Collaboration with ISIL
Collaboration with ISIL refers to the cooperation and assistance given by governments, non-state actors, and private individuals to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL or ISIS) during the Syrian Civil War, Iraqi Civil War, and Libyan Civil War. Collaborationism in war crime can be considered a crime against humanity.
Suleiman al-Afari, Iraqi scientist who helped ISIL in producing chemical weapons (sentenced to death at the time of the interview)
Sunni Arabs in Iraq have been accused of collaborating with ISIL against Assyrians, and Yazidis, and Shias. ISIL marked Christian homes with the letter nūn for Naṣārā and Shia homes with the letter rāʾ for Rāfiḍa, derogatory terms used to describe Christians and Shias by Sunni Muslims. Properties were confiscated and given to local ISIL supporters or foreign fighters. Local Sunnis were reported to have betrayed Yazidis once ISIL arrived, or colluded in advance to lure them into staying put until the ISIL invaded.
The Turkish government has been criticised for allowing ISIL to use Turkish territory for logistics and channelling recruits. It has also been accused of selling arms and intelligence to ISIL, as part of its campaign against the People's Protection Units (YPG). Turkey denies the allegations of assisting ISIL, pointing to multiple terrorist attacks ISIL has committed against civilians in Turkey, as well as multiple military confrontations between ISIL and the Turkish government. The Kurdistan Democratic Party in Iraq similarly deny the claim that Turkey is providing aid to ISIL. According to an intelligence adviser quoted by Seymour Hersh, a "highly classified assessment" carried out by the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2013 concluded that Turkey had effectively transformed the secret U.S. arms program in support of moderate rebels, who no longer existed, into an indiscriminate program to provide technical and logistical support for al-Nusra Front and ISIL.
- Joby Warrick (21 January 2019). "Exclusive: Iraqi scientist says he helped ISIS make chemical weapons". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
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- Zaman, Amberin (10 June 2014). "Syrian Kurds continue to blame Turkey for backing ISIS militants". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Wilgenburg, Wladimir van (6 August 2014). "Kurdish security chief: Turkey must end support for jihadists". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Hersh, Seymour Hersh (7 January 2016). "Military to Military". London Review of Books. 38 (1). Retrieved 13 May 2016.