Coit Tower

Coordinates: 37°48′09″N 122°24′21″W / 37.80250°N 122.40583°W / 37.80250; -122.40583
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coit Memorial Tower
Coit Tower 2021.jpg
View of Coit Tower in August 2021
Coit Tower is located in San Francisco County
Coit Tower
Coit Tower
Coit Tower is located in California
Coit Tower
Coit Tower
Coit Tower is located in the United States
Coit Tower
Coit Tower
Location1 Telegraph Hill Blvd.
San Francisco, California
Coordinates37°48′09″N 122°24′21″W / 37.80250°N 122.40583°W / 37.80250; -122.40583
Area1.7 acres (0.69 ha)
ArchitectArthur Brown Jr., Henry Temple Howard
Architectural styleArt Deco
NRHP reference No.07001468[1]
SFDL No.165
Significant dates
Added to NRHPJanuary 29, 2008
Designated SFDL1984[2]

Coit Tower (also known as the Coit Memorial Tower) is a 210-foot (64 m) tower in the Telegraph Hill neighborhood of San Francisco, California, overlooking the city and San Francisco Bay. The tower, in the city's Pioneer Park, was built between 1932 and 1933 using Lillie Hitchcock Coit's bequest to beautify the city of San Francisco. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 29, 2008.[1]

The Art Deco tower, built of unpainted reinforced concrete, was designed by architects Arthur Brown Jr. and Henry Temple Howard. The interior features fresco murals in the American fresco mural painting style, painted by 25 different onsite artists and their numerous assistants, plus two additional paintings installed after creation offsite.

The structure was dedicated to the volunteer firemen who had died in San Francisco's five major fires.[3] A concrete relief of a phoenix by sculptor Robert Boardman Howard is placed above the main entrance. It was commissioned by the architect and cast as part of the building.[4]

Although an apocryphal story claims that the tower was designed to resemble a fire hose nozzle[5] due to Coit's affinity with the San Francisco firefighters of the day, the resemblance is coincidental.[6]


Coit Tower in 2008, looking WSW

Telegraph Hill, the tower's location, has been described as "the most optimal 360 degree viewing point to the San Francisco Bay and five surrounding counties."[7] In 1849, it became the site of a two-story observation deck, from which information about incoming ships was broadcast to city residents using an optical semaphore system, replaced in 1853 by an electrical telegraph that was destroyed by a storm in 1870.[7]

Coit Tower was paid for with money left by Lillie Hitchcock Coit (1843–1929), a wealthy socialite who loved to chase fires in the early days of the city's history. Before December 1866, there was no city fire department, and fires in the city, which broke out regularly in the wooden buildings, were extinguished by several volunteer fire companies. Coit was one of the more eccentric characters in the history of North Beach and Telegraph Hill, smoking cigars and wearing trousers long before it was socially acceptable for women to do so. She was an avid gambler and often dressed like a man in order to gamble in the males-only establishments that dotted North Beach.[8]

Robert Boardman Howard's cast concrete relief of a phoenix is placed above the main entrance to Coit Tower, a memorial dedicated to the volunteer firefighters who died in San Francisco's five major fires.

Coit's fortune funded the monument four years following her death in 1929. She had a special relationship with the city's firefighters. At the age of fifteen she witnessed the Knickerbocker Engine Co. No. 5 in response to a fire call up on Telegraph Hill when they were shorthanded; she threw her school books to the ground and pitched in to help, calling out to other bystanders to help get the engine up the hill to the fire, to get the first water onto the blaze. After that Coit became the Engine Co. mascot and could barely be constrained by her parents from jumping into action at the sound of every fire bell. She frequently rode with the Knickerbocker Engine Co. 5, especially in street parades and celebrations in which the Engine Co. participated. Through her youth and adulthood Coit was recognized as an honorary firefighter.

In her will she specified that one third of her fortune, amounting to $118,000,[7] "be expended in an appropriate manner for the purpose of adding to the beauty of the city which I have always loved."[9] Two memorials were built in her name. One was Coit Tower, and the other was a sculpture depicting three firemen, one of them carrying a woman in his arms.[10]

The San Francisco County Board of Supervisors proposed that Coit's bequest be used for a road at Lake Merced. This proposal brought disapproval from the estate's executors, who expressed a desire that the county find "ways and means of expending this money on a memorial that in itself would be an entity and not a unit of public development".[7] Art Commission president Herbert Fleishhacker suggested a memorial on Telegraph Hill, which was approved by the estate executors. An additional $7,000 in city funds was appropriated, and a design competition was initiated. The winner was architect Arthur Brown, Jr, whose design was completed and dedicated on October 8, 1933.[7]

The following month Honore Bowlby-Gledhill, proprietor of the Dead Fish Cafe (an 'artists' restaurant') in Telegraph Hill, was charged (under the name 'Helen Smith') with shooting a pistol at the tower. Bowlby-Gledhill was quoted as objecting to the tower because it 'looked like a silo'.[11]

Coit Tower was listed as a San Francisco Designated Landmark in 1984[2] and on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008.[1] Although Coit Tower itself is not technically a California Historical Landmark, the state historical plaque for Telegraph Hill is located in the tower's lobby, marking the site of the original signal station.[12]

The San Francisco Arts Commission ordered the removal of the Statue of Christopher Columbus that had stood outside the entrance of the tower since 1957, following numerous other removals of controversial statues during the George Floyd protests that began in May 2020, and it was removed on June 18, 2020.[13]


Brown's competition design envisioned a restaurant in the tower, which was changed to an exhibition area in the final version. The design uses three nesting concrete cylinders, the outermost a tapering fluted 180-foot (55 m) shaft that supports the viewing platform. An intermediate shaft contains a stairway, and an inner shaft houses the elevator. The observation deck is 32 feet (9.8 m) below the top, with an arcade and skylights above it. A rotunda at the base houses display space and a gift shop.[7]

Potable water is pumped from a water main at street level to two 1,000 US gal (3,800 L) tanks on the fifth floor, and gravity is used to feed all systems in the tower; a booster pump was installed later at the tanks to provide adequate pressure for the restrooms. Because of this arrangement, the murals (on the second and ground floors) are vulnerable to water damage from system leaks, which could be avoided if adequate pressure was available from the water supply at the street.[14]

Mural project[edit]

Coit Tower rotunda floor plan and murals, numbered 1 through 20
Coit Tower rotunda layout and murals[15]
No. Thumbnail Name Artist Size (H×W) Notes Refs.
Rotunda murals
1 a Animal Force (Boynton).jpg Animal Force Ray Boynton 10 ft × 36 ft
3.0 m × 11.0 m (aggregate)
First mural visible as visitors enter the rotunda; left and right panels are separated by "Old Man Weather" over the entrance to the elevator lobby. Animal Force has an alcove with a bronze plaque and commemorative dates; this panel depicts the use of animals in agriculture. Machine Force shows construction, transportation, and power production machines. [15]: 67–69  [16][17]
b Machine Force (Boynton).jpg Machine Force
2 California Industrial Scenes (Howard).jpg California Industrial Scenes John Langley Howard 10 ft × 24 ft
3.0 m × 7.3 m
Industrial scenes, including construction, oil recovery, and mining; ironic points include use of hand tools and a broken-down car. [15]: 70–72  [18][19]
3 Railroad and Shipping (Hesthal).jpg Railroad and Shipping William Hesthal 10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
Train and ship, used to transport goods; a narrow window interrupts the center of the panel. [15]: 73  [20][21]
4 a Steelworker (Wight).jpg Steelworker Clifford Wight 10 ft × 4 ft
3.0 m × 1.2 m (each)
Straddles windows on the west wall; originally linked by a bridge with controversial symbols depicting capitalism and communism, but these elements were removed before 1934. [15]: 74–75  [22]
b Surveyor (Wight).jpg Surveyor
5 Industries of California (Stackpole).jpg Industries of California Ralph Stackpole 10 ft × 36 ft
3.0 m × 11.0 m
Industrial scenes, including food production and a chemical laboratory. Depicts several artists, including Tom Lehman (pouring chemicals), William Hesthal (bending over table in checked shirt), and Helen Clement Mills (part of packing crew). [15]: 76–77  [23][24]
6 Newsgathering (Scheuer & Daum).jpg Newsgathering Suzanne Scheuer and Hebe Daum 10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
Newspaper offices; the window ledge has a replica of the front page of the San Francisco Chronicle, celebrating the completion of the murals. [15]: 78–79  [25]
7 Library (Zakheim).jpg Library Bernard Zakheim 10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
Public library; individual portraits depict numerous artists, family, and friends alongside current news topics. [15]: 80–82  [26][27]
8 a Scientist-Inventor (Dean).jpg Scientist-Inventor Harold Mallette Dean 10 ft × 4 ft
3.0 m × 1.2 m (each)
Straddles windows on the south wall; stockbroker may depict Amadeo Giannini, while scientist stands in front of Lick Observatory. [15]: 83  [28]
b Stockbroker (Dean).jpg Stockbroker
9 City Life (Arnautoff).jpg City Life Victor Arnautoff 10 ft × 36 ft
3.0 m × 11.0 m
Depicts busy street scenes in the Financial District of San Francisco, based on the corner of Montgomery and Washington. [15]: 84–87  [29][30]
10 Banking and Law (Harris).jpg Banking and Law George Albert Harris 10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
Depicts Federal Reserve Bank, Stock Exchange, and a law library. [15]: 88–89  [31]
11 Department Store (Vidal).jpg Department Store Frede Vidar 10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
Contemporary department store interior, including soda fountain. [15]: 90–92  [32]
12 a Cowboy (Wight).jpg Cowboy Clifford Wight 10 ft × 4 ft
3.0 m × 1.2 m (each)
Straddles windows on the east wall; farmer may depict Ralph Stackpole while cowboy may depict Wight. [15]: 93  [22]
b Farmer (Wight).jpg Farmer
13 California (Albro).jpg California Maxine Albro 10 ft × 36 ft
3.0 m × 11.0 m
Depicts agricultural scenes from California; most portraits are friends of Albro, including her future husband (Parker Hall, next to apricot trays) and Ralph Stackpole (checkered shirt). [15]: 94–96  [33][34]
14 Meat Industry (Bertrand).jpg Meat Industry Ray Bertrand 10 ft × 10 ft
3.0 m × 3.0 m
Slaughterhouse and meat packing operations. [15]: 97  [35]
15 California Agricultural Industry (Langdon & Mills).jpg California Agricultural Industry Gordon Langdon and Helen Clement Mills 10 ft × 27 ft
3.0 m × 8.2 m
Dairy and timber industries. [15]: 98–99  [36]
20 Power Frederick E. Olmsted Jr. 3 ft × 3 ft
0.91 m × 0.91 m
Transition piece flanked by industrial scenes, over rotunda entrance [15]: 106  [37]
Elevator lobby murals
16 Coit Tower - "San Francisco Bay" (Otis Oldfield).jpg San Francisco Bay Otis Oldfield 9 ft × 4+12 ft
2.7 m × 1.4 m
Oil on canvas, depicts view from Telegraph Hill towards Berkeley. [15]: 100–101  [38][39]
17 San Francisco Bay, North, by Jose Moya del Pino - Coit Tower, San Francisco, CA - DSC04838.jpg San Francisco Bay, North Jose Moya del Pino 9 ft × 4+12 ft
2.7 m × 1.4 m
Oil on canvas, depicts view from Telegraph Hill towards Marin County, including Alcatraz Island. [15]: 102  [40][41]
18 a Bay Area Hills Rinaldo Cuneo 9 ft × 4+12 ft
2.7 m × 1.4 m (each)
Depicts agricultural scenes from the Santa Clara Valley and Berkeley Hills. [15]: 103  [42][43]
19 a Coit Tower ascensore.JPG Bay Area Map Otis Oldfield 3 ft × 4+12 ft
0.91 m × 1.37 m (each)
Installed in lunette spaces over doorways in elevator lobby. [15]: 104–105  [38][39]
b Seabirds
Spiral staircase murals (special access required)
21 Coit Tower Lobby Murals 04.JPG Powell Street Lucien Labaudt 6 ft × 32 ft
1.8 m × 9.8 m (each of two panels)
Largest mural in Coit Tower; most portraits are recognizable. [15]: 107–110  [44][45]
Upper level murals
22 Collegiate Sports Parker Hall 9 ft × 13 ft
2.7 m × 4.0 m
Includes depiction of The Big Game between California and Stanford [15]: 111  [46]
23 Sports Edward Terada 9 ft × 19 ft
2.7 m × 5.8 m
Leisure sports, including golf and polo [15]: 112  [47]
24 Children at Play Ralph Chesse 9 ft × 6 ft
2.7 m × 1.8 m
Playground [15]: 113  [48]
25 Edith Hamlin Coit Tower Mural.jpg Hunting in California Edith Hamlin 9 ft × 12 ft
2.7 m × 3.7 m
Ducks and deer [15]: 114–115  [49][50]
26 Outdoor Life Ben F. Cunningham 9 ft × 22 ft
2.7 m × 6.7 m
Picnickers, bathers, photographers, hikers [15]: 116–117  [51]
27 Home Life Jane Berlandina 9 ft × 34 ft
2.7 m × 10.4 m
In a separate room, shows typical home life activities, including contract bridge, baking, music making, and newspaper reading [15]: 118–120  [52][53]
Detail from Ray Boynton's fresco Animal Force and Machine Force, crediting the Public Works of Art Project

The Coit Tower murals in the American Social Realism style formed the pilot project of the Public Works of Art Project,[7] the first of the New Deal federal employment programs for artists. Ralph Stackpole and Bernard Zakheim successfully sought the commission in 1933, and supervised the muralists, including Maxine Albro,[54] Victor Arnautoff, Jane Berlandina, Ray Bertrand, Ray Boynton, Ralph Chessé,[55][56] Rinaldo Cuneo, Ben F. Cunningham,[57] Mallette "Harold" Dean, Parker Hall,[54] Edith Hamlin,[58] George Albert Harris, William Hesthal,[59] John Langley Howard,[60] Lucien Labaudt,[61] Gordon Langdon, Jose Moya del Pino[62][63] Otis Oldfield,[64] Frederick E. Olmsted Jr., Suzanne Scheuer,[65] Edward Terada, Frede Vidar, and Clifford Wight. Many were faculty and students of the California School of Fine Arts (CSFA).[66]

These artists (chosen by Walter Heil, director of the de Young Museum, together with other officials) were each paid $25 to $45 per week to depict "aspects of life in California."[67] The most well-known of them were assigned sections that were 10 by 36 feet (3.0 by 11.0 m) in size, while less famous artists were confined to 10 by 4 feet (3.0 by 1.2 m).[7]


The artists were committed in varying degrees to racial equality and to leftist and Marxist political ideas, which are strongly expressed in the paintings. Bernard Zakheim's mural Library  7  depicts fellow artist John Langley Howard crumpling a newspaper in his left hand as he reaches for a shelved copy of Karl Marx's Das Kapital (here spelled as Das Capital) with his right. Workers of all races are shown as equals, often in the heroic poses of Socialist realism, while well-dressed racially white members of the capitalist classes enjoy the fruit of their labor.

Victor Arnautoff's City Life  9  includes the periodicals The New Masses and The Daily Worker in the scene's news stand rack.

John Langley Howard's mural California Industrial Scenes  2  depicts an ethnically diverse Labor March as well as showing a destitute family panning for gold while a wealthy, heavily caricatured ensemble observes.

Stackpole's Industries of California  5  was composed along the same lines as an early study of the destroyed Man at the Crossroads.[69]

The youngest of the muralists, George Albert Harris, painted a mural called Banking and Law  10 . In the mural, the world of finance is represented by the Federal Reserve Bank and a stock market ticker (in which stocks are shown as declining) and law is illustrated by a law library.[70] Some of the book titles that appear in the law library, such as Civil, Penal, and Moral Codes, are legitimate, while others list fellow muralists as authors, in a joking or derogatory manner.[71]

After Diego Rivera's Man at the Crossroads mural was destroyed by its Rockefeller Center patrons for the inclusion of an image of Lenin, the Coit Tower muralists protested, picketing the tower. Sympathy for Rivera led some artists to incorporate references to the Rivera incident; in Zakheim's Library panel  7 , Stackpole is painted reading a newspaper headline announcing the destruction of Rivera's mural.[69]


After most of the Coit Tower murals had already been completed, the 1934 West Coast waterfront strike, taking place nearby at the foot of Telegraph Hill,[71] caused government officials, shipping companies, some union leaders and the press to raise fears about communist agitation.[67] This "red scare" has been identified as playing a "crucial role" in a subsequent controversy that mainly focused on two of the murals:

  1.  4a  and  4b : These portraits were linked originally by a third small fresco in which Clifford Wight portrayed capitalism, the New Deal and communism, the three prominent economic systems of the era, with the communism part containing a hammer and sickle and the caption "Workers of the World Unite."[67]
  2.  2 : John Langley Howard's Industry mural (designed with the support of his architect brother Henry Howard), which depicts California industrial scenes including out-of-work men, and angered conservatives by showing a banner of the communist periodical Western Worker[72] above a crowd of workers.[71][73][67]

On June 23, 1934, the conservative banker Herbert Fleishhacker, the most powerful member of the committee allocating funds from the Public Works of Art Project, asked Heil to inspect the art, who telegraphed back that some artists had included "details ... and certain symbols which might be interpreted as communistic propaganda," and that "editors of influential papers ... have warned us that they would take hostile attitude towards whole project unless those details be removed."[67] The official opening of the tower, planned for July 7, was canceled and Fleishhacker ordered to close the tower and to block the view from outside through the windows.[67] Subsequently, articles in the San Francisco Chronicle and The San Francisco Examiner attacked the project, sometimes using misleading representations of the artworks in question, while Wight refused to remove the hammer and sickle symbol from his mural.[67] However, federal government officials decided that the offending parts would need to be painted over, and 16 of the artists signed a statement saying that they opposed the hammer and sickle symbol and that it "has no place in the subject matter assigned."[67] Eventually, only the hammer and sickle and the "Western Worker" banner were removed, and Coit Tower opened on October 12, 1934.[67]

Technical details and access[edit]

Two of the murals are of San Francisco Bay scenes. Most murals are done in fresco; the exceptions are one mural done in egg tempera (Home Life by Jane Berlandina,  27 : upstairs, in the last decorated room) and the works done in the elevator foyer, which are oil on canvas ( 16 ,  17 ,  18 , and  19 ).[15]: 65, 118  While most of the murals were restored in 1990[74] and again in 2014 through cleaning and touching up scratches,[75] the murals in the spiral stairway exit to the observation platform (Powell Street by Lucien Labaudt) were not restored but durably painted over with epoxy surfacing.

Most of the murals are open for public viewing without charge during open hours, although there are ongoing[when?] negotiations by the Recreation and Parks Department of San Francisco to begin charging visitors a fee to enter the mural rotunda.[citation needed] The murals in the spiral stairway and second floor, normally closed to the public, are open for viewing through tours.[76] Labaudt's Powell Street runs along both sides of the spiral staircase; the second-floor murals all carry recreational themes.[77]

Since 2004 artist Ben Wood collaborated with other artists on large scale video projections onto the exterior of Coit Tower, in 2004, 2006, 2008 & 2009.[78]


The tower, which stands atop Telegraph Hill in San Francisco's Pioneer Park, offers panoramic views of San Francisco that take in "crooked" Lombard Street, Nob Hill, Russian Hill, Twin Peaks, Aquatic Park, Pier 39, the Financial District and the Ferry Building, as well as San Francisco Bay itself including Angel Island, Alcatraz, Treasure Island, and the Golden Gate and Bay Bridges.


A panoramic view of San Francisco from Coit Tower
A view of San Francisco from the top of Coit Tower

In popular culture[edit]

Coit Tower is a prominent landscape feature in Alfred Hitchcock's 1958 film, Vertigo, set largely in San Francisco. The character of Madeleine (Kim Novak) tells Scotty (James Stewart) that she has used the tower to orient herself to his apartment, as she did not know his street address; he responds this is the first time he had been grateful for the tower. Art director Henry Bumstead, who worked on Vertigo, noted that Hitchcock was adamant that Coit Tower should be seen in the film from the apartment of the lead character, portrayed by Stewart. When Bumstead asked why, Hitchcock said, "It's a phallic symbol."[79]

Coit Tower is also featured in:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  2. ^ a b "City of San Francisco Designated Landmarks". City of San Francisco. Archived from the original on 2014-03-25. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
  3. ^ California, California State Parks, State of. "COIT MEMORIAL TOWER". CA State Parks. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  4. ^ "Oral history interview with Robert Boardman Howard". Archives of American Art. September 16, 1964. Retrieved November 19, 2022.
  5. ^ Crowe, Michael F. and Robert W. Bowen (2007). Images of America: San Francisco Art Deco. Arcadia Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7385-4734-3.
  6. ^ "Coit Tower". San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department. Retrieved September 8, 2014. Contrary to popular belief, Coit Tower was not designed to resemble a firehose nozzle.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Worsley, Stephen A. (June 18, 2007). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Coit Memorial Tower". National Park Service. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  8. ^ "Lillie Hitchcock Coit, 1843-1929". ALMANAC OF AMERICAN WEALTH Wealthy eccentrics. CNN Money. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  9. ^ Pryor, Alton (2003). Fascinating Women in California History. Stagecoach Pub. p. 86. ISBN 0-9660053-9-2.
  10. ^ h2g2 Lillie Hitchcock-Coit – Firefighter
  11. ^ 'Girl Angered, Shoots Tower', San Bernardino County Sun 18 November 1933 p. 1; 'Seek Dame Who Once Took Shot at Coit Tower', Siskiyou Daily News 15 February 1946 p. 5
  12. ^ "Telegraph Hill". Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
  13. ^ Fracassa, Dominic (2020-06-18). "San Francisco removes Christopher Columbus statue at Coit Tower ahead of planned protest". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2020-06-18.
  14. ^ Coit Tower water incident (PDF) (Report). City of San Francisco. September 30, 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Jewett, Masha Zakheim; Beatty, Don (photographer) (1983). "Part II: The Art, a Walking Guide". Coit Tower, San Francisco: Its History and Art. San Francisco, California: Volcano Press. pp. 65–120. ISBN 0-912078-75-8.
  16. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Ray Boynton". California Art Research. Vol. 9. pp. 1–29.
  17. ^ "Coit Tower: Boynton mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  18. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "John Langley Howard". California Art Research. Vol. 17. pp. 54–92.
  19. ^ "Coit Tower: Howard mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  20. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "William Jurgen Hesthal". California Art Research. Vol. 20, Part 1. pp. 8–13.
  21. ^ "Coit Tower: Hesthal mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  22. ^ a b "Coit Tower: Wight murals — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  23. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Ralph Stackpole". California Art Research. Vol. 14. pp. 1–62.
  24. ^ "Coit Tower: Stackpole mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  25. ^ "Coit Tower: Scheuer and Daum mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  26. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Bernard Boruch Zakheim". California Art Research. Vol. 20, Part 2. pp. 32–113.
  27. ^ "Coit Tower: Zakheim mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  28. ^ "Coit Tower: Dean murals — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  29. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Viktor Mikhail Arnautoff". California Art Research. Vol. 20, Part 1. pp. 105–124.
  30. ^ "Coit Tower: Arnautoff mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  31. ^ "Coit Tower: Harris mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  32. ^ "Coit Tower: Vidar mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  33. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Maxine Albro". California Art Research. Vol. 20, Part 2. pp. 1–15.
  34. ^ "Coit Tower: Albro mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  35. ^ "Coit Tower: Bertrand mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  36. ^ "Coit Tower: Langdon and Clement mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  37. ^ "Coit Tower: Olmsted mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  38. ^ a b Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Otis Oldfield". California Art Research. Vol. 19. pp. 1–28.
  39. ^ a b "Coit Tower: Oldfield murals — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  40. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Jose Moya del Pino". California Art Research. Vol. 13. pp. 100–140.
  41. ^ "Coit Tower: Moya del Pino mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  42. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Rinaldo Cuneo". California Art Research. Vol. 11. pp. 61–100.
  43. ^ "Coit Tower: Cuneo mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  44. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Lucien Labaudt". California Art Research. Vol. 19. pp. 1–28.
  45. ^ "Coit Tower: Labaudt mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  46. ^ "Coit Tower: Hall mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  47. ^ "Coit Tower: Terada mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  48. ^ "Coit Tower: Chesse mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  49. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Edith Hamlin". California Art Research. Vol. 16. pp. 95–114.
  50. ^ "Coit Tower: Hamlin mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  51. ^ "Coit Tower: Cunningham mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  52. ^ Hailey, Gene, ed. (1937). "Jane Berlandina (Mrs. Henry Temple Howard)". California Art Research. Vol. 17. pp. 110–147.
  53. ^ "Coit Tower: Berlandina mural — San Francisco". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  54. ^ a b Maxine Albro; Parker Hall (July 27, 1964). "Oral history interview with Maxine Albro and Parker Hall, 1964 July 27" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
  55. ^ Ralph Chessé (October 22, 1964). "Oral history interview of Ralph Chessé, 1964 October 22" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
  56. ^ Ralph Chesse (October 22, 1964). "Interview with Ralph Chesse" (PDF) (Interview). Interviewed by Mary Fuller McChesney. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2018.
  57. ^ Ben Cunningham (October 24, 1964). "Oral history interview with Ben Cunningham, 1964 October 24" (Interview). Interviewed by Harlan Phillips. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
  58. ^ Edith Hamlin; Doroth Cravath (May 27, 1964). "Oral history interview with Edith Hamlin and Dorothy Cravath, 1964 May 27" (Interview). Interviewed by Minette Martin. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
  59. ^ William Hesthal (December 22, 1964). "Oral history interview with William Hesthal, 1964 Dec. 22" (Interview). Interviewed by Mary McChesney. Archives of American Art: New Deal and the Arts Project.
  60. ^ John Langley Howard; Mary Howard (September 5, 1991). "Interview with John Langley Howard and Mary Howard" (PDF) (Interview). Interviewed by Robert Campbell. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2018.
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