Cold-pressed juice

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Cold-pressed juices

Cold-pressed juice refers to juice that uses a hydraulic press to extract juice from fruit and vegetables, as opposed to other methods such as centrifugal or single auger.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Without pasteurization or HPP, cold-pressed juices can be stored in a refrigerator for up to 5 days, depending on the acidity of the juice and other factors. This type of juice has been commercially produced for decades, but has gained public popularity from 2013 to the present day.[2][4] In general, these juices are more expensive than other types of juices, as they are made from 100% fruit and vegetables without any added ingredients.[1][2][4] It has been reported that a 16-ounce bottle could cost $10 or as high as $12 for 12 ounces[2][4][6][6]

History[edit]

Cold-pressed juices have been in production for several decades, but started to gain popularity in the late 2000s as a way to support juice cleanses.[2][4][5] Celebrities such as Gwyneth Paltrow and Kim Kardashian bolstered its popularity.[3][5] The initial use of cold-pressed juices for juice cleanses evolved into mainstream use, and the industry rapidly expanded in the early to mid 2010s.[3]

Manufacturing process[edit]

Making cold-pressed juice is a two-step process, the first stage is to shred the fruits and vegetables into a pulp. Typically the shredding process uses a steel rotating disc, produce is loaded into a large hopper feeding tube and typically falls into a filter bag. The second process is the hydraulic press, this exposes the shredded produce to extreme pressures between two plates. The pressure causes the juice / water content from the produce to drip into a collection tray (Gastronorm) below, leaving behind the fibre content in the filter bag. The fibre left behind is generally composted, recycled in food products or discarded.[citation needed]

The industry standard hydraulic cold-press technology with vertical pressing layers was invented by Dale E Wettlaufer in the 1983.[8][9] Vertical press layers with open-top cloth bags allow for faster loading and emptying of the press, compared to the classic rack-and-cloth method which involved wrapping layers of ground fruit in cloth. [10]

After the extracting juice from fruit and vegetables, the juice may be consumed raw, or the manufacturer may choose to put the juice through a preservation method such as HPP in order to extend shelf life and kill potentially harmful microorganisms. The process of high pressure processing (HPP) allows the juice to be stored for about 30 days.[3][6][7]

Laws and Regulations[edit]

There are laws and regulations governing the production and distribution of raw juice that vary widely by region. In the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration prohibits wholesale distribution of raw juice. Raw juice may only be sold direct to consumer.[11] In order to sell juice wholesale, it must undergo a process that achieves a "5 log reduction in bacterial plate count."[12] In laymen's terms, the process must reduce the amount of microorganisms by 100,000 times. There are several processes available that can achieve a 5 log reduction including heat pasteurization (HTST) and UV light filtering, but the most popular process in the cold-pressed juice industry is HPP.

Juice manufacturers may also have to organize an approved HACCP (Hazard Analyses Critical Control Points) plan. In a HACCP plan, the manufacturer must identify at which points in the manufacturing process the juice may become contaminated, and how to regularly test and confirm that the juice is not being contaminated. The manufacturer must keep log books available for health inspectors if they are requested.[13][14]

Nutritional labeling requirements must be followed in some regions, including the US.[15] Nutritional content, ingredients list, and more must be displayed when selling juice commercially.

Industry[edit]

The rise of cold-pressed juice came at a time where the juice industry was stagnant.[6] Starting with Liquiteria in 1996, cold-pressed juice bars first emerged in New York City and have since spread internationally.[16] Though the size of the cold-pressed juice industry is not independently tracked, the sudden increase in popularity is undisputed, and 2013 estimates ranged from $1.6 billion to $3.4 billion.[5][6] Three major cold-pressed juice companies have been in direct competition: Suja, BluePrint, and Evolution Fresh.[5][6] Suja is the largest independent cold-pressed juice company, with a revenue of $18 million in 2013, the first year of its operation.[6][7] BluePrint was founded in 2007 and acquired by Hain Celestial Group in 2012 and had a revenue of $20 million in 2013.[5][6] Evolution Fresh was purchased by Starbucks in 2011 for $30 million.[6]

Hain Celestial Group, the owner of BluePrint, had a lawsuit filed against it in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York in October 2013.[6][17] The products were labeled as "100% Raw", "Raw and Organic", and "Unpasteurized", but the process of HPP destroys probiotics and enzymes.[6][17] However, the case was dismissed in July 2014.[18]

The popularity of cold-pressed juice has inspired social events related to the beverage. Juice Crawl, for example, is the world's first pub crawl for cold pressed juice. Participants in the event, held regularly in New York City, begin with a work-out, "pregame" with juice and travel to different juice bars.[19]

Health effects[edit]

Cold-pressed juices contain many beneficial nutrients, although by nature they are also high in very short carbohydrates like fructose, and low longer-chained carbohydrates like dietary fiber.[6] Another health claim to consuming Cold-Pressed juices is the fact that due to the pulp (fibre) is removed from the juice, it allows the digestive system to recuperate. However, there is little evidence that this is of benefit to the digestive system. It has been suggested that all high amounts of short acellular carbohydrates are detrimental to health.[20]

High cost[edit]

Cold-pressed juices could cost $10 for a 16-ounce bottle, and as high as $12 for a 12-ounce bottle.[2][4][6] The high cost has been attributed to the organic ingredients and the manufacturing process.[6] The manufacturing process is costly as an HPP machine could cost from $800,000 to over 2 million.[5] Alternatively, the incremental cost of toll processing could range from $0.25 – $0.45 per bottle, not including transport.[5] Juice companies say that consumers who juice at home with similar ingredients will pay a similar price.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Amidor, Toby (8 August 2014). "Cold-Pressed Juice: Is it Worth the Hype?". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Why Your Cold-Pressed Juice Is So Expensive". TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d Gordinier, Jeff (16 April 2013). "The Juice-Bar Brawl". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hallock, Betty (15 June 2013). "Cold-pressed juice, hot in L.A.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Latif, Ray (12 September 2013). "The Juice Uprising". BevNET.com. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Rosman, Katherine (11 November 2013). "What's Behind the Green Juice Fad?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c Colao, J. J. (22 January 2014). "Suja Juice: The Unlikely Team That's Building The Country's Fastest Growing Beverage Company". Forbes. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  8. ^ [1], Wettlaufer, Dale E., "Method and press for pressing liquid from thin layers of liquid containing masses" 
  9. ^ Goodnature Products, Inc. (2016-12-16), Goodnature 40th Anniversary Video, retrieved 2017-01-21 
  10. ^ [2], Wettlaufer, Dale E., "Method and press for pressing liquid from thin layers of liquid containing masses" 
  11. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Juice - Guidance for Industry: The Juice HACCP Regulation - Questions & Answers". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-21. 
  12. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Juice - Guidance for Industry: The Juice HACCP Regulation - Questions & Answers". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-21. 
  13. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Juice - Guidance for Industry: Juice HACCP Hazards and Controls Guidance First Edition; Final Guidance". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-21. 
  14. ^ Goodnature (2014-07-16). "HACCP and SSOP example for cold pressed juice - Goodnature". Goodnature. Retrieved 2017-01-21. 
  15. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Labeling & Nutrition - Food Labeling Guide". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-21. 
  16. ^ "Fresh Fast Food Juice Beverages Offer Healthy Drink Options - QSR magazine". Qsrmagazine.com. Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  17. ^ a b Latif, Ray (28 October 2013). "Lawsuit Claims BluePrint Juices are Neither "Raw" Nor "Unpasteurized"". BevNET.com. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  18. ^ Klineman, Jeffrey; Rothman, Max (22 July 2014). "Calif. Judge Dismisses Hain Celestial Suit". BevNET.com. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  19. ^ "NYC Bladders Brace For City's First ‘Juice Crawl'". Foodrepublic.com. Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  20. ^ Spreadbury, I. "Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity". Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 5: 175–89. PMC 3402009Freely accessible. PMID 22826636. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S33473.