Cold war (general term)
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A cold war is a state of conflict between nations that does not involve direct military action but is pursued primarily through economic and political actions, propaganda, acts of espionage or proxy wars waged by surrogates. This term is most commonly used to refer to the Soviet-American Cold War. The surrogates are typically states that are "satellites" of the conflicting nations, i.e., nations allied to them or under their political influence. Opponents in a cold war will often provide economic or military aid, such as weapons, tactical support or military advisors, to lesser nations involved in conflicts with the opposing country.
Origins of the term
The expression "cold war" was rarely used before 1945. Some writers credit the fourteenth century Spaniard, Don Juan Manuel for first using the term (in Spanish), when dealing with the conflict between Christianity and Islam as a "cold war". However he used the term "tepid" not "cold". The word "cold" first appeared in a faulty translation of his work in the 19th century.
At the end of World War II, George Orwell used the term in the essay "You and the Atomic Bomb" published October 19, 1945, in the British newspaper Tribune. Contemplating a world living in the shadow of the threat of nuclear war, he warned of a "peace that is no peace", which he called a permanent "cold war". Orwell directly referred to that war as the ideological confrontation between the Soviet Union and the Western powers. Moreover, in The Observer of March 10, 1946, Orwell wrote that "[a]fter the Moscow conference last December, Russia began to make a ‘cold war’ on Britain and the British Empire."
The definition which has now become fixed is of a war waged through indirect conflict. The first use of the term in this sense, to describe the post–World War II geopolitical tensions between the USSR and its satellites and the United States and its western European allies (which in practice acted as satellites of the opposing force) is attributed to Bernard Baruch, an American financier and presidential advisor. In South Carolina, on April 16, 1947, he delivered a speech (by journalist Herbert Bayard Swope) saying, "Let us not be deceived: we are today in the midst of a cold war." Newspaper reporter-columnist Walter Lippmann gave the term wide currency, with the book Cold War (1947).
Tensions Labelled a Cold War
Since the NATO-Warsaw Pact Cold War (1945–1991), a number of global and regional tensions have also been called "Cold War."
Cold War II
Cold War II, also called Second Cold War, Cold War 2.0, or the New Cold War refers to a renewed state of political and military tension between opposing geopolitical power-blocs, with one bloc typically reported as being led by Russia or China, and the other led by the United States or NATO. This is akin to the original Cold War that saw a global confrontation between the Western Bloc led by the United States and the Eastern Bloc led by the Soviet Union, Russia's predecessor.
An Atlantic Council member Bilal Y. Saab, an About.com writer Primoz Manfreda, an Iranian scholar Seyyed Hossein Mousavian and a Princeton University scholar Sina Toossi, journalist Kim Ghattas, Foreign Policy journalist Yochi Dreazen, Brookings Institution researcher Sultan Barakat, and Newsweek journalist Jonathan Broder use the term "cold war" to refer to tensions between Saudi Arabia and Iran. In February 2016, a University of Isfahan professor Ali Omidi dismissed the assumptions that the conflict between Iran and Saudi Arabia would grow tense.
A commentator Ehsan Ahrari, a writer Bruce Riedel, a political commentator Sanjaya Baru and a Princeton University academic Zia Mian have used the term "cold war" since 2002 to refer to long-term tensions between India and Pakistan, which were part of the British India until its partition in 1947.
A Naval Postgraduate School academic Edward A. Olsen, a British politician David Alton, a York University professor Hyun Ok Park, and a University of Southern California professor David C. Kang used the term to refer to tensions between North Korea and South Korea, which have been divided since the end of World War II in 1945. They interchangeably called it the "Korean Cold War".
China's Defense Ministry spokesman Geng Yansheng, The Diplomat editor Shannon Tiezzi, and The Guardian columnist Simon Tisdall used the term to refer to tensions between China and Japan. China's state-run newspaper Global Times says that China and Japan "are stuck in a state of 'cold peace' and [m]ust avoid sliding into a cold war."
- Simon Dalby; Gearoid O.u Tuathail (2002). Rethinking Geopolitics. Routledge. p. 67.
- Kort, Michael (2001). The Columbia Guide to the Cold War. Columbia University Press. p. 3.
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- Orwell, George, The Observer, March 10, 1946
- Gaddis 2005, p. 54
- Safire, William (October 1, 2006). "Islamofascism Anyone?". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved December 25, 2008.
- History.com Staff (2009). "This Day on History - April 16, 1947: Bernard Baruch coins the term "Cold War"". A+E Networks. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
Full quote in the context of industrial labor problems in the United States of America in 1947 which could only solved, according to Bernard Baruch, through "unity" between labor and management which in return would give the United States the power to play its role as the major force by which, in the words of Baruch, "the world can renew itself physically or spiritually.": "Let us not be deceived-we are today in the midst of a cold war. Our enemies are to be found abroad and at home. Let us never forget this: Our unrest is the heart of their success. The peace of the world is the hope and the goal of our political system; it is the despair and defeat of those who stand against us. We can depend only on ourselves."
- Lippmann, Walter (1947). Cold War. Harper. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
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- Barakat, Sultan (22 June 2016). "Is the Iranian-Saudi 'cold war' heating up? How to reduce the temperature". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
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- Mian, Zia (7 December 2016). "Kashmir, climate change, and nuclear war". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- Olsen, Edward A. (1992). "Korean Security: Is Japan's 'Comprehensive Security' Model a Viable Alternative?". In Doug Bandow; Ted Galen Carpenter. The U.S.-South Korean Alliance: Time for a Change. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. p. 140. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Olsen, Edward A. (2013) . US National Defense for the Twenty-first Century: Grand Exit Strategy. Routledge. pp. 115–116. ISBN 0-7146-5098-6. LCCN 2002073300. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
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- Hyun Ok Park (2015). The Capitalist Unconscious: From Korean Unification to Transnational Korea. Columbia University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-231-17192-2. LCCN 2015010090. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Kang, David C. (31 December 2010). "Korea's New Cold War". The National Interest. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- "China Lashes Out at Japan's New Defence Plan, Says Tokyo Maintaining 'Cold War Mentality'". NDTV. Associated Press. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Tiezzi, Shannon (25 January 2016). "The New Cold War: China vs Japan". The Diplomat. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Tisdall, Simon (17 January 2005). "Sino-Japanese 'cold war' stirs new tensions". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- "China, Japan must avoid slide into cold war". Global Times.