Colectiv nightclub fire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Colectiv nightclub fire
Colectiv foc.png
Romanian television stillframe showing the fire
Date Friday, 30 October 2015 (2015-10-30)
Time 22:32–22:33 (EET)
Duration 1 minute and 9 seconds[1]
Venue Club Colectiv
Location Tăbăcarilor Street 7, Sector 4, Bucharest, Romania[2]
Coordinates 44°25′16.6″N 26°6′28.1″E / 44.421278°N 26.107806°E / 44.421278; 26.107806Coordinates: 44°25′16.6″N 26°6′28.1″E / 44.421278°N 26.107806°E / 44.421278; 26.107806
Also known as Club Colectiv tragedy
Type Fire, stampede
Cause Ignition of acoustic foam by use of fireworks
Participants 300–500
Deaths 64[3]
Non-fatal injuries 147 (109 hospitalized)
Property damage Interior of the club destroyed
Suspect(s) 3 club owners, 2 ISU employees, Mayor Cristian Popescu Piedone and 2 functionaries of Sector 4 Town Hall[4]
Charges Negligent homicide, negligent bodily harm and negligent destruction[5]

The Colectiv nightclub fire was a deadly fire in Bucharest, Romania, on 30 October 2015, which killed 64 people[6][7][8] (26 on site, 38 in hospitals)[9] and injured 147.[10][11][12][13] The fire, the worst incident in Romania since the Balotești plane crash,[14] occurred during a free concert performed by the metalcore band Goodbye to Gravity[15] to celebrate the release of their new album, Mantras of War.[16][17] The band's pyrotechnics, consisting of sparkler firework candles, ignited the club's flammable polyurethane acoustic foam, and the fire spread rapidly.[18][19][20] Most of the victims were poisoned by toxins released from the burning foam.[21] Overwhelmed by the high number of victims, Romanian authorities transferred some of the seriously injured to hospitals in Israel, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria,[22] the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany and France.[23] Mass protests over the corruption linked to the fire led to the resignation of the Prime Minister of Romania, Victor Ponta.[24]

In advance of the concert, the band announced that they would be including customised lighting, "pyrotechnic effects",[25] and scenic elements brought in to "give life to the science fiction artwork" of the new album. The band's guitarists Vlad Țelea and Mihai Alexandru, as well as drummer Bogdan Lavinius and bassist Alex Pascu died.[26][27] Vocalist Andrei Găluț was hospitalised with injuries.[28]

The club's main shareholder and co-founder, Alin George Anastasescu,[29] together with two other associates, Costin Mincu and Paul Cătălin Gancea, were arrested on 2 November for negligent homicide, negligent bodily harm, and negligent destruction.[30] The club had opened in May 2013 on the location of the previous Pionierul factory, at Tăbăcarilor Street 7 in Sector 4 of Bucharest, within 3 km (2 mi) of the Palace of the Parliament.

Because it was a high-casualty fire caused by illegal indoor usage of outdoor pyrotechnics, the 2015 disaster is similar to the 2001 Canecão Mineiro nightclub fire in Belo Horizonte, Brazil; the 2003 Station nightclub fire in West Warwick, Rhode Island, in the United States; the 2004 República Cromañón nightclub fire in Buenos Aires, Argentina; the 2008 Wuwang Club fire in Shenzhen, China; the 2009 Santika Club fire in Watthana, Bangkok, Thailand (cause is disputed); the 2009 Lame Horse fire in Perm, Russia, and the 2013 Kiss nightclub fire in Santa Maria, Brazil.

Background[edit]

Club Colectiv[edit]

Club Colectiv was located on Tăbăcarilor Street 7 in Sector 4 of Bucharest and operated since May 2013 in a workshop for pieces of a former shoe factory Pionierul. The factory belonged to the Prodanof family, a well-known family of industrialists in the interwar period. Pionierul was one of the largest footwear manufacturers in Southeastern Europe.[31] The establishment of communism meant its nationalization, and the fall of this regime in 1989 allowed the attempted recovery of the assets by family descendants. This approach failed, with the factory falling into the hands of former directors.[32] Nowadays, the building belongs to Teamset Consulting, a firm based in Cyprus.[31] The owners of Club Colectiv rented the location from Pionierul SA, for which Eugen Voicu signed as administrator engineer.

The shareholders of Colectiv Club SRL, the firm that owns the club, are Alin George Anastasescu – 47%, Paul Cătălin Gancea – 30% and Costin Mincu – 23%. At the time of the fire, none of the owners were in the club. A year earlier, Elephant Pub & Alive Music, one of the clubs in the old center of Bucharest where Costin Mincu has shares, had burned.[33] Dozens of people narrowly escaped losing their lives, and a firefighter was injured.[34] Moreover, in 2010, Costin Mincu was part owner of Goblin Bar & Club in Vama Veche, also destroyed in a fire. Following investigations, firefighters determined that an unknown person had thrown fuel on the wooden terrace, and then set it on fire.[34]

Goodbye to Gravity[edit]

Vocalist Andrei Găluț is the only surviving member of Goodbye to Gravity

Goodbye to Gravity was a metalcore band from Bucharest, founded in 2011. The band had five members: Andrei Găluț (vocals), Mihai Alexandru (guitar), Bogdan Enache (drums), Vlad Țelea (guitar) and Alex Pascu (bass).

On 29 October 2015, on Facebook, Goodbye to Gravity announced that they would be celebrating the release of their album Mantras of War with a free concert in Club Colectiv the following night. Doors were opened to the public at 8:30 pm.[35] On this occasion, the band prepared a show with pyrotechnics and lights. During the fire, guitarists Mihai Alexandru and Vlad Țelea died. Bogdan Enache, the band's drummer, died on 8 November, shortly after the plane that transported him from Burn Hospital to a clinic in Zurich, Switzerland, returned on Otopeni airport, because he had entered into cardiopulmonary arrest.[36] Bassist Alex Pascu was hospitalized in serious condition with burns on 70% of the body at Floreasca Hospital, where he was intubated and underwent two surgeries.[37][38] On 11 November he was transferred to a medical unit in France, but died at the airport in Paris.[39] Vocalist Andrei Găluț suffered burns on 45% of the body surface (on hands, face and shoulder), burns of the respiratory tract and a strong smoke poisoning. He was initially hospitalized in serious condition at Elias Hospital in Bucharest where he was tracheostomised and mechanically ventilated. On 7 November he was transferred in the Netherlands, where he was admitted to the intensive care unit of Red Cross Hospital in Beverwijk.[40]

Fire[edit]

Candles and memorials in front of the former "Pionierul" factory, where Colectiv was located (video)
Location of Club Colectiv
Timeline of the event[41]
30 October:
  • 21:00 – The concert begins.
  • 22:30 – During a song performed by Goodbye to Gravity, pyrotechnics are displayed. Sparks from two fireworks reach one of the pillars of technical scaffold and catch fire. A group of 50–90 people preventively leave the club.
  • 22:32 – The first call to 112 is made. The fire spreads quickly from pillar to the ceiling covered with strips of pinewood and acoustic foam. The strips of incandescent wood collapse over those left inside. The crowd tramples, heading toward the only exit available.
  • 22:40 – An agitated crowd of bewildered people, many with burns, leaves the Club Colectiv, screaming for help. Those less-affected run after taxis or cars. Hearing screams, medical staff from neighboring Bucur Maternity arrives at the scene to assist the wounded.
  • 22:42 – First ambulances and fire engines arrive at the Club Colectiv.
  • 23:30 – Police isolates a perimeter of several streets around the club building.
  • 23:55 – Secretary of State Raed Arafat and Interior Minister Gabriel Oprea arrive at the scene.

31 October:

  • 00:37 – Gabriel Oprea notifies President Klaus Iohannis about the tragedy.
  • 01:55 – Health Minister Nicolae Bănicioiu calls for blood donations.
  • 03:52 – The Prosecutor's Office attached to the High Court of Cassation and Justice opens a criminal file in Club Colectiv fire case.
  • 07:13 – The National Committee for Emergency Situations is convoked.
All times are EET.

About an hour before midnight, the club was engulfed in flames because of a spark set off by pyrotechnics.[42] Some witnesses said there was an explosion, but this was disputed and later dismissed by other sources.[43] The club's ceiling was supported by pillars, which were coated with a flammable soundproofing foam. Soon after the pyrotechnics began, the foam on one of the pillars was ignited. The fire spread rapidly to the ceiling, eventually causing it to collapse.[20] Media reported that club-goers initially thought the flames were part of the show and did not immediately react.[44] When the ceiling caught fire, the approximately 200 to 400 people[45] in the club panicked and rushed to the only working exit door at the venue, creating a stampede. The two-part door was only half opened, thus too narrow, so people climbed on top of each other in order to get out.[46] Many of the casualties suffered from leg injuries after being trampled.[47] A witness said terrified concert-goers had to break down the other half of the door to escape,[48][49] but many people had already suffered burns, or were in respiratory distress.[50] People also smashed windows in order to escape.

The first to arrive on the scene were nurses and doctors from nearby Bucur Maternity Hospital,[51] who were on duty that Friday night. They heard the screams of the injured and went out to the street in robes and slippers to provide first aid.[52] The first 112 call came at 10:32 p.m.,[clarification needed] and the first emergency service arrived 11 minutes after the call. The State Secretary at the Ministry of Health, Raed Arafat, and deputy Prime Minister Gabriel Oprea arrived at the scene late in the night.[53]

Survivors were rushed to hospitals in ambulances and some were driven by neighbors, passers-by, and a few taxis.[54] Others were treated at a field hospital set up at the scene.[55] A code red was declared,[56] with off-duty doctors and nurses at nearby hospitals being called in to help deal with the emergency.[57] Some of the unconscious were resuscitated by the light from fire trucks' headlights.[52] Intervention crews worked with 75 special vehicles of the Inspectorate for Emergency Situations, including 11 with water and foam, and 57 SMURD trucks and ambulances. Around 500 emergency services personnel were mobilised – firefighters, gendarmes, police, and medical crews.[58] Nearby residents housed concert-goers with less serious injuries overnight.[58]

Casualties[edit]

Nationality Number of
deaths
Number of
injured[59]
 Romania 62 150
 Turkey 1[60][61]
 Italy 1[62]
 Spain 1[63]
 Germany 1[64]
 Netherlands 1[65]
Total 64 153

According to initial statements by State Secretary Raed Arafat, at least 27 people died from burns and smoke inhalation. Among the 27 people declared dead were the two guitarists, Vlad Țelea and Mihai Alexandru.[66] Another 184 people were injured, most of them young, and of whom 146 required immediate hospitalization, including four foreigners: an Italian woman, two Spanish citizens, and a German man. Adrian Despot, leader of the band Vița de Vie, was also injured in the fire.[67] As of Saturday morning, 17 of the 27 dead remained unidentified,[68] given that most had no identity documents on them.[69] By Sunday night, all the fatalities had been identified, however, 29 of the 146 hospitalized victims could not be identified due to the severity of their burns.[70]

The injured were taken to 12 hospitals in Bucharest and Ilfov County, with the most at Floreasca Hospital (57), Burn Hospital (29), University Hospital (25), and Military Hospital (15).[69] The band's bassist and vocalist were taken to Floreasca Hospital.[71] Arafat acknowledged that due to the large number of victims in some hospitals there were no beds available, and the injured were redirected to other hospitals. Ventilation devices also had to be moved from hospitals where they were not being used, to those that needed more. Many residents of Bucharest reportedly flocked to blood donation centres in an effort to help the injured.[72] Previously, health officials had launched an appeal to residents to donate blood.[73] By the morning of 31 October, almost 600 people had donated blood at the Bucharest Transfusion Centre.[74]

As of the evening of 31 October, 23 of 27 dead had been identified—14 men and 9 women.[75] On the morning of 1 November, three more victims of the fire died,[76] one at Burn Hospital, and two at Bagdasar-Arseni Hospital, bringing the death toll to 30.[77] Arafat said the death toll could double, as 80–90 people remained in very serious, and critical condition.[78] Two more victims died the following days.

On 7 November, nine patients (eight Romanians and an Italian—Neapolitan Tullia Ciotola)[79] died, bringing the death toll to 41.[80] Seven of them died at Burn, University and Floreasca hospitals in Bucharest,[81] the other two after arriving or on the way to a hospital in Rotterdam. A further 14 patients were transferred with Army's Spartan aircraft to three hospitals in the Netherlands and the Erasmus Hospital in Brussels.[82] The day was marked in Romanian media outlets as Black Saturday[83][84] due to high number of deaths occurred. During the morning of 8 November, three other wounded died, including a Turkish student—Ayberk Manci,[85] the death toll rising to 44[86]—12 deaths in just 24 hours.[87] By 22 November, the death toll topped 60.[13] Out of 39 injured transported to hospitals abroad, 12 died:[9] four in United Kingdom, one in Israel, two in Netherlands, one en route to Switzerland, one in France and three in Germany.[88] On 14 March 2016 another victim died at Floreasca Emergency Hospital, rising the death toll at 64. The victim was the last victim treated in a Romanian hospital.

One year and nine months after the fire, on 29 July 2017, a Colectiv survivor committed suicide.[89] His girlfriend died in the fire on 30 October.[citation needed]

Reactions[edit]

Domestic[edit]

Flowers and candles outside Pionierul, the former factory where Colectiv was located

Romania's President, Klaus Iohannis, wrote on his Facebook page that he was "deeply grieved by the tragic events that happened this evening in the center of the Capital". He added: "It is a very sad day for all of us, for our nation and for me personally". He visited the scene, saying safety regulations seem to have been ignored.[90] Prime Minister Victor Ponta said he was cutting short a visit to Mexico to return to Bucharest.[91] On 31 October, the government decreed three days of national mourning,[19] which was the first time in 15 years when three days of national mourning had been decreed in Romania.[92] Halloween concerts and parties scheduled for that evening were cancelled across the country,[93] and a campaign on Facebook urging people to avoid clubs and bars that night, and intended both to show respect to the victims and as a form of protest against inadequate safety precautions in such establishments, garnered over 100,000 supporters.[94]

Former King Michael I said in a press release: "I am wholeheartedly with families grieving the loss of loved ones. My family and I pray for them all, as for the mourners, who have tears in their eyes today".[95]

Following the fire, the Bucharest School Inspectorate suspended all dances organized by schools in city clubs.[96] The Inspectorate is also requiring school principals in Bucharest to check the pubs and clubs where student parties and balls are to be organized.[97]

Many artists canceled their concerts out of respect for the fire victims, including Delia, byron, and Luna Amară.[98] On 1 November, 12,000 people gathered in Bucharest in a march of solidarity.[99] Another 2,000 people gathered in front of the club to lay flowers and light candles.[100] Similar commemorations took place in major cities across the country. Churches in the country held memorials for victims of the fire.[101] In a national telethon organized by Intact Media Group, €1 million[102] was raised in donations from viewers and companies, including Carrefour, Coca-Cola HBC AG, and Rompetrol.[103] Another fundraising campaign (Nouă ne pasă – "We Care") was organized by the Romanian Red Cross together with Pro TV and Vodafone Romania.[104] On 4 November, more than 20 Romanian artists organized a charity concert, the profit being donated to victims of the Club Colectiv tragedy.[105] Some artists include Connect-R, Delia, Carla's Dreams, Marius Moga, Dan Bittman, Voltaj, Andreea Bănică, Alina Eremia and Lora.[106]

Two of the victims, Claudiu Petre and Adrian Rugină, were knighted to the National Order for Merit posthumously by President Iohannis for their efforts to save others in the fire.[107]

Between 9 and 16 November, the Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations conducted more than 1,000 inspections at national level, in bars, venues, clubs, cinemas and malls.[108] ISU released a statement saying they found over 3,200 violations, leading to the permanent closure and suspension of some businesses. Many of these businesses lacked correct fire permits or firefighting equipment and neglected to hold fire drills,[109] the Inspectorate said. ISU also noted widespread violations of bans on illegal flames, pyrotechnics and public smoking—and doled out fines totaling 8.6 million lei,[110] or 2.07 million dollars.

In February 2016, volunteer Pavel Popescu launched a crowdfunding campaign on FundRazr to cover medical expenses for the victims.[111]

Protests[edit]

On 3 November, more than 15,000 people protested in front of Victoria Palace—the headquarters of the Romanian government—blocking traffic in Victory Square. Dubbed in the Romanian press the #Colectiv Revolution,[112][113] the protests were held to demand the resignations of Prime Minister Victor Ponta, Minister Gabriel Oprea, and Cristian Popescu Piedone,[114][115] the Mayor of Sector 4, who was criticized for giving an operating license to the club without a permit from the fire department.[116] In front of the government building, large cordons of gendarmes prevented demonstrators from advancing toward the building.[117] From Victory Square, protesters marched to the Interior Ministry, where they knelt and held a moment of silence.[118] The protesters chanted "shame on you" and "assassins", and carried banners reading "corruption kills". By 10 p.m. local time, between 28,000 and 30,000 people[119] (some estimates had more than 35,000) reached Constitution Square, with some protesters scaling the fences surrounding the Palace of the Parliament. Protests were also held in Brașov, Ploiești, Buzău and Iași. President Klaus Iohannis welcomed the street demonstrations, and cautioned that such events cannot be ignored by the political class.[120]

Protesters also criticized the Romanian Orthodox Church and its leader, Patriarch Daniel, for their apparent lack of reaction in the aftermath of the club fire. Thousands of demonstrators marched on Dealul Mitropoliei in central Bucharest, where the seat of the Church is located.[121]

On the morning of 4 November the Ponta government resigned.[122][123][124] "I hope the government's resignation will satisfy the people who came out in the streets", Ponta said in a statement.[125] Pressure had been mounting on Ponta for the previous month. In October 2015, he lost the Social Democratic Party leadership to Liviu Dragnea amid a tax fraud scandal, and became the country's first sitting premier to stand trial for corruption.[126] One hour after the announcement of the government's resignation, Piedone also announced his resignation.[127] He accepted his role in the tragedy, and expressed regret for his actions and inaction, stating: "It is a mistake and I undertake that I did not proceed to the resignation from the first day or second day after the accident".[128]

On 4 November protests continued for a second consecutive night despite Ponta's resignation, with about 35,000 people in Bucharest,[129][130] 10,000 in Timișoara, 5,000 in Craiova and Iași, 4,500 in Cluj-Napoca,[131] 4,000 in Sibiu, 3,000 in Bacău, Constanța, Buzău and Galați, and 1,000 in Focșani.[132] Demonstrators demanded early elections[133] and a total change of the political class.[134] Protests in solidarity with those in the country took place in London, Paris, and Madrid.[135]

People protesting in University Square, Bucharest, on 5 November

On 5 November around 12,000 people protested in Bucharest and 10,000 in other big cities. For the first time the president invited representatives from street people to a round of consultations to hear their demands. After the Presidential Administration centralized 5,520 proposals, 20 people, mostly members of NGOs, were chosen to take part in consultations with Klaus Iohannis.[136]

The next day, on 6 November, people kept protesting, although in fewer numbers (6,000 in Bucharest and several thousands in other cities). The president told the civil representatives that he will come incognito to talk to people in the streets, indirectly hinting that if they want true change they need to keep asking for it so the politicians can't pretend they don't understand what is asked of them.

On 8 November, in the seventh day of protests, Klaus Iohannis went to University Square,[137] where he talked with some protesters and listened to their demands. While many expressed gladness at president's presence in the square, others booed, whistled and chanted "Shame on you", "Resignation", "Thieves" and "We don't want you".[138]

International[edit]

  •  Belarus: President Alexander Lukashenko sent a message of condolences on 31 October to President Klaus Iohannis.[139]
  •  Bulgaria: President Rosen Plevneliev sent a message of condoleances to the Romanian president, expressing his sadness after hearing about the tragic event.[140]
  •  European Union: President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, sent a message of condolence, saying that "on behalf of the European Commission I would like to express my heartfelt condolences to the families and friends of the victims of last night's tragic accident in a nightclub in Bucharest. I am greatly saddened to see so many young lives ending so tragically. My thoughts are with the grieving families and friends as well as with all those working hard in rescuing and in assisting the victims".[141][142]
  •  France: The ambassador in Bucharest, François Saint-Paul, announced that a team of two French specialists, some of the best in the field, will arrive in Bucharest to help treat the victims of the blaze. He was at the site of the tragedy and expressed compassion for the tragedy victims and their families.[143]
  •  Germany: The Embassy in Bucharest expressed, in a message on Facebook, their condolences to the families and friends who lost their loved ones in the tragic event.[144] German doctors offered their help.
  •  Hungary: President János Áder sent his condolences in a letter to Romanian President Klaus Iohannis.[145]
  •  Israel: A team of plastic surgeons from Tel HaShomer Hospital near Tel Aviv came to Bucharest, volunteering to help treat the fire victims.[146] One of the injured, Pro TV journalist Teodora Maftei, was transferred to a university hospital in Israel, where she received specialized care.[147]
  •  Moldova: Interim Prime Minister Gheorghe Brega signed, on the morning of 31 October, a letter to Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta, expressing compassion following the tragedy.[148] Likewise, Valeriu Streleț and Ion Sturza expressed compassion for the tragedy's proportions. The Moldovan Ministry of Health offered assistance and 2,150 units of blood.[149] The week after the fire, interim PM Gheorghe Brega and Mayor of Chișinău Dorin Chirtoacă ordered controls in all clubs in the country and the capital, to check their preparation against fires.[150] Interior Minister Oleg Balan assumed the responsibility for these controls to be carried out for two weeks.[151]
  •  Poland: President Andrzej Duda paid his respects at the site of the tragedy on Monday 2 November, during an official visit to Romania.[152]
  •  Russia: On 31 October 2015, The Embassy of the Russian Federation expressed regrets and condolences,[153]
  •  Serbia: Prime Minister Aleksandar Vučić expressed in a message on Twitter "condolences to Romanian PM Victor Ponta and families who lost their loved ones in the explosion and fire at club in Bucharest".[154]
  •  Slovakia: President Andrej Kiska said in a message on Twitter: "My deepest condolences to the families and the loved ones of the victims".[155]
  •  Turkey: President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu sent a message of condolences, stating that Turkey shares the pain and the grief of the Romanian "allied and friend" people. Turkish ambassador to Romania, Osman Koray Ertaş, went on 2 November to Club Colectiv, where he announced that a clinic in Turkey expressed readiness to assist victims of the tragedy.[156]
  •  United Kingdom: A message of condolence was posted by Prime Minister David Cameron on Twitter, also noting the Sinai plane crash involving Russian citizens.[157] On 9 December, in his first trip to Romania, David Cameron went to Club Colectiv[158] where he placed a lit candle and a wreath of white lilies and roses at the site in memory of the victims.[159]
  •  United States: The ambassador in Bucharest, Hans Klemm, paid a visit to the site of the fire and said he is "very saddened by the tragedy". He added that the incident bore "frightening" similarities to The Station nightclub fire in 2003.[160]
  •   Vatican: Pope Francis has sent a telegram of condolences to President Klaus Iohannis through the Vatican Secretary of State, Cardinal Pietro Parolin.[161] Pope Francis expressed his "deep sorrow for the tragic incident that took place in a nightclub in Bucharest, in which many young people lost their lives".

International aid[edit]

Soon after Club Colectiv tragedy, Romania may request assistance through the EU Civil Protection Mechanism. However, the request was made barely six days after fire.[162] So, the European Commission received on 5 November a request from the Romanian Government to transfer in other member states of the European Union or the European Economic Area about 80 patients who can not be treated in Romania.[163] Interim Prime Minister Sorin Cîmpeanu previously stated that Romania did not request the triggering of the mechanism, because Club Colectiv tragedy would not fit in the formal definition of disasters.

On 8 November, 10 injured were transported by a NATO C-17 aircraft to clinics in United Kingdom and Norway.[164] Previously, two patients were transported in Vienna, and two others were transferred to Tel HaShomer Hospital in Tel Aviv.[165] Likewise, a day before, 16 injured were transported to hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium.[166] Two of them (a Romanian citizen and an Italian woman) died at Rotterdam. Some doctors came to Romania to see patients before transport.[167]

Musicians[edit]

Four days after the tragedy, German DJ Markus Schulz sent a public message on Facebook, announcing to his fans that he will no longer hold concerts accompanied by pyrotechnics, also expressing his sympathy for the victims and their families.[168]

On 7 November Dutch composer and violinist André Rieu came to Bucharest and went to the site of the tragedy to pay his respects. Visibly affected by the event, he promised to donate money to the victims and write a song about the tragedy.[169] Likewise, Spanish tenor José Carreras sent a message to the victims of the Club Colectiv fire, saying that he is praying "for all the souls that have left this world".[170]

On 25 November, before their concert at Arenele Romane in Bucharest, the heavy metal band Sepultura saluted survivors from the Colectiv nightclub fire and expressed their regrets. They also made a donation for the victims.[171]

On 11 December, after their concert in Bucharest, members of the Finnish rock band Nightwish visited several survivors of the nightclub fire at the Grigore Alexandrescu Hospital.[172]

In 2016, to mark the anniversary of the fire, a compilation album entitled Back To Life - A Tribute To Goodbye To Gravity was released.[173] Among the contributors were current and ex-members of My Dying Bride, Tristania, Mortiis, Eluveitie and Bucium (whose drummer died in the fire). It also included the last recording of Goodbye to Gravity, a cover of Babylon Zoo's "Spaceman".

Investigation[edit]

An investigation of the fire was started by the Prosecutor's Office attached to the High Court of Cassation and Justice. At the scene, the case prosecutor said that an in rem manslaughter investigation was in progress, and that the primary cause of the disaster was thought to be a fire, not an explosion. Hearings in the case began during the night of 30 October, when the organizer of the show was interviewed by the Bucharest Police.[174]

A representative of the company who worked on soundproofing the walls of Club Colectiv—Luxory Media SRL—stated that the owners of the club had refused to buy fireproof soundproofing material,[175] due to the high costs.[176] The same representative said for Digi24:

Pinewood painted with washable hung from the ceiling. A month and a half ago, they took it off in order to wash the sponge on the ceiling. It was full of smoke. It doesn't wash. I hope they didn't wash it with solvent.

A team of specialists from the National Institute for Research and Development in Mine Safety and Protection to Explosion arrived in Bucharest to investigate the causes of the fire.[177] According to the Institute's General Director, George Artur Gaman, the club had only one exit—a door that was 80 centimetres (31 in) wide. The club was coated on the inside with foam that was used for soundproofing. The foam was extremely flammable. In addition, the club did not have fire sprinklers, or a way to shut off the electricity in an emergency.[178] The club had only a single fire extinguisher, which would have been too small for such a fire.[179] At the time of the fire, the 425 square metres (4,570 sq ft) club had 300 to 500 people inside;[180] Club Colectiv was only authorized for 80 seats.[181]

On 2 November, prosecutors charged the club's owners—Alin Anastasescu, Paul Gancea, and Costin Mincu—with negligent homicide and negligent bodily harm, and detained them after a 10-hour hearing.[182] As of 5 November, 70 people have been heard so far in the Colectiv fire case. Many came on their own initiative to file a complaint and be a civil party.[183] The former mayor of Sector 4, Cristian Popescu Piedone, is also being targeted in the case, being investigated for abuse of office and forgery concerning the authorization of Club Colectiv.[184] On 6 November, he was detained by DNA prosecutors for 24 hours.[185]

Director of Golden Ideas Fireworks Artists SRL, Cristian Niță, and others employed in this company that provided pyrotechnic effects in Club Colectiv were intercepted while discussing the destruction of evidence.[186] According to intercepted communications, one of the company's employees contacted director Cristian Niță the day after the fire, asking him to remove a number of relevant documents from the computer.[187][188] Cristian Niță, his wife, Daniela and Viorel Zaharia, authorized pyrotechnist and company employee were detained by prosecutors.[189] Andreea Sârbu, employee of Golden Ideas Fireworks Artists SRL, told investigators that there was no contract between the firm she works and Digidream [Goodbye to Gravity band] for the fireworks in the club, but it was subsequently written by emergency.[190][191]

To my knowledge, Niță Daniela Ioana talked with Adrian Rugină [Digidream representative] on Thursday evening, 29 October 2015, to meet on Saturday to sign the contract. Effectively, there was no contract between our firm and Digidream for fireworks on the evening of 30 October 2015. It was drafted by emergency on 31 October 2015.

Andreea Sârbu, in the face of investigators

Investigators found in the club a partly burned document that supports the version according to that, on the evening of 30 October, patrons have rented the club to Goodbye to Gravity band. The rental agreement stipulated that Goodbye to Gravity had to pay a rent of 500 euros should they fail to gather a crowd of at least 400, in which case the consumption from the bar would have been sufficient to cover the costs.[192]

ISU Bucharest-Ilfov heads—chief inspector colonel Mihai Mirel Guță, first adjunct Orlando Șchiopu and adjunct Giani Aldoiu—were suspended from office[193] after journalist Cătălin Tolontan published on his blog a document according to that event organizer Emagic informed the General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) about organizing a show on 25 September, in Club Colectiv.[194] IGSU submitted the request to ISU Bucharest, and they have not verified the situation on the spot and have taken no action against the club that operated illegally.[193] A month later, the Colectiv Club fire took place , resulting in 60 deaths and dozens of injuries. The new appointed prime minister, Dacian Cioloș, reacted: "ISU Bucharest leadership must be dismissed, they no longer belong to the system".[195] On 25 November, Guță, Șchiopu and Aldoiu were heard at the National Anticorruption Directorate.[196][197][198]

Prosecutor General's technical juridical expertise, released three months after the fire, revealed that no control of Sector 4's City Hall took place in five years. Moreover, use of incompliant, inflammable materials, lack of emergency exits and construction deficiencies hampering evacuation (the verge was higher by 7 cm (2.8 in)) were among the main causes of the tragedy.[199]

In popular culture[edit]

"Moment of Silence", the song wherewith Ovidiu Anton who was to represent Romania at the Eurovision Song Contest 2016, was written in the wake of #Colectiv protests. "It's a song for all the people who should remember once again that we are the only ones in control of our lives, no one has the right to use our souls to get obscure interests", said Ovidiu, alluding to maneuvers leading to the fire.[200]

Aquila band used the desperate screams of people inside Colectiv nightclub in a song that was meant to be a tribute to those who died there. YouTube users called for its removal from the site, claiming "total lack of respect".[201]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Incendiu Club Colectiv. Este NEVOIE DE SÂNGE! Unde puteţi dona chiar acum". Observator.tv. 31 October 2015. 
  2. ^ "Locul tragediei de vineri noaptea: clubul Colectiv din Bucuresti, strada Tabacarilor". HotNews.ro. 30 October 2015. 
  3. ^ Narcis Rosioru (14 March 2016). "TRAGEDIA DIN COLECTIV: Încă un tânăr a decedat, la câteva luni de la incendiu". Mediafax. 
  4. ^ Cătălin Lupăşteanu (7 November 2015). "Cristian Popescu Piedone şi două angajate de la Primăria Sector 4, ARESTAŢI. Fostul primar şi-a asumat funcţionarea Colectiv în condiţii de nesiguranţă publică - referat DNA". Mediafax. 
  5. ^ "Ancheta dupa incendiul de la Colectiv. Martori bandajati audiati la Politie. Se verifica daca personalul era angajat legal". Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  6. ^ "Bilantul tragediei din Colectiv: 57 de morti. Iubitul tinerei care a murit joi: "Imi va lipsi fiecare particica din tine"". Stirile Pro TV. 19 November 2015. 
  7. ^ "Bilanțul negru de la Colectiv: 58 de morți. Ultima victimă a încetat din viaţă vineri". Realitatea.net. 20 November 2015. 
  8. ^ "Bilantul tragediei din Colectiv a ajuns la 61 de morti. Povestea Ioanei, o tanara psiholog, care s-a stins in Germania". stirileprotv.ro. Retrieved 2015-12-14. 
  9. ^ a b Andrei Luca Popescu (13 November 2015). "Două săptămâni de la tragedia care a schimbat România: 55 de morţi. Cine şi unde a greşit în criza de la Colectiv?". Gândul. 
  10. ^ "Bucharest nightclub fire: Several people still critical". Deutsche Welle. 31 October 2015. 
  11. ^ "27 dead, dozens injured in Bucharest club explosion". RT. 30 October 2015. 
  12. ^ "Bucharest explosion: 27 killed, 180 hospitalized at Goodbye to Gravity concert mishap". Breitbart. 30 October 2015. 
  13. ^ a b Porojnicu, Calin (12 November 2015). "Inca doua persoane aflate in stare critica au decedat la Spitalul Floreasca. Bilantul tragediei de la Colectiv a ajuns la 53 de morti". Hotnews.ro. A. Florea. 
  14. ^ "Cronologia exploziilor soldate cu victime multiple în România". Agerpres. 31 October 2015. 
  15. ^ Alison Mutler (31 October 2015). "3 Days of Mourning for 27 Dead in Bucharest Nightclub Fire". ABC News. 
  16. ^ Tom Parfitt (31 October 2015). "Halloween Horror at nightclub: Fire kills 26 and injures hundreds at rock gig in Bucharest". Express. 
  17. ^ "Cea mai mare tragedie din Bucuresti: Incendiu in clubul Colectiv - 27 de morti, cel putin 162 de raniti. Parchetul a deschis ancheta/ Numere de urgenta pentru rudele victimelor". HotNews.ro. 30 October 2015. 
  18. ^ "Multiple Fatalities After Blast at Romanian Nightclub". Sputnik News. 31 October 2015. 
  19. ^ a b "Incendiu Club Colectiv. Guvernul se pregăteşte să declare doliu naţional. Raed Arafat: "Mai pot apărea decese. Clubul nu avea autorizaţie de la ISU"". Adevărul. 31 October 2015. 
  20. ^ a b "Clubul Colectiv NU avea autorizatie din partea ISU pentru eveniment. Momentul in care a pornit incendiul a fost fotografiat". Stirile Pro TV. 31 October 2015. 
  21. ^ "Cu ce s-au intoxicat victimele din Colectiv. "O combinaţie de otrăvuri greu de imaginat că există"". Realitatea.net. 2 November 2015. 
  22. ^ "STAREA RANITILOR DIN COLECTIV. 17 persoane vor fi transportate in Olanda si Belgia cu aeronave Spartan". Stirile Pro TV. 6 November 2015. 
  23. ^ "TRAGEDIA din Colectiv: Aeronava trimisă de NATO va transporta, la primul zbor, 12 răniţi în Marea Britanie, Norvegia şi Finlanda. Avionul este aşteptat să sosească în jurul orei 19.30". Mediafax. 8 November 2015. 
  24. ^ Al Jazeera and agencies (4 November 2015). "Romania PM Ponta resigns over nightclub fire". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  25. ^ Harriet Alexander; Barney Henderson (31 October 2015). "Bucharest nightclub fire: What we know so far". The Telegraph. 
  26. ^ "Toboșarul Bogdan Lavinius A MURIT pe Otopeni. Starea răniților din Colectiv, pe spitale". Libertatea. 8 November 2015. 
  27. ^ Mădălina Bătrînca; Roxana Garaiman (11 November 2015). "Tragedia din Colectiv. Ziua a 12-a. Numărul morţilor a ajuns la 51. Basistul trupei Goodbye to Gravity, Alex Pascu, a murit în Franţa". Adevărul. 
  28. ^ Diac, Mihai (31 October 2015). "Incendiul din Colectiv. Trei membri ai trupei Goodbye To Gravity au spus ADIO. Ceilalți doi membri sunt internați în spital". RomaniaLibera (in Romanian). 
  29. ^ Alina Costache (31 October 2015). "Cine sunt patronii Clubului Colectiv: Alin Anastasescu, acţionar principal". Romania TV. 
  30. ^ "Alin Anastasescu, Paul Gancea şi Costin Mincu, patronii Club Colectiv, au fost REŢINUŢI". România TV. 2 November 2015. 
  31. ^ a b Cristian Hostiuc (1 November 2015). "Istoria dramatică a fabricii Pionierul, unde era clubul Colectiv. Cum a ajuns o ruină sub proprietatea unei firme din Cipru". Ziarul Financiar. 
  32. ^ Gelu Diaconu (31 October 2015). "Istoria Clubului Colectiv: "Talpa" IADULUI, sau locul unde, în loc de "adidași", s-a fabricat MOARTE". Ziarul Ring. 
  33. ^ Cristian Stancu (1 November 2015). "Patronul morții și al flăcărilor". Telegraf. 
  34. ^ a b Dodo Romniceanu (2 November 2015). "Coincidențe, BLESTEM sau INDOLENȚĂ criminală? TREI incendii, ACELAȘI acționar". Evenimentul Zilei. 
  35. ^ "Program și reguli de acces pentru lansarea Goodbye to Gravity de astăzi, în Club Colectiv". Facebook. 29 October 2015. 
  36. ^ Eva David; Anca Lupescu (8 November 2015). "TRAGEDIA COLECTIV. Bogdan Enache a DECEDAT, după ce a fost întors în România. Toboşarul trupei Goodbye to Gravity trebuia transferat în Elveţia". Evenimentul Zilei. 
  37. ^ "Familia toboşarului Goodbye to Gravity vrea să îl ducă în Franţa, dar i se spune că nu este asigurat. Starea basistului Alex Pascu s-a înrăutăţit, familia cere sprijin pentru a-l muta în străinătate". Mediafax. 7 November 2015. 
  38. ^ "Clipe dificile pentru membrii trupei Goodbye to Gravity. Tobosarul a murit, iar starea basistului s-a agravat". Stirile Pro TV. 8 November 2015. 
  39. ^ "Alex Pascu, basistul trupei Goodbye to Gravity, a murit". Digi24. 11 November 2015. 
  40. ^ "Andrei Galut, solistul trupei "Goodbye to Gravity" se afla in stare stabila dupa ce a fost operat in Olanda". Stirile Pro TV. 14 November 2015. 
  41. ^ "Incendiu la clubul Colectiv din Capitală - 27 de morți și peste 150 de răniți". Agerpres. 31 October 2015. 
  42. ^ Steve Almasy; Elwyn Lopez; Annie Ramos (31 October 2015). "Romanian nightclub fire leaves 27 dead, scores injured". CNN. 
  43. ^ Barney Henderson; Harriet Alexander; David Millward (31 October 2015). "Bucharest nightclub fire kills 27". The Telegraph. 
  44. ^ Kit Gillet (31 October 2015). "Dozens killed in fireworks accident at Bucharest nightclub". The Guardian. 
  45. ^ Julian Robinson; Jennifer Newton (30 October 2015). "Shocking moment fireworks start deadly inferno at Bucharest heavy metal concert that left at least 27 dead in Halloween horror". Daily Mail. 
  46. ^ "Incendiu Club Colectiv. Mărturiile cutremurătoare: "Mă căţăram pe cadavre şi încercam să ies". Medic: "Din 77 nu am mai văzut aşa ceva"". Adevărul. 31 October 2015. 
  47. ^ Isabelle Le Page (31 October 2015). "Romania in mourning after Bucharest club blaze kills 27". Yahoo! News. 
  48. ^ Alex Wellman (30 October 2015). "27 dead in Bucharest nightclub fire after fireworks explode during packed rock concert". Mirror. 
  49. ^ "Bucharest nightclub fire leaves Romania stunned". BBC News. 31 October 2015. 
  50. ^ Marian Chiriac (1 November 2015). "Deadly Nightclub Fire Kills 30 in Romania". Balkan Insight. 
  51. ^ Bucur Maternity Hospital - Bucharest
  52. ^ a b "Asistentă de la Maternitatea Bucur, printre primii salvatori: "Reanimam şi plângeam"". Digi24. 2 November 2015. 
  53. ^ Radu-Sorin Marinas (31 October 2015). "Romanian nightclub fire leaves 27 dead, 155 injured". Reuters. 
  54. ^ Alison Mutler (30 October 2015). "Interior minister: 27 dead in club fire in Bucharest". The Washington Post. [dead link]
  55. ^ Liam Stack (30 October 2015). "Deadly Fire Roars Through Romanian Nightclub". The New York Times. 
  56. ^ "Incendiu fără precedent în Club Colectiv din Bucureşti: cel puţin 27 morţi şi 146 de persoane internate. A fost activat Codul Roşu de Urgenţă". Adevărul. 30 October 2015. 
  57. ^ "Deadly fire rips through packed Bucharest nightclub". Aljazeera. 31 October 2015. 
  58. ^ a b "Incendiu în Clubul Colectiv din Bucureşti: 27 de morţi, 146 de persoane internate. Mărturiile supravieţuitorilor şi repartizarea răniţilor". Adevărul. 31 October 2015. 
  59. ^ Elvira Gheorghita (31 October 2015). "Patru cetăţeni străini, răniţi în incendiul din clubul Colectiv. Ponta transmite mesaje de solidaritate". Mediafax. 
  60. ^ "Președinția și guvernul Turciei au transmis mesaje de condoleanțe în urma tragediei de la București". agerpres.ro. 
  61. ^ "Presedintii Ungariei, Bulgariei si Turciei transmit condoleante poporului roman in urma tragediei din clubul Colectiv". HotNewsRo. 
  62. ^ "Rogo di Bucarest, morta la napoletana Tullia". Roma. 7 November 2015. 
  63. ^ "Dos españoles heridos en el incendio de una discoteca en la capital de Rumanía". El Mundo. 31 October 2015. 
  64. ^ "Deutscher bei Feuer-Katastrophe verletzt". Bild.de. 31 October 2015. 
  65. ^ "Nederlandse gewonde Boekarest". detelegraaf.nl. 31 October 2015. 
  66. ^ "INCENDIU COLECTIV. Bilanțul victimelor a ajuns la 3w de morți. Doi dintre acționarii clubului au fost reținuți". Digi 24. 2 November 2015. 
  67. ^ "Liderul trupei Viţa de Vie Adrian Despot, rănit în incendiul din Colectiv. Care este starea lui acum". Gândul. 31 October 2015. 
  68. ^ "Many of 27 dead in fire in Bucharest club still unidentified; 180 injured". Fox News. 31 October 2015. 
  69. ^ a b "INCENDIU în Club Colectiv. 27 DE MORŢI şi 146 DE RĂNIŢI spitalizaţi. 3 ZILE DE DOLIU NAŢIONAL. Martor: "Erau uşile închise, nu aveam aer. Ne-am călcat în picioare"". Gândul. 30 October 2015. 
  70. ^ "Ei sunt cei 31 care ne-au părăsit!". Libertatea. 1 November 2015. 
  71. ^ "Membrii trupei Goodbye to Gravity, internați la spitalul Floreasca". Libertatea. 31 October 2015. 
  72. ^ Doug Bolton (31 October 2015). "Bucharest nightclub fire: At least 27 killed and over 150 injured in fire at Colectiv nightclub in Romania". The Independent. 
  73. ^ Kit Gillet (31 October 2015). "Romania nightclub fire: surge in blood donors after deadly blaze". The Guardian. 
  74. ^ Elvira Gheorghita (31 October 2015). "Aproape 600 de persoane au venit să doneze sânge la Centrul de Transfuzie Bucureşti, închis duminică". Mediafax. 
  75. ^ Elvira Gheorghita; Bogdan Stanescu (31 October 2015). "INCENDIUL din Colectiv: 23 dintre cele 27 de victime care au decedat au fost identificate. Lista acestora a fost făcută publică". Mediafax. 
  76. ^ "Bucharest nightclub fire: Three more victims die". BBC News. 1 November 2015. 
  77. ^ "Incendiu în Clubul Colectiv: 29 de morţi, nimeni pus sub acuzare. Persoanele decedate, identificate. Duminică dimineaţă au mai murit două persoane". Adevărul. 1 November 2015. 
  78. ^ Dodo Romniceanu (1 November 2015). "Ministrul Sănătăţii: 80-90 de răniţi de la club Colectiv sunt în stare critică şi gravă". Evenimentul Zilei. 
  79. ^ "Six wounded dead on Saturday, Colectiv club fire toll reaches 38". palo.ro. 7 November 2015. 
  80. ^ "BILANŢUL TRAGEDIEI DIN CLUBUL COLECTIV A AJUNS LA 38 DE MORŢI". Gândul. 7 November 2015. 
  81. ^ "Tragedia din Colectiv: Alte şase persoane rănite în incendiu au murit. Numărul deceselor a ajuns la 38". Adevărul. 7 November 2015. 
  82. ^ Elvira Gheorghita (7 November 2015). "TRAGEDIA din Colectiv - Arafat: 16 răniţi au fost transportaţi sâmbătă spre spitale din Olanda şi Belgia. Doi dintre pacienţi au decedat după aterizare". Mediafax. 
  83. ^ "Incendiu in Colectiv: Sambata neagra cu 9 morti si multe aberatii". Ziare.com. 7 November 2015. 
  84. ^ "Bănicioiu, declaraţii şocante în sâmbăta neagră şi la 7 zile de la tragedia Colectiv". Realitatea.net. 7 November 2015. 
  85. ^ "TRAGEDIA de la Colectiv: Cine sunt cele 51 de victime care au murit în urma incendiului. Artişti, jurnalişti şi studenţi străini, printre cei dispăruţi". Mediafax. 11 November 2015. 
  86. ^ Elvira Gheorghita (8 November 2015). "Cea mai neagră zi după tragedia din Colectiv: 12 răniţi au murit în doar 24 de ore. Bilanţul dramatic: 44 de morţi". Gândul. 
  87. ^ Roxana Garaiman (8 November 2015). "Tragedie în Colectiv. Numărul morţilor se ridică la 44, după ce în această dimineaţă s-au mai stins din viaţă trei răniţi". Adevărul. 
  88. ^ Catalina Cocolos (22 November 2015). "Alexandru Hogea, tânărul care a murit duminică în spitalul din Viena, era student în Bucureşti". Gândul. 
  89. ^ George-Andrei Cristescu (29 July 2017). "Un supravieţuitor din Colectiv s-a sinucis. Iubita sa a decedat în seara incendiului. Mesajul familiei lui Răzvan". Adevărul. 
  90. ^ "Bucharest nightclub fire: Romanian president suggests rules ignored". BBC News. 31 October 2015. 
  91. ^ "Bucharest Blaze: 27 Dead, Dozens Injured in Fire at Colectiv Club". NBC News. 30 October 2015. 
  92. ^ "Trei zile de doliu național. Când au mai fost coborâte drapelele în bernă în ultimii 15 ani". Digi24. 31 October 2015. 
  93. ^ "Toate concertele şi petrecerile de Halloween au fost anulate". Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  94. ^ ""Nimeni în cluburi!", acţiune pe Facebook din respect pentru victimele tragediei din Colectiv". Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  95. ^ "Mesajul Majestății Sale Regelui, 31 octombrie 2015". Romanian Royal Family. 31 October 2015. 
  96. ^ "Toate balurile bobocilor din București au fost suspendate". Digi24. 31 October 2015. 
  97. ^ Mona Hera; Elvira Gheorghita (31 October 2015). "Măsura luată de Inspectoratul Şcolar în urma tragediei din clubul Colectiv". Gândul. 
  98. ^ "CONCERTE ANULATE din respect pentru victimele din Colectiv. Delia, Dan Byron şi trupa Luna Amară printre artiştii care au luat această decizie". Mediafax. 31 October 2015. 
  99. ^ "Peste 12.000 de oameni participă la marşul solidarităţii pentru victimele din club Colectiv". Adevărul. 1 November 2015. 
  100. ^ "Aproximativ 2.000 de oameni în marş spre Colectiv". Gândul. 1 November 2015. 
  101. ^ Elvira Gheorghita (2 November 2015). "Cum explică Patriarhia faptul că niciun preot nu a venit la locul tragediei de la Colectiv". Gândul. 
  102. ^ "Teledonul Români Împreună. Românii au donat 1.000.000 de euro pentru victimele tragediei de la Colectiv". Antena 3. 1 November 2015. 
  103. ^ "Teledon Români Împreună. 825.000 de euro strânşi din donaţii. Cine sunt binefăcătorii". Antena 3. 1 November 2015. 
  104. ^ "Pro TV si Crucea Rosie Romana lanseaza campania "Noua ne pasa", pentru a ajuta victimele din Colectiv. Cum poti dona". Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  105. ^ Alina Costache (4 November 2015). "INCENDIU COLECTIV. Artiştii se reunesc pe scenă în memoria victimelor tragediei". România TV. 
  106. ^ "Concert Caritabil in Bucuresti - peste 20 de artisti vor concerta pentru o cauza umanitara". Metropotam. 3 November 2015. 
  107. ^ "Klaus Iohannis i-a decorat pe Claudiu Petre si lui Adrian Rugina, doi dintre eroii incendiului din Club Colectiv". Hotnews. 2 November 2015. 
  108. ^ "IGSU: Amenzi de peste 8,5 milioane de lei, în doar o săptămână". www.dcnews.ro. Retrieved 2015-11-27. 
  109. ^ "Romania Issues 2 Million Dollars in Safety Violation Fines Following Horrific Club Fire | Thump". Thump. Retrieved 2015-11-27. 
  110. ^ "Amenzi de peste 8,5 milioane de lei în cluburi sau restaurante date de pompieri, într-o săptămână". Stiriletvr.ro. Retrieved 2015-11-27. 
  111. ^ FIREWORKS ACCIDENT WITH 200 VICTIMS AND 63 DEATHS by Pavel Popescu
  112. ^ Marian Sultănoiu (4 November 2015). "Revoluţia #Colectiv a desfiinţat Victoria lui Ponta". Gândul. 
  113. ^ Ioana Tomescu; Silviu Sergiu (4 November 2015). "REVOLUȚIA COLECTIV. Ce urmează după demisia lui Ponta". Evenimentul Zilei. 
  114. ^ "Aproximativ 13.000 de oameni au blocat Piața Victoriei. Se strigă: "Victor Ponta și ai lui, asasinii neamului"!". Adevărul. 3 November 2015. 
  115. ^ Andrei Luca Popescu (3 November 2015). "Protest #Colectiv în Bucureşti: 25.000 de oameni, în marş prin centrul Capitalei, cerând demisiile lui Ponta, Oprea şi Piedone. Manifestanţii merg spre Clubul Colectiv". Gândul. 
  116. ^ "Primarul Piedone, acuzat că nu trebuia să dea autorizaţie clubului Colectiv pe baza declaraţiei pe proprie răspundere". Ştirile TVR. 2 November 2015. 
  117. ^ "TRAGEDIA din clubul Colectiv: Peste 10.000 de manifestanți în Piaţa Victoriei. Ei strigă: "Demisia!"". Mediafax. 3 November 2015. 
  118. ^ Andra Timu; Irina Vilcu (3 November 2015). "Thousands Protest Against Romanian Premier After 32 Die in Fire". Bloomberg. 
  119. ^ "Protest în Capitală, după tragedia COLECTIV.32.000 de oameni cer DEMISIA lui Ponta, Oprea şi Piedone". Realitatea.net. 3 November 2015. 
  120. ^ "CORUPTIA UCIDE: "Nu aveti coloana, decat oficiala". 25.000 de oameni sunt in strada. Mesajul lui Klaus Iohannis". Stirile Pro TV. 3 November 2015. 
  121. ^ "Tragedia din Colectiv. Peste 25.000 de persoane, în stradă. Au cerut demisia lui Piedone, Oprea şi Ponta". Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  122. ^ Radu-Sorin Marinas; Luiza Ilie (4 November 2015). "Romanian PM Ponta quits after protests, paves way for cabinet reshuffle". Reuters. 
  123. ^ Mark Tran (4 November 2015). "Bucharest nightclub fire: Romania's PM and government resign after protests". The Guardian. 
  124. ^ Alexandra Sims (4 November 2015). "Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta resigns the day after mass protests over nightclub fire". The Independent. 
  125. ^ "Romania PM Ponta resigns over Bucharest nightclub fire". BBC News. 4 November 2015. 
  126. ^ Sarah Joanne Taylor (4 November 2015). "Romania: PM Victor Ponta resigns". Euronews. 
  127. ^ "Primarul Cristian Popescu Piedone demisionează şi el - surse". Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  128. ^ "Cristian Popescu Piedone a demisionat: "E un act. Onoarea trebuia să fie în prima zi"". Digi24. 4 November 2015. 
  129. ^ "70.000 de români au ieşit în stradă. Oamenii au strigat: "Nu mă cumperi cu două demisii!"". Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  130. ^ "CORUPTIA UCIDE: Peste 35.000 de oameni au ocupat strazile Capitalei. Proteste de amploare au avut loc in toata tara". Stirile Pro TV. 4 November 2015. 
  131. ^ "Proteste masive în România. 70.000 de oameni, în stradă: "Nu doar Guvernul, jos tot Sistemul"". Realitatea.net. 4 November 2015. 
  132. ^ Vlad Epurescu (5 November 2015). "Ce nu s-a văzut la televizor în timpul protestelor din Bucureşti: cum s-a încercat deturnarea manifestaţiei către un miting anti-Iohannis". Adevărul. 
  133. ^ "Romania: Protests despite Victor Ponta's resignation". BBC News. 5 November 2015. 
  134. ^ Clarice Dinu (5 November 2015). "Zeci de mii de români cer în stradă SCHIMBAREA TOTALĂ a clasei politice. Care este SOLUŢIA lui IOHANNIS pentru consultările de la Cotroceni". Gândul. 
  135. ^ "Manifestatiile din Romania, sustinute de romanii din strainatate. "Nu va lasam singuri", s-a strigat la Paris si Londra". Stirile Pro TV. 4 November 2015. 
  136. ^ Mădălina Mihalache; Sebastian Zachmann (6 November 2015). "Cine sunt cei 20 care au reprezentat societatea civilă la consultările de la Cotroceni. Iohannis: Voi merge în Piaţă, dar nu voi anunţa ora şi ziua". Adevărul. 
  137. ^ "Iohannis a stat 20 de minute in Piata Universitatii. "Un lucru bun c-a fost, un lucru rau ca a venit prea tarziu"". Stirile Pro TV. 9 November 2015. 
  138. ^ "REPORTAJ: Prezenţa lui Iohannis în Piaţa Universităţii, marcată de cereri şi câteva încercări de dialog". Mediafax. 9 November 2015. 
  139. ^ "Alexander Lukashenko offers condolences over Bucharest nightclub explosion victims". The Press Service of the President of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  140. ^ "Presedintii Ungariei, Bulgariei si Turciei transmit condoleante poporului roman in urma tragediei din clubul Colectiv". 
  141. ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Message of condolence from President Juncker on the tragic accident in Bucharest". europa.eu. 
  142. ^ "Mesajul de condoleante al presedintelui CE, Juncker: Sunt foarte intristat sa vad atatea vieti tinere gasindu-si sfarsitul". Stirile Pro TV. 31 October 2015. 
  143. ^ "Ambassador Saint-Paul announces French team of medical burns experts' arrival in Bucharest this evening". agerpres.ro. 1 November 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  144. ^ "German Embassy Facebook Post". Facebook. 31 October 2015. 
  145. ^ "Áder János részvétét fejezte ki a bukaresti tűzvész áldozatai miatt". Magyar Idők. 31 October 2015. 
  146. ^ "Spitalul israelian Tel HaShomer îşi oferă ajutorul pentru victimele tragediei de la Bucureşti". 31 October 2015. 
  147. ^ Alexandra Albert (4 November 2015). "Teodora Maftei va fi transferată la un spital din Israel". Click. 
  148. ^ "Premierul interimar și alți politicieni au transmis mesaje de compasiune în legătura cu tragedia de la București". Unimedia. 31 October 2015. 
  149. ^ "Ministerul Sănătății a oferit asistență hemotransfuzională victimelor dezastrului din Clubul "Colectiv" din România". gov.md. 
  150. ^ "Incendiul de la Bucureşti, cu repercusiuni la Chişinău". Digi24. 3 November 2015. 
  151. ^ Ilie Onceanu (2 November 2015). "Localurile din Republica Moldova vor fi inspectate după tragedia de la Bucureşti". Adevărul. 
  152. ^ "Preşedintele Poloniei, la locul tragediei de la Colectiv". Digi24. 2 November 2015. 
  153. ^ "Mesajul de condoleanțe din partea conducerii Federației Ruse în legătură cu tragedia din clubul de noapte 'Colectiv' din București". AGERPRES. 31 October 2015. 
  154. ^ "Александар Вучић". Twitter. 31 October 2015. 
  155. ^ "Andrej Kiska". Twitter. 4 November 2015. 
  156. ^ Aurelia Alexa (2 November 2015). "O clinică din Turcia şi-a arătat disponibilitatea de a ajuta victimele tragediei din clubul Colectiv". Gândul. 
  157. ^ "David Cameron". Twitter. 31 October 2015. 
  158. ^ "David Cameron a fost primit de preşedintele României, după ce a mers la Colectiv. Iohannis: Locul Marii Britanii e în UE". adevarul.ro. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  159. ^ "Cameron in Romania, Poland to Discuss Migrant Benefit Cuts". ABC News. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  160. ^ "Ambasadorul SUA, Hans Klemm, a venit la club Colectiv pentru un ultim omagiu". Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  161. ^ "Papa Francisc a transmis o telegramă de condoleanțe după tragedia din clubul Colectiv". Gândul. 3 November 2015. 
  162. ^ "Incendiul de la Colectiv. România a cerut ajutor european abia joi, 5 noiembrie". Digi24. 8 November 2015. 
  163. ^ Ana Maria Lazăr (8 November 2015). "Comisia Europeană: România a cerut ajutor la Bruxelles pentru transferul a 80 de răniţi grav în incendiul de la Colectiv. Cererea a fost trimisă joi". Mediafax. 
  164. ^ "STAREA RANITILOR. 10 pacienti, transportati in spitale din Anglia, Finlanda si Norvegia cu un avion NATO C-17". Stirile Pro TV. 8 November 2015. 
  165. ^ "Spitalele din străinătate, în ajutorul răniților din clubul Colectiv. Doi pacienţi au fost transportaţi în Israel". Digi24. 6 November 2011. 
  166. ^ Elvira Gheorghita (7 November 2015). "TRAGEDIA din Colectiv - Bănicioiu, la întâlnirea de la Palatul Victoria: Îmi reproşez multe. Urmează o perioadă critică pentru mulţi dintre răniţi. Arafat: Doi dintre pacienţi au decedat în străinătate". Mediafax. 
  167. ^ "41 de morți în urma incendiului din Colectiv. Răniții au început să fie transportați în străinătate". Digi24. 7 November 2015. 
  168. ^ Liviu Tatu (2 November 2015). Pepa Sița, ed. "DJ-ul Markus Schulz renunță la artificii în concertele sale după tragedia din clubul Colectiv București". Agerpres. 
  169. ^ "Andre Rieu, în lacrimi la Colectiv. Două promisiuni pentru victimele incendiului". Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  170. ^ Alexandra Constanda (6 November 2015). "Tenorul spaniol José Carreras, mesaj pentru victimele incendiului din Colectiv: "Mă cutremură suferinţele acelor copii nevinovaţi şi ale familiilor"". Adevărul. 
  171. ^ Admirabil! Legendele heavy metal-ului, Sepultura au "salutat" fiecare supraviețuitor de la Colectiv | Monden, Muzică, Muzică, Ultima oră, Vedete de la ei | Libertatea.ro
  172. ^ Surpriză uriaşă pentru doi dintre răniţii din Colectiv. Cine i-a vizitat la spital | Ştiri, Ştiri interne, Ultima oră | Libertatea.ro
  173. ^ Back To Life – A Touching Tribute To Goodbye To Gravity & Victims of Fire Catastrophe In Romania It Djents. 20 November 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  174. ^ Andrei Dumitrescu (31 October 2015). "INCENDIUL din Colectiv: S-a început urmărirea penală in rem, pentru UCIDERE DIN CULPĂ. Ancheta, preluată de Parchetul instanţei supreme / Organizatorul spectacolului, audiat la Poliţie". Mediafax. 
  175. ^ Lavinia Balulescu (31 October 2015). "Incendiu în Clubul Colectiv. Administratorul firmei care a izolat fonic tavanul clubului: "Le-am oferit varianta ignifugă, dar au ales ce era mai ieftin"". Adevărul. 
  176. ^ Loredana Voiculescu (31 October 2015). "Patronii Clubului Colectiv ar fi refuzat să cumpere material ignifug pentru antifonarea pereţilor pentru că era prea scump. "Acum o lună au spălat buretele de pe tavan. Sper că nu l-au spălat cu solvent"". Gândul. 
  177. ^ "O echipa de specialisti din Petrosani a sosit in Bucuresti pentru a investiga cauzele incendiului". HotNews.ro. 31 October 2015. 
  178. ^ "Primele detalii in cazul anchetei de la Colectiv. Ușa de iesire era lata de 80 de centimetri, iar clubul nu avea stropitori". Stirile Pro TV. 31 October 2015. 
  179. ^ "Concluzii oficiale ale anchetei: "S-a folosit un singur extinctor". Problemele clubului Colectiv". Realitatea.net. 31 October 2015. 
  180. ^ "Interviu cu Remus Achim, martor la tragedia din Clubul Colectiv: "Erau oameni cazuti, pe care se calca si ardeau la propriu"". Stirile Pro TV. 31 October 2015. 
  181. ^ "Clubul Colectiv avea autorizație doar pentru 80 de locuri. În club, au fost 500 de persoane". Realitatea.net. 1 November 2015. 
  182. ^ "Trei persoane reținute în cazul incendiului de la clubul Colectiv". Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  183. ^ "Peste 70 de persoane audiate în cazul tragediei din clubul Colectiv". Observator.tv. 5 November 2015. 
  184. ^ "Unul din patronii Colectiv a ajuns la DNA. În dosar e vizat și Piedone, care va fi cercetat pentru abuz în serviciu". Curierul Național. 6 November 2015. 
  185. ^ Andrei Dumitrescu (6 November 2015). "Piedone, REŢINUT de procurorii DNA în dosarul Colectiv". Gândul. 
  186. ^ "Incendiu COLECTIV. Cum au încercat administratorii firmei care a organizat focul de artificii să distrugă probe care i-ar putea încrimina". Digi24. 7 November 2015. 
  187. ^ Violeta Fotache (6 November 2015). "DOSARUL COLECTIV. Patronii firmei de pirotehnie, suspectați că au distrus probe, și un angajat, reținuți pentru 24 de ore". Evenimentul Zilei. 
  188. ^ "STENOGRAME. Cum ar fi incercat conducerea firmei de artificii sa distruga probe. "Poti sa stergi un document, te rog?"". Stirile Pro TV. 7 November 2015. 
  189. ^ "Daniela şi Cristian Niţă, patronii firmei de la care erau artificiile din Colectiv, reţinuţi". Mediafax. 6 November 2015. 
  190. ^ "Firma de artificii nu avea contract pentru spectacolul din clubul Colectiv, din seara tragediei. Ancheta scoate la lumină faptul că un contract ar fi fost semnat abia după accident". România Liberă. 7 November 2015. 
  191. ^ Cătălin Lupăşteanu; Cătălina Cocoloş (7 November 2015). "ANCHETA incendiului din Colectiv - Angajată Golden Ideas: Nu a existat niciun fel de contract pentru focul de artificii". Mediafax. 
  192. ^ "DOCUMENTUL care ar putea schimba dosarul Colectiv. Contractul care confirmă spusele patronilor, găsit parţial ARS în club". Gândul. 21 November 2015. 
  193. ^ a b "INCENDIUL din Colectiv: Cei trei şefi ai ISU Bucureşti suspendaţi din funcţii, audiaţi la DNA". Mediafax.ro. Retrieved 2015-11-25. 
  194. ^ "Şefii ISU Bucureşti-Ilfov, SUSPENDAŢI din funcţii, în urma tragediei din clubul Colectiv". Gandul.info (in Romanian). Retrieved 2015-11-25. 
  195. ^ "INCENDIUL din Colectiv - Premierul Dacian Cioloş: Şefii ISU Bucureşti să fie demişi. Vreau să mă asigur că nu se mai pot întoarce în sistem". Mediafax.ro. Retrieved 2015-11-25. 
  196. ^ "Sefii ISU, Guta, Giani si Orlando, audiati de DNA. Documentul publicat de Tolontan dezvaluie minciuna din cazul Colectiv". stirileprotv.ro. Retrieved 2015-11-25. 
  197. ^ "DOSARUL COLECTIV. Şefii ISU Bucureşti, audiaţi la DNA. DOCUMENTUL care a schimbat cursul anchetei". Gandul.info (in Romanian). Retrieved 2015-11-25. 
  198. ^ "Șefii ISU București, aduși cu mandat la DNA pentru audieri". REALITATEA.NET. Retrieved 2015-11-25. 
  199. ^ Clarice Dinu; Monica Moanea (9 February 2016). "ŞASE ÎNTREBĂRI ŞI RĂSPUNSURI care demonstrează cum s-a ajuns la tragedia din Colectiv. RAPORTUL DE EXPERTIZĂ". Gândul. 
  200. ^ "EUROVISION 2016. Ovidiu Anton a castigat Selectia nationala. Reactia dura a lui Mihai Traistariu la adresa juriului". Stirile Pro TV. 7 March 2016. 
  201. ^ (in Romanian) "Urletele din Colectiv, folosite într-o melodie: "Lipsă totală de respect"". Gândul. 17 October 2016. 

External links[edit]