Coins of the Hungarian pengő

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Hungarian pengő coins (Hungarian: pengő érmék) were part of the physical form of Hungary's historical currency, the Hungarian pengő. Initially, higher value coins were made of silver to reflect value and stability. Later, during the second world war, these coins were replaced first by banknotes and later by aluminium coins. By the end of 1945, pengő coins completely lost their value due to rampant inflation.

Prewar series (1926-1940)[edit]

Before the World War II, the fillér and pengő coins were made of bronze (1 and 2 f), cupronickel (10, 20, and 50 f), and 640 ‰ fine silver (1, 2, and 5 P). Commemorative 2 and 5 pengő coins were issued on anniversaries in large quantities (hundreds of thousands) and were released into circulation. The coins had Baroque style, the most important designers were János Pálinkás, Lajos Berán, and József Reményi.

Although pengő was based on gold standard, and the quality standards of gold coins (10 and 20 pengő) were enacted,[1] no gold coins were released into circulation due to the Great Depression.[2]

Prewar series - Regular issues
Image Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse first minting issue withdrawal
HUPf 1 1938 obverse.jpg HUPf 1 1938 reverse.jpg 1 f 17.0 mm 1.0 mm 1.66 g Bronze
95% copper
4% tin
1% zinc
Smooth "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG",1 Holy Crown of Hungary, year of minting Value, mintmark 1926 27 December 1926 31 December 1945
HUPf 2 1931 reverse.jpg HUPf 2 1931 obverse.jpg 2 f 19.0 mm 1.5 mm 3.33 g
HUPf 10 1938 reverse.jpg HUPf 10 1938 obverse.jpg 10 f 19.0 mm 1.5 mm 3.0 g Cupronickel
75% copper
25% nickel
Smooth "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", Holy Crown of Hungary, year of minting Value, mintmark 1926 27 December 1926 30 April 1942
HUPf 20 1926 obverse.jpg HUPf 20 1926 reverse.jpg 20 f 21.0 mm 1.6 mm 4.0 g
HUPf 50 1926 reverse.jpg HUPf 50 1926 obverse.jpg 50 f 22.0 mm 1.7 mm 5.0 g Milled
HUP 1coin 1939 obverse.jpg HUP 1coin 1939 reverse.jpg 1 P 23.0 mm 1.5 mm 5.0 g 640‰ silver Incused "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms, year of minting 31 January 1942
HUP 2coin 1936 obverse.jpg HUP 2coin 1936 reverse.jpg 2 P 27.0 mm 2.1 mm 10.0 g "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms with angels, value, mintmark "MAGYARORSZÁG VÉDASSZONYA",2 Madonna and Child, year of minting 1929 25 June 1930
HUP 5coin 1939 obverse.jpg HUP 5coin 1939 reverse.jpg 5 P 36.0 mm 3.0 mm 25.0 g "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms with angels, value, mintmark, year of minting "VITÉZ NAGYBÁNYAI HORTHY MIKLÓS MAGYARORSZÁG KORMÁNYZÓJA",3 Miklós Horthy 1938 15 March 1939 31 October 1945
10 P (trial strike) 18.0 mm  ? mm 2.9239765 g 900‰ gold Milled "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms with angels, year of minting Value, mintmark 1927 never -
20 P (trial strike) 20.0 mm  ? mm 5.8479531 g
Prewar series - Commemorative issues
HUP 2Pazmany 1935 reverse.jpg HUP 2Pazmany 1935 obverse.jpg 2 P 27.0 mm 2.1 mm 10.0 g 640‰ silver Incused "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms, value, year of minting, mintmark "A 300 ÉVES KIR PÁZMÁNY PÉTER TUD EGYETEM ALAPÍTÁSÁNAK EMLÉKÉRE",4 Péter Pázmány with two students 1935 25 September 1935 31 January 1942
HUP 2Rakoczi 1935 reverse.jpg HUP 2Rakoczi 1935 obverse.jpg 2 P "II RÁKÓCZI FERENC 1676-1735", Francis II Rákóczi 31 December 1935
HUP 2Liszt 1936 reverse.jpg HUP 2Liszt 1936 obverse.jpg 2 P "LISZT FERENC A NAGY MAGYAR ZENEKÖLTŐ EMLÉKÉRE",5 "1811-1886", Franz Liszt 1936 10 August 1936
HUP 5coin 1930 reverse.jpg HUP 5coin 1930 obverse.jpg 5 P 36.0 mm 3.0 mm 25.0 g Milled "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms with angels, value, mintmark "VITÉZ NAGYBÁNYAI HORTHY MIKLÓS KORMÁNYZÓSÁGÁNAK 10 ÉVFORDULÓJÁRA",6 Miklós Horthy, year of minting 1930 25 June 1930 31 October 1945
HUP 5SZT Istvan 1938 reverse.jpg HUP 5SZT Istvan 1938 obverse.jpg 5 P Incused "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms, value, mintmark, year of minting "SZT ISTVÁN", "969-1038", Stephen I of Hungary 1938 12 August 1938
These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimeter, a standard for world coins. For table standards, see the coin specification table.

War series (1940-1944)[edit]

As a consequence of the war, the government recalled the silver pengő coins (deadline: 31 January 1942) to prevent personal hoarding. These were replaced by newly designed aluminium coins. Later the cupronickel 10, 20 and 50 fillér coins were recalled as well, moreover, even the bronze 1 and 2 fillér coins disappeared after a time. First, they were replaced by steel, later - in the case of the 2 fillér - with zinc coins. The war coins were redesigned by Lajos Berán. As the war escalated, non of the above metals was cheap enough to mint coins. The solution was the issuing of low denomination paper money (see there).

War series - Regular issues
Image Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse first minting issue withdrawal
HUPf 2 1940steel obverse.jpg HUPf 2 1940steel reverse.jpg 2 f 19.0 mm 1.6 mm 3.33 g Steel Smooth "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", Holy Crown of Hungary, year of minting Value, mintmark 1940 4 November 1940 30 April 1941
HUPf 2 1940milled obverse.jpg HUPf 2 1940milled reverse.jpg 2 f Brim striated

Edge smooth

20 January 1941 31 December 1945
HUPf 2 1944 obverse.jpg HUPf 2 1944 reverse.jpg 2 f 17.0 mm 2.0 mm 2.0 g Zinc Smooth 1943 17 February 1943
HUPf 10 1942 obverse.jpg HUPf 10 1942 reverse.jpg 10 f 20.0 mm 1.4 mm 3.0 g Steel 1940 4 November 1940
HUPf 20 1941 obverse.jpg HUPf 20 1941 reverse.jpg 20 f 21.0 mm
hole: 5.0 mm
1.7 mm 3.6 g 1941 11 November 1941
HUP 1 1941 obverse.jpg HUP 1 1941 reverse.jpg 1 P 23.7 mm 1.6 mm 1.5 g Aluminium Milled "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms Value, mintmark, year of minting 9 June 1941
HUP 2coin 1941 obverse.jpg HUP 2coin 1943 reverse.jpg 2 P 28.0 mm 2.3 mm 2.8 g "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms, year of minting Value, mintmark
War series - Commemorative issue
HUP 5coin 1943 reverse.jpg HUP 5coin 1943 obverse.jpg 5 P 36.0 mm 2.6 mm 6.0 g Aluminium Milled "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG", coat of arms with angels, value, mintmark, year of minting "VITÉZ NAGYBÁNYAI HORTHY MIKLÓS MAGYARORSZÁG KORMÁNYZÓJA SZÜLETÉSÉNEK 75 ÉVFORDULÓJÁRA",7 Miklós Horthy 1943 8 June 1943 31 October 1945
These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimeter, a standard for world coins. For table standards, see the coin specification table.

Postwar series (1945)[edit]

Only an aluminium 5-pengő-coin was minted under the postwar government. Due to the rampant inflation, all coins were withdrawn from circulation by the end of 1945.

Postwar series - Regular issue
Image Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse first minting issue withdrawal
HUP 5 1945 obverse.jpg HUP 5 1945 reverse.jpg 5 P 32.0 mm 2.6 mm 4.5 g Aluminium Milled Coat of arms, value, mintmark, year of minting "MAGYAR ÁLLAMI VÁLTÓPÉNZ",8 Hungarian Parliament Building 1945 1 September 1945 31 December 1945
These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimeter, a standard for world coins. For table standards, see the coin specification table.

Source:

Remarks[edit]

  1. "MAGYAR KIRÁLYSÁG" = "Kingdom of Hungary"
  2. "MAGYARORSZÁG VÉDASSZONYA" = "Patroness of Hungary"
  3. "VITÉZ NAGYBÁNYAI HORTHY MIKLÓS MAGYARORSZÁG KORMÁNYZÓJA" = "Vitéz Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Regent of Hungary"
  4. "A 300 ÉVES KIR PÁZMÁNY PÉTER TUD EGYETEM ALAPÍTÁSÁNAK EMLÉKÉRE" = "Anniversary of the establishment of the 300-year-old Péter Pázmány University of Sciences"
  5. "LISZT FERENC A NAGY MAGYAR ZENEKÖLTŐ EMLÉKÉRE" = "To the memory of Franz Liszt, the great Hungarian composer"
  6. "VITÉZ NAGYBÁNYAI HORTHY MIKLÓS KORMÁNYZÓSÁGÁNAK 10 ÉVFORDULÓJÁRA" = "To the 10th anniversary of the regency of Vitéz Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya"
  7. "VITÉZ NAGYBÁNYAI HORTHY MIKLÓS MAGYARORSZÁG KORMÁNYZÓJA SZÜLETÉSÉNEK 75 ÉVFORDULÓJÁRA" = "To the 75th anniversary of the birth of Vitéz Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Regent of Hungary"
  8. "MAGYAR ÁLLAMI VÁLTÓPÉNZ" = "Hungarian state (or treasury) change money"

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Hungarian) www.1000ev.hu (the Law No. XXXV 1925 - definition of the pengő value and related regulations)
  2. ^ (Hungarian) www.penzportal.hu (Foreign exchange control in Hungary)