Zinc gluconate

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Zinc gluconate
Zinc gluconate structure.svg
Names
Other names
zincum gluconicum
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.022.489
UNII
Properties
C12H22O14Zn
Molar mass 455.685 g/mol
Melting point 172 to 175 °C (342 to 347 °F; 445 to 448 K)
Pharmacology
A12CB02 (WHO)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Zinc gluconate is the zinc salt of gluconic acid. It is an ionic compound consisting of two anions of gluconate for each zinc(II) cation. Zinc gluconate is a popular form for the delivery of zinc as a dietary supplement, or the name zincum gluconicum is used when the product is described as homeopathic.

Gluconic acid is found naturally, and is industrially manufactured by the fermentation of glucose, typically by Aspergillus niger, but also by other fungi, e.g. Penicillium, or by bacteria, e.g. Acetobacter, Pseudomonas and Gluconobacter.[1] In its pure form, it is a white to off-white powder. It can also be manufactured by electrolytic oxidation,[2] although this is a more expensive process. The advantages are a lower microbiological profile, and a more complete reaction, yielding a product with a longer shelf life.

Zinc gluconate and the common cold[edit]

Zinc gluconate has been used in lozenges for treating the common cold. However, controlled trials with lozenges which include zinc acetate have found the greatest effect on the duration of colds.[3][4][5][6] Zinc has also been administered nasally for treating the common cold, but has been reported to cause anosmia in some cases[7][8][9][10]

Safety concerns[edit]

Instances of anosmia (loss of smell) have been reported with intranasal use of some products containing zinc gluconate. In September 2003, Zicam faced lawsuits from users who claimed that the product, a nasal gel containing zinc gluconate and several inactive ingredients, negatively affected their sense of smell and sometimes taste. Some plaintiffs alleged experiencing a strong and very painful burning sensation when they used the product. Matrixx Initiatives, Inc., the maker of Zicam, responded that only a small number of people had experienced problems and that anosmia can be caused by the common cold itself. In January 2006, 340 lawsuits were settled for $12 million.[11]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers zinc gluconate to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice, although this does not constitute a finding by the FDA that the substance is a useful dietary supplement.[12] On 16 June 2009 the FDA "warned consumers to stop using and discard three zinc-containing Zicam intranasal products. The products may cause a loss of sense of smell. ... FDA is concerned that the loss of sense of smell may be permanent." [13][14] Matrixx responded that the FDA's allegations were "unfounded and misleading", citing a lack of evidence from controlled tests that Zicam causes anosmia.[15] In its warning, FDA stated, "This warning does not involve oral zinc tablets and lozenges taken by mouth. Dietary zinc is also not subject to this warning." [13]

Veterinary use[edit]

A zinc gluconate-based product, also containing arginine, is used as a veterinary chemical castration drug. For dogs, the product is injected directly into the testicles.[16] It has been sold under various brand names, including Neutersol and Esterilsol.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sumitra Ramachandran, Pierre Fontanille, Ashok Pandey and Christian Larroche (2006). "Gluconic Acid: A Review" (PDF). Food Technology and Biotechnology. 44 (2): 185–195. Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  2. ^ Henk G.J. de Wilt (1972). "Part I: The oxidation of Glucose to Gluconic Acid". Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Develop. 11 (4): 370. doi:10.1021/i360044a002. Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  3. ^ Hemilä, Harri (2011). "Zinc lozenges may shorten the duration of colds: a systematic review". Open Respir. Med. J. 5: 51–58. doi:10.2174/1874306401105010051. PMC 3136969Freely accessible. 
  4. ^ Eby, George A. (2004). "Zinc lozenges: cold cure or candy? Solution chemistry determinations" (PDF). Biosci. Rep. 24 (1): 23–39. doi:10.1023/B:BIRE.0000037754.71063.41. PMID 15499830. 
  5. ^ Eby, George A. (2010). "Zinc lozenges as cure for the common cold – A review and hypothesis" (PDF). Med. Hypotheses. 74 (3): 482–492. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.10.017. PMID 19906491. 
  6. ^ Hemilä, Harri; Petrus, Edward J.; Fitzgerald, James T.; Prasad, Ananda (2016). "Zinc acetate lozenges for treating the common cold: An individual patient data meta-analysis". Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 82 (5): 1393–1398. doi:10.1111/bcp.13057. PMC 5061795Freely accessible. PMID 27378206. 
  7. ^ Jafek, Bruce W.; Linschoten, Miriam R.; Murrow, Bruce W. (2004). "Anosmia after intranasal zinc gluconate use" (PDF). Am. J. Rhinol. 18 (3): 137–141. PMID 15283486. 
  8. ^ Alexander, Thomas H.; Davidson, Terence M. (2006). "Intranasal zinc and anosmia: The zinc-induced anosmia syndrome". The Laryngoscope. 116 (2): 217–220. doi:10.1097/01.mlg.0000191549.17796.13. PMID 16467707. 
  9. ^ D'Cruze, Hubert; Arroll, Bruce; Kenealy, Tim (2009). "Is intranasal zinc effective and safe for the common cold? A systematic review and meta-analysis". J. Prim. Health Care. 1 (2): 134–139. doi:10.1071/HC09134 (inactive 2017-08-12). PMID 20690364. 
  10. ^ Davidson, Terence M.; Smith, W. M. (2010). "The Bradford Hill criteria and zinc-induced anosmia: A causality analysis". Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136 (7): 673–676. doi:10.1001/archoto.2010.111. PMID 20644061. 
  11. ^ zicam.vanosteen.com Archived June 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ "Title 21, Part 182 Substances Generally Recognized as Safe (21CFR182)". United States Code of Federal Regulations. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  13. ^ a b http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm166931.htm Retrieved on 2009-07-18
  14. ^ http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm167065.htm Retrieved on 2009-07-18
  15. ^ "FDA warns against using 3 popular Zicam cold meds". CNN. 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2010-04-29. 
  16. ^ a b Macpherson, CNL; Meslin, F-X; Wandeler, AI, eds. (2012). "Chemosterilants". Dogs, zoonoses and public health (2nd ed.). Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI. p. 265. ISBN 9781845938352. 

External links[edit]