Cola wars

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The cola wars refer to the long-time rivalry between soft drink producers The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo, who have engaged in mutually-targeted marketing campaigns for the direct competition between each company's product lines, especially their flagship colas, Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Beginning in the late 1970s and into the 1980s, the competition escalated, which gave this cultural phenomenon its current moniker of cola wars.[1][2]

Coca-Cola[edit]

Coca-Cola advertising has historically focused on wholesomeness and nostalgia. Coca-Cola advertising is often characterized as "family-friendly" and often relies on "cute" characters (e.g., the Coca-Cola polar bear mascot and Santa Claus around Christmas).[3]

During the peak of the cola wars, as Coca-Cola saw its flagship product losing market share to Pepsi as well as to Diet Coke and its competitors' products, the company considered a change to the beverage's formula and flavor. In April 1985, The Coca-Cola Company introduced its new formula for Coca-Cola, which became popularly known as "New Coke". Consumer backlash to the change led to the company making a strategic retreat on July 11, 1985, announcing its plans to bring back the previous formula under the name "Coca-Cola Classic".[4] Some conspiracy theorists think the decision to replace the original flavor was actually a strategic masterstroke to bolster Coke sales once it came back on the market, which it did; however, the Coca-Cola Company vehemently denies the claim.[4]

Pepsi[edit]

Pepsi Challenge[edit]

In 1975, Pepsi began showing advertisements based on the Pepsi Challenge, in which ordinary people were asked which product they preferred in blind taste tests.[2]

Drink Pepsi, Get Stuff[edit]

In the mid-1990s, Pepsi launched its most successful long-term strategy of the Cola Wars, Pepsi Stuff. Using the slogan "Drink Pepsi, Get Stuff", consumers could collect Pepsi Points on packages and cups which could be redeemed for free Pepsi merchandise. After researching and testing the program for over two years to ensure that it resonated with consumers, Pepsi launched Pepsi Stuff, which was an instant success. Due to its success, the program was expanded to include Mountain Dew and Pepsi's international markets worldwide. The company continued to run the program for many years, continually innovating with new features each year.[5]

The Pepsi Stuff promotion became the subject of a lawsuit. In one of the many commercials, Pepsi showed a young man in the cockpit of a Harrier Jump Jet. Below ran the caption "Harrier Jet: 7 million Pepsi Points". There was a mechanism for buying additional Pepsi Points to complete a Pepsi Stuff order. John Leonard, of Seattle, Washington, sent in a Pepsi Stuff request with the maximum number of points and a check for over $700,000 USD to make up for the extra points he needed. Pepsi did not accept the request and Leonard filed suit. The judgment was that a reasonable person viewing the commercial would realize that Pepsi was not, in fact, offering a Harrier Jet. In response to the suit, Pepsi added the words, "Just Kidding", under the portion of the commercial featuring the jet as well as changed the "price" to 700 million Pepsi points (see Leonard v. Pepsico, Inc.).

Recent competition[edit]

Coca-Cola and Pepsi engaged in a competition of online programs with the re-introduction of Pepsi Stuff in 2005; Coca-Cola retaliated with Coke Rewards. Both are loyalty programs that give away prizes and product to consumers who, after collecting bottle caps and 12- or 24-pack box tops, then submitted codes online for a certain number of points. However, Pepsi's online partnership with Amazon allowed consumers to buy various products with their "Pepsi Points", such as mp3 downloads. Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi previously had a partnership with the iTunes Store.[citation needed]

Super Bowl LIII was played in Atlanta, which is where Coca-Cola has its head office. Pepsi has been a major sponsor of the NFL for years, most recently renewing its sponsorship deal in 2011. Pepsi advertising tied to the game poked fun at the situation with slogans such as "Pepsi in Atlanta. How Refreshing", "Hey Atlanta, Thanks For Hosting. We'll Bring The Drinks", and "Look Who's in Town for Super Bowl LIII". Both companies ran television ads during the Super Bowl, as Coca-Cola aired the commercial "A Coke is a Coke" just before the Super Bowl's National Anthem, while Pepsi ran a series of ads with the tagline "Is Pepsi OK?".[6]

Comparison of products[edit]

Many of the brands available from the three largest soda producers, The Coca-Cola Company,[7] PepsiCo[8] and Keurig Dr Pepper, are intended as direct, equivalent competitors. The following chart lists these competitors by type or flavor of drink.

Flavor/type PepsiCo The Coca-Cola Company Keurig Dr Pepper
Cola Pepsi Coca-Cola RC Cola
Schweppes Cola (Discontinued)
Diet/sugar-free cola Diet Pepsi/Pepsi Light
Pepsi Max
Pepsi ONE
Pepsi Zero Sugar
Pepsi Next
Pepsi True
Diet Coke/Coca-Cola Light
Tab
Coca-Cola Zero Sugar
Coca-Cola Life
Diet Rite
Diet RC
Caffeine-free cola Caffeine-Free Pepsi Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola RC 100
Cherry-flavored cola Pepsi Wild Cherry Coca-Cola Cherry Cherry RC
"Pepper"-style Dr Slice
DOC 360
Mr. Pibb / Pibb Xtra Dr Pepper
(distributed by PepsiCo or The Coca-Cola Company in select areas)
Orange Mirinda
Tropicana Twister
Tango
Slice
Fanta
Minute Maid
Simply Orange
Royal Tru Orange
Crush
Sunkist
Lemon-lime Teem
Slice
Sierra Mist
7 Up (in countries other than the US)
Sprite
Lemon & Paeroa
7 Up (in the US)
"Dew"-style Mountain Dew Mello Yello
Surge
Vault
Sun Drop
Grapefruit and other citrus flavors Kas
Izze
Citrus Blast
Fresca
Lift
Lilt
Squirt
Ginger ale Patio Seagram's Ginger Ale Canada Dry
Schweppes
Vernors
Root beer Mug Root Beer Barq's
Ramblin' Root Beer (until 1995)
A&W Root Beer
Stewart's Rootbeer
Hires Root Beer
Cream soda Mug Cream Soda Barq's Red Creme Soda A&W Cream Soda
Stewart's Cream Soda
Juices Tropicana
Dole
(prepackaged only, under license)
Minute Maid
Fruitopia
Simply Orange
Mott's
Nantucket Nectars
Snapple
Iced tea Lipton
Brisk
Pure Leaf
(ready-to-drink products only, under license from Unilever)
Nestea
(manufactured by Nestlé in the US and by a joint venture between Nestlé and Coca-Cola elsewhere)
Gold Peak Tea
Fuze
Peace Tea
Snapple
Sports drinks Gatorade
Propel
Powerade
Aquarius
Vitamin Water
All Sport
Energy drinks AMP
Rockstar
Sting
Mountain Dew Kickstart
Coca-Cola Energy
Full Throttle
NOS
Relentless
Burn
Monster Energy
(manufactured by Monster Beverage, co-owned by and distributed by Coca-Cola)
Venom
Xyience
Adrenaline Shoc
Bottled water Aquafina
LIFEWTR[9]
Dasani
Kinley
Smartwater
Dejà Blue
Sparkling water Bubly Aha Limitless

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kim Bhasin (January 1, 2013). "COKE VS. PEPSI: The Story Behind The Neverending 'Cola Wars'". Business Insider. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  2. ^ a b "1975: Cola wars heat up with launch of Pepsi Challenge". The Drum. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  3. ^ Paracha, Nadeem F. (2017-04-26). "Cola wars: A social and political history". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  4. ^ a b "FACT CHECK: New Coke Origins". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2019-04-10.
  5. ^ "Pop Go the Points". Archived from the original on 2008-03-21.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  6. ^ Delaney Strunk. "The biggest rivalry in Atlanta on Super Bowl weekend has nothing to do with football". CNN. Retrieved Apr 27, 2019.
  7. ^ "Brands". The Coca-Cola Company. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  8. ^ "PepsiCo Corporate Site". PepsiCo.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  9. ^ "LIFEWTR". PepsiCo, Inc. Retrieved 2018-02-13.