This gene encodes the alpha chain of type X collagen, a short chain collagen expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Unlike type VIII collagen, the other short chain collagen, type X collagen is a homotrimer. Type X collagen has a short triple helical collagen domain flanked by the N-terminal NC2 and the C-terminal NC1 domains. The C-terminal NC1 domain has complement C1q-like structure. Collagen X forms hexamer complexes through the association of NC1 regions. Mutations in this gene are associated with Schmid type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (SMCD) and Japanese type spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMD).
Recent studies into the early detection of colon cancer have identified COL10A1 protein levels in serum as a potential diagnostic biomarker candidate to detect both adenoma lesions and tumor.
Collagen alpha-1(X) undergoes degradation in the active growth plate releasing an intact NC1 region with a small amount of collagenous region attached. This degradation byproduct has been deemed CXM and has potential to be a useful biomarker to assess real time growth velocity in children and fracture healing in adults.
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