Podanur's loss?". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Karthik Madhavan (4 September 2012). "A fresh look at Mass Public Transport System for city". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- TNN 22 Aug 2012, 04.19AM IST (22 August 2012). "Corporation speeds up work to begin mono rail project". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- V.S., Palaniappan (26 October 2012). "Work begins on Green Corridor concept for Mettupalayam Road". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Coimbatore Bypass Road". New Delhi: Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Palaniappan, V.S. (30 August 2008). "Ring road to de-congest Coimbatore". The Hindu. Coimbatore. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- "Coimbatore By-pass (Tamil Nadu)". L&T IDPL. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- "Coimbatore Bypass: First road Privatization Project" (PDF). L&T ECC. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- "Announcement on flyovers brings cheer to city". The Hindu. Coimbatore. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- "Govt revises bypass project to minimize displacement". The Times of India. Coimbatore. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Palaniappan, V. S. (8 January 2012). "Bridge works across six level crossings speed up". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "National Highways and their lengths". National Highways Authority of India. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Rationalization of Numbering Systems of National Highways" (PDF). Govt of India. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 21 Aug 2011.
- "TNSTC, Coimbatore" (PDF). TNSTC. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Town bus services, Coimbatore". Coimbatore Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "Buses to ply from Mettupalayam Road bus stand from today". The Hindu. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- "Special buses to clear Pongal rush". The Hindu. 8 January 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- "Coimbatore waits for shuttle train services". The Hindu. 29 June 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- "Minister inaugurates omnibus stand". The Hindu. 2 July 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- "Coimbatore BRTS" (PDF). Coimbatore Corporation. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "Uber Expands India Footprint as It Looks Beyond Metros". NDTV. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "RTO Locations". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Coimbatore calling". Business Line. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- "Government Arts College". Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Manual under the RTI Act, 2005 (PDF) (Report). Department of Education, Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Indian Air Force - AFAC". Indian Air Force. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Kumar, D Suresh (19 April 2009). "Chennai, Kovai engineering colleges, a hit". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Medical college plan on ESI hospital premises". The Hindu. 25 October 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, India". avinuty.ac.in. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Working group committee on agriculture (PDF) (Report). Planning Commission of India. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "About ICFRE". Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "About Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education". Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Land to be identified for World-Class University". The Hindu. 9 August 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- Subramanian, T. S (19 July 2008). "Tailor-made courses". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Class 10 examinations get under way". The Hindu. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "SSLC: overall pass percentage improves in Coimbatore". The Hindu. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "The New Indian Express". readwhere.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Dinamalar" (in Tamil). dinamalar.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Dinakaran" (in Tamil). dinakaran.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Dinamani" (in Tamil). dinamani.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Newspaper list, Coimbatore". hudku.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Lotus News". lotusnews.tv. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "All India Radio Services". Prasar Bharti. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "All India Radio FM Rainbow". Prasar Bharti. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Suryan FM, Coimbatore". suryanfm.in. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "98.3 FM Coimbatore". radiomirchi.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Radio City, Coimbatore". planetradiocity.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Pillay, Ashmita (22 June 2007). "Radio City 91.1 FM forges a strategic alliance with 'Vibgyor Brand Services'". Indiaprwire.com. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Hello FM, Coimbatore". hello.fm. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Coimbatore gets modern Doordarshan Studio Centre". The Hindu. 16 August 2005. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Deadline for urban cable TV viewers ends, will have to install STBs". The Times of India. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "BSNL's broadband facility launched in Coimbatore, Tirupur". Business Line. 25 January 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Infrastructure advantage". The Hindu. 17 January 2004. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Aircel to create blood group database". Business Line. 3 October 2002. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Super specialty hospitals: The latest fad in texcity". The Economic Times. 19 April 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Coimbatore health care sector facing staff shortage". Business Line. 31 May 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Coimbatore Medical College Hospital". Coimbatore Medical College. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Mukerji, Chandralekha (1 October 2013). "Leaving The Big City". Business Today. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Super specialty hospitals: The latest fad in texcity". The Economic Times. 19 April 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "The caregivers". indiablooms.com. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Medical tourism on upswing in Coimbatore". The Hindu. 4 April 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- Rozario, Rayan (4 November 2011). "Coimbatore may have a Grade 3 circuit, says Narain". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
city, oft referred to as India's motor sport hub, may well have a Grade 3 racing circuit in the years to come
- "City of speed". The Hindu. 24 April 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
- "To Kari, with Love". The Hindu. 1 December 2003. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- "MRF to assemble advanced F1 cars next year: Scouting for component suppliers". Machinist.in. 2011-10-26. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "A rage on the rally circuit". Sports Star. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "Naren Kumar aims to be best in Asia-Pacific zone". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "Nehru stadium gets a makeover". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "Location of Coimbatore golf club". Coimbatore Golf Club. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "100-year-old club of Coimbatore". The Hindu. 25 September 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- "List of Flying Clubs" (PDF). DGCA. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "Coimbatore Marathon". coimbatoremarathon.com. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "Nirupama Vaidyanathan". The Hindu. 13 January 2001. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- "A day to remember for CDCA". The Hindu. 11 January 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- "Nilgiri Biosphere Nature Park - Nature conservation organisation coimbatore". Nbnaturepark.com. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Coimbatore-based retail chain, Shri Kannan on expansion mode". The Economic Times. 30 October 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- Madhavan, Karthik (26 October 2014). "Animal adoption program draws a blank". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Plans on to revamp VOC Park". The Hindu. 26 October 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- "Republic Day celebrated with pomp, gaiety". The Hindu. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- "Singanallur lake". The Hindu. 30 July 2006. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "South India Box Office roundup of Maryan". behindwoods.com. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Kandavel, Sangeeta (11 February 2016). "Sathyam Cinemas forays into Mumbai". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Jain, Varun (12 February 2016). "Cinepolis opens multiplex in Chandigarh". The Economic Times. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Sewage treatment plant inaugurated". The Hindu. 2 March 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- Vidhya Sivaramakrishnan; John Samuel Raja D. (27 January 2008). "Coimbatore struggles to address its civic infrastructure woes". The Mint. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Madhavan, Karthik (14 December 2010). "Waste management to improve". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Water resources under constant abuse". The Hindu. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Lenin Sundar M; M Sasidharan. "Ground water quality in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu along Noyyal River" (PDF). Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Vinoj Kumar, PC (24 February 2007). "TN will face crisis warn experts". Tehelka. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "PWD hands over custody of tanks to Coimbatore Corporation". The Hindu. 29 January 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Two major tanks in city to be linked". The Hindu. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Corporation removes encroachment on tank". The Hindu. 1 August 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Fresh efforts to remove encroachments". The Hindu. 26 December 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Narayanan, R.Y. (25 July 2003). "Drive to rejuvenate Coimbatore water tanks". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Attempt to cut tree triggers protest". The Hindu. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Protest against felling of trees". The Hindu. 28 December 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Environment organizations protest oppose". The Hindu. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Snares to trap wild animals found". The Hindu. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Set them free". The Hindu. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Parakeets rescued". The Hindu. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Monitor lizards rescued". The Hindu. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "A roar of approval". The Hindu. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Stripe search". The Hindu. 2 September 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "ECG to conduct nature camp". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Bird watching excursion". The Hindu. 6 May 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Birds rescued". The Hindu. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Tiger express on school trail". The Hindu. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Coimbatore, India". toledosistercities.org. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Coimbatore inks MoU with Esslingen". The Hindu. 2 July 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- "10th sister to join in Toledo's alliances". Toledo Blade. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Two cities make history". Esslinger-zeitung. 2 July 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- "Alliance Française de Madras". afindia.org. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
|Look up Coimbatore in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coimbatore.|