Coit Memorial Tower
|Location||1 Telegraph Hill Blvd.|
San Francisco, California
|Area||1.7 acres (0.69 ha)|
|Architect||Brown, Arthur Jr.|
|Architectural style||Art Deco|
|NRHP reference No.||07001468|
|Added to NRHP||January 29, 2008|
Coit Tower is a 210-foot (64 m) tower in the Telegraph Hill neighborhood of San Francisco, California, offering panoramic views over the city and the bay. The tower, in the city's Pioneer Park, was built between 1932 and 1933 using Lillie Hitchcock Coit's bequest to beautify the city of San Francisco. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 29, 2008.
The Art Deco tower, built of unpainted reinforced concrete, was designed by architects Arthur Brown, Jr. and Henry Temple Howard. The interior features fresco murals in the American fresco mural painting style, painted by 25 different onsite artists and their numerous assistants, plus two additional paintings installed after creation offsite.
Also known as the Coit Memorial Tower, it was dedicated to the volunteer firemen who had died in San Francisco's five major fires. A concrete relief of a phoenix by sculptor Robert Boardman Howard is placed above the main entrance. It was commissioned by the architect and cast as part of the building.
Although an apocryphal story claims that the tower was designed to resemble a fire hose nozzle due to Coit's affinity with the San Francisco firefighters of the day, the resemblance is coincidental.
Telegraph Hill, the tower's location, has been described as "the most optimal 360 degree viewing point to the San Francisco Bay and five surrounding counties." In 1849, it became the site of a two-story observation deck, from which information about incoming ships was broadcast to city residents using an optical semaphore system, replaced in 1853 by an electrical telegraph that was destroyed by a storm in 1870.
Coit Tower was paid for with money left by Lillie Hitchcock Coit (1843–1929), a wealthy socialite who loved to chase fires in the early days of the city's history. Before December 1866, there was no city fire department, and fires in the city, which broke out regularly in the wooden buildings, were extinguished by several volunteer fire companies. Coit was one of the more eccentric characters in the history of North Beach and Telegraph Hill, smoking cigars and wearing trousers long before it was socially acceptable for women to do so. She was an avid gambler and often dressed like a man in order to gamble in the males-only establishments that dotted North Beach.
Coit's fortune funded the monument four years following her death in 1929. She had a special relationship with the city's firefighters. At the age of fifteen she witnessed the Knickerbocker Engine Co. No. 5 in response to a fire call up on Telegraph Hill when they were shorthanded; she threw her school books to the ground and pitched in to help, calling out to other bystanders to help get the engine up the hill to the fire, to get the first water onto the blaze. After that Coit became the Engine Co. mascot and could barely be constrained by her parents from jumping into action at the sound of every fire bell. She frequently rode with the Knickerbocker Engine Co. 5, especially in street parades and celebrations in which the Engine Co. participated. Through her youth and adulthood Coit was recognized as an honorary firefighter.
In her will she specified that one third of her fortune, amounting to $118,000, "be expended in an appropriate manner for the purpose of adding to the beauty of the city which I have always loved." Two memorials were built in her name. One was Coit Tower, and the other was a sculpture depicting three firemen, one of them carrying a woman in his arms.
The San Francisco County Board of Supervisors proposed that Coit's bequest be used for a road at Lake Merced. This proposal brought disapproval from the estate's executors, who expressed a desire that the county find "ways and means of expending this money on a memorial that in itself would be an entity and not a unit of public development". Art Commission president Herbert Fleishhacker suggested a memorial on Telegraph Hill, which was approved by the estate executors. An additional $7,000 in city funds was appropriated, and a design competition was initiated. The winner was architect Arthur Brown, Jr, whose design was completed and dedicated on October 8, 1933.
Coit Tower was listed as a San Francisco Designated Landmark in 1984 and on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008. Although Coit Tower itself is not technically a California Historical Landmark, the state historical plaque for Telegraph Hill is located in the tower's lobby, marking the site of the original signal station.
The San Francisco Arts Commission ordered the removal of the Statue of Christopher Columbus that had stood outside the entrance of the tower since 1957, following numerous other removals of controversial statues during the George Floyd protests that began in May 2020, and it was removed on June 18, 2020.
Brown's competition design envisioned a restaurant in the tower, which was changed to an exhibition area in the final version. The design uses three nesting concrete cylinders, the outermost a tapering fluted 180-foot (55 m) shaft that supports the viewing platform. An intermediate shaft contains a stairway, and an inner shaft houses the elevator. The observation deck is 32 feet (9.8 m) below the top, with an arcade and skylights above it. A rotunda at the base houses display space and a gift shop.
Potable water is pumped from a water main at street level to two 1,000 US gal (3,800 L) tanks on the fifth floor, and gravity is used to feed all systems in the tower; a booster pump was installed later at the tanks to provide adequate pressure for the restrooms. Because of this arrangement, the murals (on the second and ground floors) are vulnerable to water damage from system leaks, which could be avoided if adequate pressure was available from the water supply at the street.
|1||a||Animal Force||Ray Boynton||10 ft × 36 ft
3.0 m × 11.0 m (aggregate)
|First mural visible as visitors enter the rotunda; left and right panels are separated by "Old Man Weather" over the entrance to the elevator lobby. Animal Force has an alcove with a bronze plaque and commemorative dates; this panel depicts the use of animals in agriculture. Machine Force shows construction, transportation, and power production machines.||: 67–69  |
|2||California Industrial Scenes||John Langley Howard||10 ft × 24 ft
3.0 m × 7.3 m
|Industrial scenes, including construction, oil recovery, and mining; ironic points include use of hand tools and a broken-down car.||: 70–72  |
|3||Railroad and Shipping||William Hesthal||10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
|Train and ship, used to transport goods; a narrow window interrupts the center of the panel.||: 73  |
|4||a||Steelworker||Clifford Wight||10 ft × 4 ft
3.0 m × 1.2 m (each)
|Straddles windows on the west wall; originally linked by a bridge with controversial symbols depicting capitalism and communism, but these elements were removed before 1934.||: 74–75 |
|5||Industries of California||Ralph Stackpole||10 ft × 36 ft
3.0 m × 11.0 m
|Industrial scenes, including food production and a chemical laboratory. Depicts several artists, including Tom Lehman (pouring chemicals), William Hesthal (bending over table in checked shirt), and Helen Clement Mills (part of packing crew).||: 76–77  |
|6||Newsgathering||Suzanne Scheuer and Hebe Daum||10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
|Newspaper offices; the window ledge has a replica of the front page of the San Francisco Chronicle, celebrating the completion of the murals.||: 78–79 |
|7||Library||Bernard Zakheim||10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
|Public library; individual portraits depict numerous artists, family, and friends alongside current news topics.||: 80–82  |
|8||a||Scientist-Inventor||Harold Mallette Dean||10 ft × 4 ft
3.0 m × 1.2 m (each)
|Straddles windows on the south wall; stockbroker may depict Amadeo Giannini, while scientist stands in front of Lick Observatory.||: 83 |
|9||City Life||Victor Arnautoff||10 ft × 36 ft
3.0 m × 11.0 m
|Depicts busy street scenes in the Financial District of San Francisco, based on the corner of Montgomery and Washington.||: 84–87  |
|10||Banking and Law||George Albert Harris||10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
|Depicts Federal Reserve Bank, Stock Exchange, and a law library.||: 88–89 |
|11||Department Store||Frede Vidar||10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
|Contemporary department store interior, including soda fountain.||: 90–92 |
|12||a||Cowboy||Clifford Wight||10 ft × 4 ft
3.0 m × 1.2 m (each)
|Straddles windows on the east wall; farmer may depict Ralph Stackpole while cowboy may depict Wight.||: 93 |
|13||California||Maxine Albro||10 ft × 36 ft
3.0 m × 11.0 m
|Depicts agricultural scenes from California; most portraits are friends of Albro, including her future husband (Parker Hall, next to apricot trays) and Ralph Stackpole (checkered shirt).||: 94–96  |
|14||Meat Industry||Ray Bertrand||10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
|Slaughterhouse and meat packing operations.||: 97 |
|15||California Agricultural Industry||Gordon Langdon and Helen Clement Mills||10 ft × 27 ft
3.0 m × 8.2 m
|Dairy and timber industries.||: 98–99 |
|20||Power||Frederick E. Olmsted Jr.||3 ft × 3 ft
0.91 m × 0.91 m
|Transition piece flanked by industrial scenes, over rotunda entrance||: 106 |
|Elevator lobby murals|
|16||San Francisco Bay||Otis Oldfield||9 ft × 4+1⁄2 ft
2.7 m × 1.4 m
|Oil on canvas, depicts view from Telegraph Hill towards Berkeley.||: 100–101  |
|17||San Francisco Bay, North||Jose Moya del Pino||9 ft × 4+1⁄2 ft
2.7 m × 1.4 m
|Oil on canvas, depicts view from Telegraph Hill towards Marin County, including Alcatraz Island.||: 102  |
|18||a||Bay Area Hills||Rinaldo Cuneo||9 ft × 4+1⁄2 ft
2.7 m × 1.4 m (each)
|Depicts agricultural scenes from the Santa Clara Valley and Berkeley Hills.||: 103  |
|19||a||Bay Area Map||Otis Oldfield||3 ft × 4+1⁄2 ft
0.91 m × 1.37 m (each)
|Installed in lunette spaces over doorways in elevator lobby.||: 104–105  |
|Spiral staircase murals (special access required)|
|21||Powell Street||Lucien Labaudt||6 ft × 32 ft
1.8 m × 9.8 m (each of two panels)
|Largest mural in Coit Tower; most portraits are recognizable.||: 107–110  |
|Upper level murals|
|22||Collegiate Sports||Parker Hall||9 ft × 13 ft
2.7 m × 4.0 m
|Includes depiction of The Big Game between California and Stanford||: 111 |
|23||Sports||Edward Terada||9 ft × 19 ft
2.7 m × 5.8 m
|Leisure sports, including golf and polo||: 112 |
|24||Children at Play||Ralph Chesse||9 ft × 6 ft
2.7 m × 1.8 m
|Playground||: 113 |
|25||Hunting in California||Edith Hamlin||9 ft × 12 ft
2.7 m × 3.7 m
|Ducks and deer||: 114–115  |
|26||Outdoor Life||Ben F. Cunningham||9 ft × 22 ft
2.7 m × 6.7 m
|Picnickers, bathers, photographers, hikers||: 116–117 |
|27||Home Life||Jane Berlandina||9 ft × 34 ft
2.7 m × 10.4 m
|In a separate room, shows typical home life activities, including contract bridge, baking, music making, and newspaper reading||: 118–120  |
The Coit Tower murals in the American Social Realism style formed the pilot project of the Public Works of Art Project, the first of the New Deal federal employment programs for artists. Ralph Stackpole and Bernard Zakheim successfully sought the commission in 1933, and supervised the muralists, including Maxine Albro, Victor Arnautoff, Jane Berlandina, Ray Bertrand, Ray Boynton, Ralph Chessé, Rinaldo Cuneo, Ben F. Cunningham, Mallette "Harold" Dean, Parker Hall, Edith Hamlin, George Albert Harris, William Hesthal, John Langley Howard, Lucien Labaudt, Gordon Langdon, Jose Moya del Pino Otis Oldfield, Frederick E. Olmsted Jr., Suzanne Scheuer, Edward Terada, Frede Vidar, and Clifford Wight. Many were faculty and students of the California School of Fine Arts (CSFA).
These artists (chosen by Walter Heil, director of the de Young Museum, together with other officials) were each paid $25 to $45 per week to depict "aspects of life in California." The most well-known of them were assigned sections that were 10 by 36 feet (3.0 by 11.0 m) in size, while less famous artists were confined to 10 by 4 feet (3.0 by 1.2 m).
Industry both in the city and out in the fields was an important theme in the murals.
(Maxine Albro, Agriculture in California 13 )
A scene of city life, including a robbery on the bottom right, and a car accident in the center.
(Victor Arnautoff, City Life 9 )
The artists were committed in varying degrees to racial equality and to leftist and Marxist political ideas, which are strongly expressed in the paintings. Bernard Zakheim's mural Library 7 depicts fellow artist John Langley Howard crumpling a newspaper in his left hand as he reaches for a shelved copy of Karl Marx's Das Kapital (here spelled as Das Capital) with his right. Workers of all races are shown as equals, often in the heroic poses of Socialist realism, while well-dressed racially white members of the capitalist classes enjoy the fruit of their labor.
John Langley Howard's mural California Industrial Scenes 2 depicts an ethnically diverse Labor March as well as showing a destitute family panning for gold while a wealthy, heavily caricatured ensemble observes.
Stackpole's Industries of California 5 was composed along the same lines as an early study of the destroyed Man at the Crossroads.
The youngest of the muralists, George Albert Harris, painted a mural called Banking and Law 10 . In the mural, the world of finance is represented by the Federal Reserve Bank and a stock market ticker (in which stocks are shown as declining) and law is illustrated by a law library. Some of the book titles that appear in the law library, such as Civil, Penal, and Moral Codes, are legitimate, while others list fellow muralists as authors, in a joking or derogatory manner.
After Diego Rivera's Man at the Crossroads mural was destroyed by its Rockefeller Center patrons for the inclusion of an image of Lenin, the Coit Tower muralists protested, picketing the tower. Sympathy for Rivera led some artists to incorporate references to the Rivera incident; in Zakheim's Library panel 7 , Stackpole is painted reading a newspaper headline announcing the destruction of Rivera's mural.
After most of the Coit Tower murals had already been completed, the 1934 West Coast waterfront strike, taking place nearby at the foot of Telegraph Hill, caused government officials, shipping companies, some union leaders and the press to raise fears about communist agitation. This "red scare" has been identified as playing a "crucial role" in a subsequent controversy that mainly focused on two of the murals:
- 4a and 4b : These portraits were linked originally by a third small fresco in which Clifford Wight portrayed capitalism, the New Deal and communism, the three prominent economic systems of the era, with the communism part containing a hammer and sickle and the caption "Workers of the World Unite."
- 2 : John Langley Howard's Industry mural (designed with the support of his architect brother Henry Howard), which depicts California industrial scenes including out-of-work men, and angered conservatives by showing a banner of the communist periodical Western Worker above a crowd of workers.
On June 23, 1934, the conservative banker Herbert Fleishhacker, the most powerful member of the committee allocating funds from the Public Works of Art Project, asked Heil to inspect the art, who telegraphed back that some artists had included "details ... and certain symbols which might be interpreted as communistic propaganda," and that "editors of influential papers ... have warned us that they would take hostile attitude towards whole project unless those details be removed." The official opening of the tower, planned for July 7, was canceled and Fleishhacker ordered to close the tower and to block the view from outside through the windows. Subsequently, articles in the San Francisco Chronicle and The San Francisco Examiner attacked the project, sometimes using misleading representations of the artworks in question, while Wight refused to remove the hammer and sickle symbol from his mural. However, federal government officials decided that the offending parts would need to be painted over, and 16 of the artists signed a statement saying that they opposed the hammer and sickle symbol and that it "has no place in the subject matter assigned." Eventually, only the hammer and sickle and the "Western Worker" banner were removed, and Coit Tower opened on October 12, 1934.
Technical details and access
Two of the murals are of San Francisco Bay scenes. Most murals are done in fresco; the exceptions are one mural done in egg tempera (Home Life by Jane Berlandina, 27 : upstairs, in the last decorated room) and the works done in the elevator foyer, which are oil on canvas ( 16 , 17 , 18 , and 19 ).: 65, 118 While most of the murals were restored in 1990 and again in 2014 through cleaning and touching up scratches, the murals in the spiral stairway exit to the observation platform (Powell Street by Lucien Labaudt) were not restored but durably painted over with epoxy surfacing.
Most of the murals are open for public viewing without charge during open hours, although there are ongoing[when?] negotiations by the Recreation and Parks Department of San Francisco to begin charging visitors a fee to enter the mural rotunda. The murals in the spiral stairway and second floor, normally closed to the public, are open for viewing through tours. Labaudt's Powell Street runs along both sides of the spiral staircase; the second-floor murals all carry recreational themes.
The tower, which stands atop Telegraph Hill in San Francisco's Pioneer Park, offers panoramic views of San Francisco that take in "crooked" Lombard Street, Nob Hill, Russian Hill, Twin Peaks, Aquatic Park, Pier 39, the Financial District and the Ferry Building, as well as San Francisco Bay itself including Angel Island, Alcatraz, Treasure Island, and the Golden Gate and Bay Bridges.
A view of Telegraph Hill from a boat in the San Francisco Bay.
Bay Area Map, mural by Otis Oldfield above the elevator
View from Lombard Street
Coit Tower at night, lit orange in recognition of the San Francisco Giants
In popular culture
Coit Tower is a prominent landscape feature in Alfred Hitchcock's 1958 film, Vertigo, set largely in San Francisco. The character of Madeleine (Kim Novak) tells Scotty (James Stewart) that she has used the tower to orient herself to his apartment, as she did not know his street address; he responds this is the first time he had been grateful for the tower. Art director Henry Bumstead, who worked on Vertigo, noted that Hitchcock was adamant that Coit Tower should be seen in the film from the apartment of the lead character, portrayed by Stewart. When Bumstead asked why, Hitchcock said, "It's a phallic symbol."
Coit Tower is also featured in:
- The Enforcer (1976)
- Tex Murphy series (1989-2014)
- California's Gold Episode 12004
- PBS The History Detectives Episode 709 August 24 2009.
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- "Coit Tower". San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
Contrary to popular belief, Coit Tower was not designed to resemble a firehose nozzle.
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- h2g2 Lillie Hitchcock-Coit – Firefighter
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- Coit Tower water incident (PDF) (Report). City of San Francisco. September 30, 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
- Jewett, Masha Zakheim; Beatty, Don (photographer) (1983). "Part II: The Art, a Walking Guide". Coit Tower, San Francisco: Its History and Art. San Francisco, California: Volcano Press. pp. 65–120. ISBN 0-912078-75-8.
- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Ray Boynton". California Art Research. Vol. 9. pp. 1–29.
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- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "John Langley Howard". California Art Research. Vol. 17. pp. 54–92.
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- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "William Jurgen Hesthal". California Art Research. Vol. 20, Part 1. pp. 8–13.
- "Coit Tower: Hesthal mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
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- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Bernard Boruch Zakheim". California Art Research. Vol. 20, Part 2. pp. 32–113.
- "Coit Tower: Zakheim mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
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- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Viktor Mikhail Arnautoff". California Art Research. Vol. 20, Part 1. pp. 105–124.
- "Coit Tower: Arnautoff mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- "Coit Tower: Harris mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- "Coit Tower: Vidar mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Maxine Albro". California Art Research. Vol. 20, Part 2. pp. 1–15.
- "Coit Tower: Albro mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- "Coit Tower: Bertrand mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- "Coit Tower: Langdon and Clement mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- "Coit Tower: Olmsted mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Otis Oldfield". California Art Research. Vol. 19. pp. 1–28.
- "Coit Tower: Oldfield murals — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Jose Moya del Pino". California Art Research. Vol. 13. pp. 100–140.
- "Coit Tower: Moya del Pino mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Rinaldo Cuneo". California Art Research. Vol. 11. pp. 61–100.
- "Coit Tower: Cuneo mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Lucien Labaudt". California Art Research. Vol. 19. pp. 1–28.
- "Coit Tower: Labaudt mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- "Coit Tower: Hall mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- "Coit Tower: Terada mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- "Coit Tower: Chesse mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Edith Hamlin". California Art Research. Vol. 16. pp. 95–114.
- "Coit Tower: Hamlin mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- "Coit Tower: Cunningham mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Jane Berlandina (Mrs. Henry Temple Howard)". California Art Research. Vol. 17. pp. 110–147.
- "Coit Tower: Berlandina mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- Maxine Albro; Parker Hall (July 27, 1964). "Oral history interview with Maxine Albro and Parker Hall, 1964 July 27" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
- Ralph Chessé (October 22, 1964). "Oral history interview of Ralph Chessé, 1964 October 22" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
- Ralph Chesse (October 22, 1964). "Interview with Ralph Chesse" (PDF) (Interview). Interviewed by Mary Fuller McChesney. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2018.
- Ben Cunningham (October 24, 1964). "Oral history interview with Ben Cunningham, 1964 October 24" (Interview). Interviewed by Harlan Phillips. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
- Edith Hamlin; Doroth Cravath (May 27, 1964). "Oral history interview with Edith Hamlin and Dorothy Cravath, 1964 May 27" (Interview). Interviewed by Minette Martin. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
- William Hesthal (December 22, 1964). "Oral history interview with William Hesthal, 1964 Dec. 22" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
- John Langley Howard; Mary Howard (September 5, 1991). "Interview with John Langley Howard and Mary Howard" (PDF) (Interview). Interviewed by Robert Campbell. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2018.
- Marcelle Labaudt (September 16, 1964). "Oral history interview with Marcelle Labaudt, 1964 Sept. 16" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
- "Who is Jose Moya del Pino?". Marin Art & Garden Center. Marin Art & Garden Center. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- José Moya del Pino (September 10, 1964). "Oral history interview with José Moya del Pino, 1964 Sept. 10" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
- Otis Oldfield (May 21, 1965). "Oral history interview with Otis Oldfield, 1965 May 21" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
- Suzanne Scheuer (July 29, 1964). "Oral history interview with Suzanne Scheuer, 1964 July 29" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
- San Francisco Art Institute. The Commission. SFAI Offers Diego Rivera His Second Commission in the US Archived 2013-09-23 at the Wayback Machine
- Kamiya, Gary (2017-07-08). "How Coit Tower's murals became a target for anticommunist forces". www.sfchronicle.com. Retrieved 2019-02-03.
- Remark: The uppermost newspaper headlines reads "Thousands slaughtered in Austria" and dates to "14th February 1934", two days after the outbreak of the Austrian Civil War, lasting only a few days after outlawing the social democratic party.
- Lee, Anthony W. (1999). Painting on the Left: Diego Rivera, Radical Politics, and San Francisco's Public Murals. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21977-5.
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- Depression-Era Murals of the Bay Area. Arcadia Publishing. 2014. ISBN 9781467131445.
As the strike raged along the waterfront at the base of Telegraph Hill, many claimed that the labor unrest was influenced by members of the Communist Party. Simultaneously, the PWAP took notice of blatant communist references in the Coit Tower murals painted by Victor Arnautoff, John Langley Howard, Clifford Wight, and Bernhard Zakheim.
- "Western Worker (1932 - 1937)". Marxists Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 4, 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2023.
Western Worker was the west coast periodical of the Communist Party, founded in 1932.
- Temko, Allan (November 26, 1999). "John Langley Howard". SFGate. SFGate. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
- "Saving the Coit Tower Murals and the Civic Art Collection" (PDF). San Francisco Arts Commission. 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
- Boyer, Mark Andrew (May 15, 2014). "Coit Tower Reopens After Six-Month Renovation". KQED. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
- Whiting, Sam (2014-09-30). "Rare Look at 7 Upstairs Murals at Coit Tower". SFGate. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- Whiting, Sam (November 3, 2014). "Coit Tower's long-hidden murals finally being revealed". SF Gate. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
- Berton, Justin (November 23, 2009). "Tower of films to recall Alcatraz takeover". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- San Filippo, Maria (November 25, 2002). "Bumstead gives talk on art direction, "˜Vertigo'". The Daily Bruin. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
- California's Gold. "12004 Coit Tower". vimeo. Retrieved 4 January 2023.
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