Coldwater fish

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Japanese koi carp are coldwater fish.

Coldwater fish can have different meanings in different contexts.

In the context of aquariums, it refers to fish species that do not require a heater to remain within tolerable temperatures in a typical indoor aquarium. However, most or all ornamental fish species are able to tolerate temperatures as low as or lower than room temperature, with most stenothermic tropical species having critical thermal minimums of around 10-12 °C.[1] It is important to note that just because these fish are capable of surviving in unheated aquaria, their temperature preferences may vary. For example, koi, goldfish, and pond loaches are commonly considered to be cold-water fish because of their ability to survive at very low temperatures, but their temperature preferences and/or physiological optimal temperatures are 32 °C (90 °F),[2] 24-31 °C (75-88 °F),[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] and 26-28 °C (79-82 °F),[22] respectively. Because many of the ornamental fish considered to be “coldwater fish” are more accurately eurythermal fish and many prefer temperatures similar to, or even warmer than those preferred by certain tropical fish, the term “coldwater fish” in the aquarium context often misleads pet owners into keeping fish below their preferred temperature.

Anglers also may loosely break down fish into categories of warm-water fish, cool-water fish, and cold-water fish. Warm-water fish are species that tend to dwell in relatively warm water, and in North America include species such as largemouth bass, sunfish, and bullhead catfish. Cool-water species, such as smallmouth bass and walleye, can tolerate a wide range of temperatures, but tend to be most abundant in cooler rivers or deeper parts of ponds and lakes. Cold-water species, such as char, trout, salmon, grayling, and burbot become stressed at high temperatures and are most active in cold water. Because these designations are informal, different authorities may recognize different boundaries in temperature preference between the categories.

Freshwater aquarium fish[edit]

Note: The above contains a mix of true coldwater fish and sub-tropical fish that can survive and thrive at room temperature which ranges from 15 °C (59 °F) and to 30 °C (86 °F).[23]

Freshwater pond fish[edit]

Marine aquarium fish[edit]

Wild fish[edit]

The term is also used to refer to fish species in the wild (such as lake trout, Arctic char, and Arctic grayling), that prefer colder waters.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yanar, Mahmut; Erdoğan, Erhan; Kumlu, Metin (February 2019). "Thermal tolerance of thirteen popular ornamental fish Species". Aquaculture. 501: 382–386. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.11.041. ISSN 0044-8486.
  2. ^ Pitt, T. K.; Garside, E. T.; Hepburn, R. L. (1956-12-01). "Temperature Selection of the Carp (cyprinus Carpio Linn.)". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 34 (6): 555–557. doi:10.1139/z56-055. ISSN 0008-4301.
  3. ^ Brezden, Borys L; Fenwick, James C; Moon, Thomas W (February 1975). "The effects of acclimation temperature and conditioning temperature on the learning rate of the goldfish Carassius auratus". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology. 50 (2): 373–377. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(75)90028-6. ISSN 0300-9629.
  4. ^ COVERT, JERRY B.; REYNOLDS, WILLIAM W. (May 1977). "Survival value of fever in fish". Nature. 267 (5606): 43–45. doi:10.1038/267043a0. ISSN 0028-0836.
  5. ^ Fry, F. E. J. (1947). "Effects of the Environment of Animal Activity". Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory. 55.
  6. ^ FRY, F. E. J.; BLACK, V. S.; BLACK, EDGAR C. (June 1947). "INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ASPHYXIATION OF YOUNG GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS L.) UNDER VARIOUS TENSIONS OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE". The Biological Bulletin. 92 (3): 217–224. doi:10.2307/1538308. ISSN 0006-3185.
  7. ^ GOUVEIA, L.; REMA, P. (February 2005). "Effect of microalgal biomass concentration and temperature on ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus) skin pigmentation". Aquaculture Nutrition. 11 (1): 19–23. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2004.00319.x. ISSN 1353-5773.
  8. ^ Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Esfandyar; Kabir, Milad (2011-04-18). "Effects of different salinity and temperatures on the growth, survival, haematocrit and blood biochemistry of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)". Aquaculture Research. 43 (3): 332–338. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2011.02832.x. ISSN 1355-557X.
  9. ^ Kestemont, Patrick (November 1995). "Influence of feed supply, temperature and body size on the growth of goldfish Carassius auratus larvae". Aquaculture. 136 (3–4): 341–349. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(95)00060-7. ISSN 0044-8486.
  10. ^ Müller, Rudolf (January 1977). "Temperature selection of goldfish (carassius auratus L.) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis mitch.) After heterogeneous temperature acclimation". Journal of Thermal Biology. 2 (1): 5–7. doi:10.1016/0306-4565(77)90003-1. ISSN 0306-4565.
  11. ^ Rahman, M. H.; Suzuki, S.; Kawai, K. (2001-12-17). "The effect of temperature on Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus". Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 17 (6): 282–285. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0426.2001.00291.x. ISSN 0175-8659.
  12. ^ Rausch, Richard N.; Crawshaw, Larry I.; Wallace, Helen L. (2000-03-01). "Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol on thermoregulation in goldfish, Carassius auratus". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 278 (3): R545–R555. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.2000.278.3.r545. ISSN 0363-6119.
  13. ^ Reutter, J. M. & Herdendorf, C. E. (1976). "Thermal Discharge from a Nuclear Power Plant: Predicted Effects on Lake Erie Fish". Lake Erie Area Research.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Reynolds, William W.; Casterlin, Martha E. (July 1979). "Effect of temperature on locomotor activity in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) and the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus): Presence of an 'activity well' in the region of the final preferendum". Hydrobiologia. 65 (1): 3–5. doi:10.1007/bf00032711. ISSN 0018-8158.
  15. ^ Reynolds, William W; Casterlin, Martha E; Matthey, James K; Millington, Scott T; Ostrowski, Anthony C (January 1978). "Diel patterns of preferred temperature and locomotor activity in the goldfish Carassius auratus". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology. 59 (2): 225–227. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(78)90211-6. ISSN 0300-9629.
  16. ^ REYNOLDS, W. W.; COVERT, J. B.; CASTERLIN, MARTHA E. (July 1978). "Febrile responses of goldfish Carassius auratus (L.)to Aeromonas hydrophila and to Escherichia coli endotoxin". Journal of Fish Diseases. 1 (3): 271–273. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2761.1978.tb00031.x. ISSN 0140-7775.
  17. ^ Riege, Walter H.; Cherkin, Arthur (April 1972). "One-trial learning in goldfish: Temperature dependence". Behavioral Biology. 7 (2): 255–263. doi:10.1016/s0091-6773(72)80204-9. ISSN 0091-6773.
  18. ^ Roy, A. W.; Johansen, P. H. (1970-03-01). "The temperature selection of small hypophysectomized goldfish (Carassius auratus L.)". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 48 (2): 323–326. doi:10.1139/z70-052. ISSN 0008-4301.
  19. ^ Rozin, P. N.; Mayer, J. (1961-09-29). "Thermal Reinforcement and Thermoregulatory Behavior in the Goldfish, Carassius auratus". Science. 134 (3483): 942–943. doi:10.1126/science.134.3483.942. ISSN 0036-8075.
  20. ^ Wollmuth, L. P.; Crawshaw, L. I.; Rausch, R. N. (1988-10-01). "Adrenoceptors and temperature regulation in goldfish". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 255 (4): R600–R604. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.1988.255.4.r600. ISSN 0363-6119.
  21. ^ Zdanovich, V. V. (December 2006). "Alteration of thermoregulation behavior in juvenile fish in relation to satiation level". Journal of Ichthyology. 46 (S2): S188–S193. doi:10.1134/s0032945206110087. ISSN 0032-9452.
  22. ^ Zhi-min, J.I.N. (2011). "Effect of Temperature and pH Value on the Survival and Feeding of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus [J]". Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences.
  23. ^ "Definition of ROOM TEMPERATURE". www.merriam-webster.com.

Marine Aquarium Fish - http://www.oregonreef.com/sub_coldwater.htm

Freshwater Aquarium Fish - Practical Fishkeeping Magazine

Freshwater Pond Fish - An Essential Guide to Choosing Your Pond Fish and Aquatic Plants by Graham Quick and also http://www.pondexpert.co.uk/ChoosingTheRightFishForYourPond.html

External links[edit]