# Colin de Verdière graph invariant

Colin de Verdière's invariant is a graph parameter $\mu(G)$ for any graph G, introduced by Yves Colin de Verdière in 1990. It was motivated by the study of the maximum multiplicity of the second eigenvalue of certain Schrödinger operators.[1]

## Definition

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a loopless simple graph. Assume without loss of generality that $V=\{1,\dots,n\}$. Then $\mu(G)$ is the largest corank of any symmetric matrix $M=(M_{i,j})\in\mathbb{R}^{(n)}$ such that:

• (M1) for all $i,j$ with $i\neq j$: $M_{i,j}<0$ if i and j are adjacent, and $M_{i,j}=0$ if i and j are nonadjacent;
• (M2) M has exactly one negative eigenvalue, of multiplicity 1;
• (M3) there is no nonzero matrix $X=(X_{i,j})\in\mathbb{R}^{(n)}$ such that $MX=0$ and such that $X_{i,j}=0$ whenever $i=j$ or $M_{i,j}\neq 0$.[1][2]

## Characterization of known graph families

Several well-known families of graphs can be characterized in terms of their Colin de Verdière invariants:

These same families of graphs also show up in connections between the Colin de Verdière invariant of a graph and the structure of its complement graph:

• If the complement of an n-vertex graph is a linear forest, then μ ≥ n − 3;[1][5]
• If the complement of an n-vertex graph is outerplanar, then μ ≥ n − 4;[1][5]
• If the complement of an n-vertex graph is planar, then μ ≥ n − 5.[1][5]

## Graph minors

A minor of a graph is another graph formed from it by contracting edges and by deleting edges and vertices. The Colin de Verdière invariant is minor-monotone, meaning that taking a minor of a graph can only decrease or leave unchanged its invariant:

If H is a minor of G then $\mu(H)\leq\mu(G)$.[2]

By the Robertson–Seymour theorem, for every k there exists a finite set H of graphs such that the graphs with invariant at most k are the same as the graphs that do not have any member of H as a minor. Colin de Verdière (1990) lists these sets of forbidden minors for k ≤ 3; for k = 4 the set of forbidden minors consists of the seven graphs in the Petersen family, due to the two characterizations of the linklessly embeddable graphs as the graphs with μ ≤ 4 and as the graphs with no Petersen family minor.[4]

## Chromatic number

Colin de Verdière (1990) conjectured that any graph with Colin de Verdière invariant μ may be colored with at most μ + 1 colors. For instance, the linear forests have invariant 1, and can be 2-colored; the outerplanar graphs have invariant two, and can be 3-colored; the planar graphs have invariant 3, and (by the four color theorem) can be 4-colored.

For graphs with Colin de Verdière invariant at most four, the conjecture remains true; these are the linklessly embeddable graphs, and the fact that they have chromatic number at most five is a consequence of a proof by Robertson, Seymour & Thomas (1993) of the Hadwiger conjecture for K6-minor-free graphs.

## Other properties

If a graph has crossing number k, it has Colin de Verdière invariant at most k + 3. For instance, the two Kuratowski graphs K5 and K3,3 can both be drawn with a single crossing, and have Colin de Verdière invariant at most four.[2]

## Influence

Colin de Verdière invariant is defined from a special class of matrices corresponding to a graph instead of just a single matrix related to the graph. Along the same line other graph parameters are defined and studied such as minimum rank of a graph, minimum semidefinite rank of a graph and minimum skew rank of a graph.

## Notes

1. ^ Colin de Verdière (1990) does not state this case explicitly, but it follows from his characterization of these graphs as the graphs with no triangle graph or claw minor.
2. ^ a b
3. ^ a b c