Cold-pressed juice

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Cold-pressed juices

Cold-pressed juice refers to juice that uses a hydraulic press to extract juice from fruit and vegetables, as opposed to other methods such as centrifugal or single auger.[1][2][3][4][5]

Without pasteurization or high-pressure processing (HPP), cold-pressed juices can be stored in a refrigerator for up to five days when phytochemical and micronutrient degradation occurs.[6] This type of juice has been commercially produced for decades, but became more common in some countries since 2013.[2][4] In general, these juices are more expensive than other types of juices, as they are made from 100% fruit and vegetables without any added ingredients.[1][2][4] It has been reported that a 12-ounce bottle could cost as much as US$12.[2][4]

History[edit]

Although cold-pressed juices were produced over several decades, the products gained more common use during the fad of juice "cleansing",[2][4][5] expanding into a wider industry in the early 21st century.[3]

Manufacturing process[edit]

Making cold-pressed juice is a two-step process. The first stage is to shred or compress the fruits or vegetables into a pulp.[6] In industrial production, the shredding process uses a steel rotating disc.[7] Produce is loaded into a large hopper feeding tube and typically falls into a filter bag. The second process is the hydraulic press; this exposes the shredded produce to extreme pressures between two plates.[7] The pressure causes the juice and water content from the produce to drip into a collection tray below, leaving behind the fibre content in the filter bag. The pomace left behind is generally composted, recycled in food products or discarded.

The industry standard hydraulic cold-press technology with vertical pressing layers was invented by Dale E. Wettlaufer in 1983.[7] Vertical press layers with open-top cloth bags allow for faster loading and emptying of the press, compared to the classic rack-and-cloth method which involved wrapping layers of ground fruit in cloth.[8]

After extracting juice from fruits and vegetables, the juice may be consumed raw, or the manufacturer may choose to put the juice through a preservation method such as HPP or pasteurization in order to extend shelf life and kill potentially harmful microorganisms. Pasteurization or HPP allows the juice to be stored for about 30 days.[3][8] Without pasteurization, as for typical home-made juices stored in a refrigerator, significant degradation of phytochemicals and micronutrients occurs within 6 days.[6]

Industry[edit]

Starting with Liquiteria in 1996, cold-pressed juice bars first emerged in New York City and have since spread internationally.[9] Though the size of the cold-pressed juice industry is not independently tracked, the 2013 estimates ranged from US$1.6 billion to US$3.4 billion.[5]

Nutrient preservation[edit]

Cold-pressing does not preserve phytochemicals or micronutrients better than conventional centrifugal juicing or blending.[6] Color and physicochemical composition, including polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity, were not different among juices of various tropical fruits prepared using a cold-press instrument, a centrifugal juicer or a blender.[6] Cold-pressed juices showed degradation of constituents within 6 days of normal cold storage in a refrigerator.[6]

High cost[edit]

Cold-pressed juices could cost US$10 for a 16-ounce bottle, and as high as US$12 for a 12-ounce bottle.[2][4] The high cost has been attributed to the manufacturing process which uses an HPP machine that may cost from US$800,000 to over US$2 million.[5] Alternatively, the incremental cost of tool processing could range from US$0.25–US$0.45 per bottle, not including transport.[5]

Laws and regulations[edit]

There are laws and regulations governing the production and distribution of raw juice that vary widely by region. In the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration prohibits wholesale distribution of raw juice, stating that it may only be sold directly to consumers.[10] In order to sell juice wholesale, the juice must undergo a process that achieves a "5 log reduction in bacterial plate count."[11] The process must reduce the amount of microorganisms by 100,000 times. There are several processes available that can achieve a 5-log reduction, including heat pasteurization and ultraviolet light filtering, but the most common process in the cold-pressed juice industry is HPP.[2]

Juice manufacturers may also have to organize an approved HACCP (Hazard Analyses Critical Control Points) plan. In a HACCP plan, the manufacturer must identify at which points in the manufacturing process the juice may become contaminated, and how to regularly test and confirm that the juice is not being contaminated. The manufacturer must keep log books available for health inspectors if requested.[12][13]

Nutritional labeling requirements must be followed in some regions, including the US, where the nutrition facts label must state nutritional content, ingredients and the manufacturer.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Amidor, Toby (8 August 2014). "Cold-Pressed Juice: Is it Worth the Hype?". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Why Your Cold-Pressed Juice Is So Expensive". TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  3. ^ a b c Gordinier, Jeff (16 April 2013). "The Juice-Bar Brawl". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hallock, Betty (15 June 2013). "Cold-pressed juice, hot in L.A." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e Latif, Ray (12 September 2013). "The Juice Uprising". BevNET.com. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Khaksar, Gholamreza; Assatarakul, Kitipong; Sirikantaramas, Supaart (2019). "Effect of cold-pressed and normal centrifugal juicing on quality attributes of fresh juices: do cold-pressed juices harbor a superior nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity?". Heliyon. 5 (6): e01917. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01917. ISSN 2405-8440. PMC 6587058. PMID 31286079.
  7. ^ a b c Wettlaufer, Dale E. (9 January 1990). "Method and press for pressing liquid from thin layers of liquid containing masses; US patent number US4892665A". Google Patents. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  8. ^ a b Allison Webster (13 October 2015). "Cold-Pressed Juice: Hipster Hype or Health Hero?". International Food Information Council. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  9. ^ "Fresh Fast Food Juice Beverages Offer Healthy Drink Options - QSR magazine". Qsrmagazine.com. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  10. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Juice - Guidance for Industry: The Juice HACCP Regulation - Questions & Answers". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  11. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Juice - Guidance for Industry: The Juice HACCP Regulation - Questions & Answers". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  12. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Juice - Guidance for Industry: Juice HACCP Hazards and Controls Guidance First Edition; Final Guidance". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  13. ^ Goodnature (2014-07-16). "HACCP and SSOP example for cold pressed juice - Goodnature". Goodnature. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  14. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Labeling & Nutrition - Food Labeling Guide". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-21.