College Scholastic Ability Test

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College Scholastic Ability Test
Revised RomanizationDaehak suhak neungryeok siheom
McCune–ReischauerTaehak suhak nŭngryŏk sihŏm

The College Scholastic Ability Test or CSAT (Korean: 대학수학능력시험, Hanja: 大學修學能力試驗), also abbreviated Suneung (Korean: 수능, Hanja: 修能), is a standardized test which is recognized by South Korean universities. The Korea Institute of Curriculum and Evaluation (KICE) administers the annual test on the third Thursday in November.[1][2][3] In 2020, however, it was postponed to the first Thursday in December (December 3), due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[4]

Although the CSAT was originally designed to assess the scholastic ability required for college, it is currently a national graduation test for high-school students. By determining the university a student can enter, it plays an important role in South Korean education. The test has been cited for its efficiency, emphasis on merit, and good international results.[5] Of the students taking the test, 20 percent are high-school graduates who did not achieve their desired score the previous year.[6]

On test day, the KRX stock market opens late, and bus and metro service is increased to avoid traffic jams and allow students to get to the testing sites more easily. Planes are grounded during the listening test of the English so their noise does not disturb the students. In some cases, students running late for the test may be escorted to their testing site by police officers. Younger students and members of the students' families gather outside testing sites to cheer them on.[6][7]


The CSAT is designed to test a candidate's ability to study in college, with questions based on Korea's high-school curriculum. It standardizes high-school education and provides accurate, objective data for university admission.[8]


All questions are multiple-choice, except for the second part of the mathematics section.[9]

Period Subject Time Number of questions Points Notes
Candidates must enter the testing room by 08:10. For the second to fifth periods, students must enter 10 minutes before the test begins.
1 Korean 08:40–10:00 (80 min.) 45 100
  • Candidates must choose between two different groups of questions when they apply the test. Type Speaking and Writing or Type Language and Media
Break time: 10:00–10:20 (20 min)
2 Mathematics 10:30–12:10 (100 min.) 30 100
  • Candidates must choose between three different groups of questions when they apply the test. Type geometry or Type calculus or Type Probability and Statistics
  • 30% (9 out of 30) of the questions have short answers.
Lunch: 12:10–13:00 (50 min.)
3 English 13:10–14:20 (70 min.) 45 100
  • 17 out of 45 questions are the listening test at 13:10 (25 minutes or less)
Break: 14:20–14:40 (20 min.)
4 Korean history

Subordinate subjects (social studies, sciences, vocational education)

14:50–16:32 (102 min. total)
Korean history 14:50–15:20 (30 min.) 20 50
  • Required
Collection of test papers for Korean history

and distribution of subordinate-subject papers

15:20–15:30 (10 min.)
  • Candidates not taking subordinate-subject tests return to the waiting room.
First subordinate subjects 15:30–16:00 (30 min.) 20 50
  • Candidates must take tests in code-number order.
  • Collection time is 2 minutes for each subject.
Collection of test papers for first subordinate subjects 16:00–16:02 (2 min.)
Second subordinate subjects 16:02–16:32 (30 min.) 20 50
Break: 16:32–16:50 (18 min.)
5 Second foreign language/Classical Chinese 17:00–17:40 (40 min.) 30 50
  • No listening test.


The CSAT consists of six sections: national language (Korean), mathematics, English, Korean history, subordinate subjects (social studies, sciences, and vocational education), and second foreign language/Chinese characters and classics. All sections are optional except Korean history, but most candidates take all the other sections except second foreign language/Chinese characters and classics. In the mathematics section, candidates are made to take Math I(which consists of Logarithm, Sequences and Trigonometry) and Math II(which consists of Limits and Calculus on polynomials), and allowed to select one among Probabilities & Statistics, Geometry and (advanced) Calculus. (This curriculum is 2015 revised version, and type Ga/Na is 2009 revised version.) Subordinate subjects is divided into three sections: social studies, science, and vocational education. Candidates may choose up to two subjects, but may not select from different sections at the same time; Physics II and Biology I may be chosen for the subordinate section since both are in the Science section, but world history and principles of accounting may not – the former is in the social studies section, and the latter in vocational education. Only vocational high-school graduates can choose the vocational education section. In the second foreign language/Chinese characters and classics section, the candidate chooses one subject. Most high-ranked universities require applicants to take two science subordinate subjects and Geometry or Calculus in the mathematics section if they apply for a STEM major, and do not accept subordinate subjects in the same field (such as physics I and physics II).[8]

National language[edit]

This section is usually the toughest in the exam. Top 4% cut-off score is made around 84~86 out of 100. In the national-language section, candidates are assessed on their ability to read, understand and analyse Korean texts rapidly and accurately. Its 45 questions of the subject are classified into four categories:

  • Speech and Writing (10 questions)
  • Grammar (5)
  • Reading (15)
  • Literature (15)

Speech and writing[edit]

This category consists of three written passages with 10 questions. The first passage is the script of a lecture or radio program (speech), the second is the script of a debate about an article (speech and writing), and the last one is an argumentative essay (writing). Although the category name contains the word "speech", candidates only read the written scripts.


This category consists of five questions, two of which relate to a given passage. Candidates are assessed on their ability to apply their knowledge of Korean grammar, Hangul, and Korean history from the 15th century to the present.


This category consists of three articles, each with four, five, or six questions. The long articles are about abstract, complicated topics such as physics, engineering, economics, law, philosophy, or aesthetics. Topics may be related. Candidates need to answer questions such as, "Of the five statements below, which one does NOT agree with the passage above?" or "According to the passage, which one is the correct analysis of the following example?"


This category consists of four texts, each with three to six questions. The first text is a comparison of a modern Korean novel and scenario or play. The second is a comparison of two modern Korean poems. The third is part of a Korean novel or pansori and the last is a Korean poem, both of which were written between the Silla and Joseon eras (the Western Middle Ages). Candidates must determine which answer is the most accurate impression of the given text.


The mathematics section is divided into two types: Ga and Na. Type Ga, usually taken by students applying for natural-sciences majors, is based on calculus, geometry, vectors, and probability and statistics, all of which are taught in high school. Type Na, usually taken by students applying for the humanities, is based on probability and statistics. Most candidates choose Ga when they take the CSAT.

Type Base subject Contents
Ga Calculus I. Limit of sequence: Introduction to limit, limit of a sequence, series, squeeze theorem

II. Limit and continuity of function: Limit of a function, continuous function, extreme value theorem, intermediate value theorem

III. Derivation of polynomial function: Definition of derivative and its application to polynomial function, mean value theorem, maxima and minima

IV. Integration of polynomial function: Definition of antiderivative and integral, fundamental theorem of calculus

V. Exponential and logarithmic functions and their derivatives

VI. Trigonometric function: Radian, trigonometric functions and their derivative

VII. Derivations: Quotient rule, chain rule, derivative of inverse function, second derivative

VIII. Integrations: Integration by parts, integration by substitution, Cavalieri's principle

Geometry and vector I. Curve on plane: Conic section, implicit function and its derivation, parameter

II. Vector on plane: Vector and its operations, position vector, plane vector, inner product space, outer product

III. Three-dimensional figure and coordinate: Theorem of three perpendiculars, orthographic projection, equation of a sphere

IV. Vector in three dimensions: Operations of the vector in three dimensions, equation of a plane

Both Probability and statistics I. Permutation and combination: Number of outcomes, addition rule, rule of product, permutation, combination, binomial theorem, Partition of integer and set

II. Probability: Probability, conditional probability

III. Statistics: Discrete random variable, probability distribution, estimation

Subordinate subjects[edit]

Subordinate subjects[8]
Section Field Subject Related major Contents
Social studies Ethics Life and ethics Philosophy Introduction to ethics, teleological and deontological ethics, Thomas Aquinas, Stoicism, Immanuel Kant, utilitarianism, virtue ethics, John Rawls, Alasdair MacIntyre, Jürgen Habermas
Ethics and thought Eastern philosophy: Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Korean philosophy

Western philosophy: Sophism, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Epicureanism, Stoicism, Hellenism, Christianity, Scholasticus, Protestantism, Empiricism, Rationalism, Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill, Jeremy Bentham, Kant, practical ethics, existentialism, virtue ethics, communitarianism, democracy, social contract, natural law, capitalism, socialism

Geography Korean geography Geography Geography, ecosystem and climate of the Korean peninsula, Korean geography-based industrial structure, provincial specialties, North Korea
World geography World map, climate by latitude, unique landforms, distributions of ethnic groups, languages, and resources, globalization, regional conflicts
History East Asian history History History of Korea, China, Japan, and Vietnam
World history History of the world, especially Eurasia
Political science Politics and law Law

Political science

International relations

Political and legal philosophy, electoral system, constitutional law, presidential, parliamentary and dual-executive system, history of Korean politics, civil, criminal and social law of Korea, international law
Economics Economics Division of labor, supply and demand, unemployment, inflation, trade, exchange rate, asset management, history of Korean economics
Society and culture Sociology


Structural functionalism, conflict theories, symbolic interactionism, social research, socialization, social groups, deviance, anomie, Émile Durkheim, Robert K. Merton, culture, social inequality, Marxian class theory, social stratification, poverty, gender, welfare, modernization theory, evolutionary theory, industrialisation, unemployment, globalization
Science Physics Physics I Physics . Classical mechanics in one dimension, theory of relativity, electromagnetism: electromagnetic induction and Faraday's law, wave properties, semiconductor principles, torque, Archimedes' principle, Pascal's law, Bernoulli's principle, laws of thermodynamics
Physics II I. Classical mechanics: Classical mechanics in two dimensions, harmonic oscillator, laws of thermodynamics, proof of ideal gas law

II. Electromagnetism: Electric dipole moment, Lorentz force, RLC circuit

III. Waves and light: Mathematical expression of wave, Huygens' principle, superposition principle, lasers, polarization of light

IV. Quantum mechanics: Black body, Wien's displacement law, Stefan–Boltzmann law, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, matter wave, Davisson–Germer experiment, uncertainty principle, Schrödinger equation, wave function, quantum tunnelling, scanning tunneling microscope

Chemistry Chemistry I Chemistry Chemical formula, Avogadro constant, mole, periodic table, Bohr model, atomic orbital, spin, Pauli exclusion principle, Hund's rules, Aufbau principle, octet rule, covalent bond, ionic bonding, coordinate covalent bond, Bond dipole moment, acid-base, redox, DNA
Chemistry II Van der Waals force, hydrogen bond, ideal gas equation, mole fraction, Dalton's law, cubic crystal system, Raoult's law, vapor pressure, Heat of reaction, Hess's law, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, Chemical equilibrium: phase diagram, solubility equilibrium, ionization equilibrium, buffer solution
Biology Biology I Biology DNA, genes, chromosomes, cell structure division and cycle, Mendelian inheritance, anatomy, Adenosine triphosphate, ecology
Biology II Deeper version of Biology I, Hardy–Weinberg principle, evolution
Earth science Earth science I Geology


Atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere

Terrain of Korean peninsula, earthquake, volcano, weathering, landslide, weather, tsunami, environmental pollution, climate change

Universe: Star, Earth, Sun, sunspot, Moon, eclipse, extraterrestrial life

Earth science II Seismic wave, Earth's gravity and magnetic field, mineral, magma, sedimentary and metamorphic rock, hydrodynamic equilibrium, adiabatic process, Ekman spiral, sea water, atmospheric circulation, star, Milky Way, Big Bang, dark energy
Vocational education Agriculture science Understanding agriculture
Basic technology
Engineering General engineering
Basic drawing
Commerce Commercial economics
Principles of accounting
Oceanography Understanding oceans
Fishing and shipping
Home economics Human development
Service industries
  • Second foreign Language/Classical Chinese
    • German I
    • French I
    • Spanish I
    • Chinese I
    • Japanese I
    • Russian I
    • Arabic I
    • Vietnamese I
    • Classical Chinese I

Writing of the test[edit]

The test is written in September each year by about 500 South Korean teachers through a secretive process in an undisclosed location in Gangwon. The test writers are prohibited from communicating with the outside world.[10]


High-school graduates and students about to graduate high school may take the test. After the KICE prints test papers and OMR cards, they are distributed three days before the test to each test area. In 2018, there were 85 test areas.

Test monitors are middle- or high-school teachers. Superintendents of each education office decide who will monitor and where they will go. There are two test monitors for each period, except for the fourth period (which has three, because of test-paper collection). Most testing rooms are high-school classrooms, and there is a 28-candidate limit in each room.

Except for the English and Korean-history sections, grades are based on a stanine curve. Grade, percentile, and a standard score for each section and subject are added to the transcript. The standard score is calculated by the following formula:

and are standard scores. is the standard deviation of the standard score, and is its average. In the national-language and mathematics sections, is 20 and is 100. For the rest, is 10 and is 50. is calculated by the following formula:

is the candidate's original score. is the average of the original candidate scores. is the candidate's standard deviation.


Although the CSAT is compared to the US SAT, their relative importance is different.


Since CSAT problems are designed for all high school students, its overall difficulty is not too high. But some of them can be very tricky, which are so-called 'killer problems'. Here are some killer problems that were on the test.

The 30th problem in type Ga of the 2016 CSAT was:

A function defined for , where is a constant, and a quartic function whose leading coefficient is satisfy the three conditions below:

A) For all real numbers , such that , .

B) For two different real numbers and , has the same local maximum at and . ()

C) has more local extrema than does.

. Find the minimum of .

The 29th mathematics problem in the 1997 CSAT had an all-time low correct-response rate of 0.08 percent:

If two equations and have 7 and 9 solutions respectively and a set is an infinite set, , the number of elements in 's subset, varies according to the values of and . Find the maximum of .

The 29th problem in mathematics subject type B (the former Ga) of the 2013 CSAT follows:

and are points on the sphere . and are the foots of two perpendiculars from and to the plane respectively. and are the foots of two perpendiculars from and to the plane respectively. Find the maximum of .


The following question appeared on 2010 CSAT, and had a correct-response rate of 9.77 percent. The paragraph is excerpted from John Leofric Stocks' "The Limits of Purpose":

So far as you are wholly concentrated on bringing about a certain result, clearly, the quicker and easier it is brought about the better. Your resolve to secure a sufficiency of food for yourself and your family will induce you to spend weary days in tilling the ground and tending livestock; but if Nature provided food and meat in abundance ready for the table, you would thank Nature for sparing you much labor and consider yourself so much the better off. An executed purpose, in short, is a transaction in which the time and energy spent on the execution are balanced against the resulting assets, and the ideal case is one in which__________________. Purpose, then, justifies the efforts it exacts only conditionally, by their fruits.

  1. demand exceeds supply, resulting in greater returns
  2. life becomes fruitful with our endless pursuit of dreams
  3. the time and energy are limitless and assets are abundant
  4. Nature does not reward those who do not exert efforts
  5. the former approximates to zero and the latter to infinity

Preliminary College Scholastic Ability Test[edit]

The Preliminary College Scholastic Ability Test (PCSAT) is administered nationally. The relationship between PCSAT and CSAT is comparable to that between the PSAT and the SAT in the United States. The PCSAT is divided into two categories: the National United Achievement Tests (NUAT) and the College Scholastic Ability Test Simulation (CSAT Simulation). These tests are more similar to the CSAT than privately-administered mock tests, since the PCSAT's examiner committee is similar to that of the CSAT. The CSAT Simulation is hosted by the same institution as the CSAT, and is used to predict the level of difficulty or types of questions which might appear on that year's CSAT.

Although the NUAT and the CSAT Simulation are similar to the CSAT in their number of candidates, types of questions and relative difficulty, the NUAT is hosted by the Ministry of Education for high-school students. The CSAT Simulation is run by KICE and may be taken by anyone who is eligible for the CSAT. Both exams are reliable, official mock tests for the CSAT, and both are graded by the KICE.

National United Achievement Test[edit]

The National United Achievement Test (NUAT, Korean전국연합학력평가,[11]; Hanja全國聯合學力評價) is administered in the same way as the CSAT, and was introduced in 2002 to relieve dependence on private mock tests. High-school students may apply to take the test, and local education offices decide whether it will be administered in their districts. Every office of education in South Korea normally participates in the NUAT to prepare students for the CSAT, and the number of applicants parallels the CSAT. The Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education,[12] Busan Metropolitan Office of Education[13] (freshmen and sophomores), Gyeonggi-do Office of Education,[14] and Incheon Office of Education[15] take turns creating the questions, and the KICE grades the test and issues report cards.

The basic structure of the exam is identical to the CSAT. For mathematics, social studies, science and second language, its range is determined by when it is conducted.[16][17] In the Korean and English sections, the questions are not directly from textbooks but are constructed in accordance with the curriculum.

As of 2014, there are four NUATs per year; it is not the same for every district,however, and some have only two exams per year for freshmen and sophomores. The NUAT for freshmen and sophomores is held in March, June, September and November; seniors are tested in March, April, July and October to avoid conflict with June and September, when the CSAT Simulation is given.

Administering institutions[edit]

  • March: Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education (seniors; freshmen and sophomores, 2006–2009, 2014), Busan Metropolitan Office of Education (freshmen and sophomores, 2010–2013)
  • April: Gyeonggi-do Office of Education (seniors, since 2003)
  • June: Busan Metropolitan Office of Education (freshmen and sophomores, 2014), Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education (freshmen and sophomores 2002–2004, 2010–2013; seniors 2002), Incheon Office of Education (freshmen and sophomores 2005–2009)
  • July: Incheon Office of Education (seniors since 2007), Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education (2005)[18]
  • September: Incheon Office of Education (freshmen and sophomores since 2010), Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education (freshmen and sophomores 2004–2008), Busan Metropolitan Office of Education (freshmen and sophomores 2009)
  • October: Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education (seniors)
  • November: Gyeonggi-do Office of Education (freshmen and sophomores, except 2003)
  • December: Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education (freshmen 2003)[19]

College Scholastic Ability Test Simulation[edit]

The College Scholastic Ability Test Simulation (CSAT Simulation, Korean대학수학능력시험 모의평가[20]) is given by KICE. Unlike the NUAT, anyone who is eligible for the CSAT may also take this test. The CSAT Simulation was introduced after the CSAT failed to set the proper difficulty level in 2001 and 2002.[clarification needed] First implemented in 2002, it was held only in September during its early years. The test has been given twice a year, in June and September, since 2004. It covers everything in the curriculum for the Korean- and second-language sections, and two-thirds of what the CSAT covers for the other sections. The September exam covers everything in every section, like the CSAT. The number of questions and test time per section is identical to the CSAT.


Since the liberation of Korea, South Korea has changed its methods of university and college admission from twelve to sixteen times.[21] The policies ranged from allowing colleges to choose students to outlawing hagwons. Parents and students have had difficulty adjusting to the changes.[22] The changes have been cited as evidence of systemic instability and the sensitivity of the admission process to public opinion.[23]

University and college admissions were first left to the universities, and the first CSAT incarnation appeared at the beginning of 1960. The Supreme Council for National Reconstruction established an early CSAT from 1962 to 1963 as a qualification test for students. Due to the small number of students passing the test, colleges soon had a student shortage. The admissions process was criticized as inefficient, and the government scrapped the policy from 1964 to 1968. A similar policy was adopted in 1969 by the Third Republic of Korea, and the new test was the Preliminary College Entrance Examination (대학입학예비고사); it continued, mostly unchanged, until 1981.[22][23][24] That year, the policy was significantly changed. The test name was changed to Preliminary College Preparations Examination (대학예비고사), and hagwons (cram schools) were outlawed. In 1982, the test name was changed again to College Entrance Strength Test (대입학력고사).[22][23]

The current CSAT system was established in 1993, and has undergone several revisions since then.[2][25] In 2004, the government of South Korea introduced a 2008 College Admissions Change Proposal; however, it failed to bring about significant changes.[22]

Present day[edit]

The test, based on national-standard textbooks, is designed to encourage cognitive skills. The Korea Institute of Curriculum and Evaluation creates the problems, prints and corrects the tests, supervises the test-making, and sets the test fee. The problems are created by KICE members who are university professors and high-school teachers. Two groups make the problems: one creates them, and the other checks them. The creators are primarily professors, although high-school teachers have been included since 2000. The problem-checkers are high-school teachers. Both groups sign non-disclosure agreements with the KICE. In 2012, there was a total of 696 staff members involved in creating the problems. A member of the group earns about $300 per day.[26]

The 2016 subjects were national language, mathematics, English, Korean history, social studies/science/vocational education, and foreign language/Hanja. Although students may choose all (or some) of the subjects, Korean history is required.

Social studies is divided into life and ethics, ethics and thought, Korean and world geography, East Asian and world history, law and politics, society and culture, and economics; students may choose two subjects. In the science section, students can choose two subjects from Physics 1 and 2, Chemistry 1 and 2, Biology 1 and 2, and Earth Science 1 and 2. Vocational education is divided into agricultural science, industry, commerce, oceanography, and home economics; students must choose one subject. However, vocational education may only be taken if the student has completed 80 percent of the expert studies.[clarification needed] Foreign language is divided into German 1, French 1, Spanish 1, Chinese 1, Japanese 1, Russian 1, Arabic 1, basic Vietnamese, and Hanja 1. Students can choose one subject.[25]

After the test, the administrators collect, scan and correct them. The test correction (confirming the documentation and grades) and printing the results take about one month.[25] However, test takers sometimes use unofficial websites to figure out how well they performed soon after taking the test.[10]

The test is taken seriously and day-to-day operations are halted or delayed on test day.[6] Many shops, flights, military training, construction projects, banks, and other activities and establishments are closed or canceled. The KRX stock market opens late.[10] Neither students nor administrators may bring in cell phones, books, newspapers, food, or any other material which could distract other test-takers. Most complaints after the test involve administrator actions such as talking, opening windows, standing in front of a desk, sniffling, clicking a computer mouse, or eating candy. Administrators are warned against doing anything which could distract students in any way.[27]

Pressure to perform well on the CSAT has been linked to psychological stress, depression and suicide.[28][29] The highly competitive exam is also cited as a contributing factor to South Korea's declining birth rate, as parents feel pressure to pay for expensive hagwon cram schools to help their children study.[10] Critics also say that students from wealthier families have an advantage due to the prevalence of cram schools, and that the test detracts from students' education with its emphasis on rote memorization and topics that are distinct from the curriculum followed in schools.[30]

Number of applicants [31][edit]

Curriculum Year Applicants Examinees Percentage
5th Curriculum 1993 (1st) 742,668 716,326 96.45%
1993 (2nd) 750,181 726,634 96.86%
1994 781,749 757,448 96.89%
1995 840,661 809,867 96.34%
1996 824,374 795,338 96.48%
1997 885,321 854,272 96.49%
6th Curriculum 1998 868,643 839,837 96.68%
1999 896,122 868,366 96.90%
2000 872,297 850,305 97.48%
2001 739,129 718,441 97.20%
2002 675,922 655,384 96.96%
2003 674,154 642,583 95.32%
7th Curriculum 2004 610,257 574,218 94.09%
2005 593,806 554,345 93.35%
2006 588,899 551,884 93.71%
2007 584,934 550,588 94.13%
2008 588,839 559,475 95.01%
2009 677,834 638,216 94.16%
2010 712,227 668,991 93.93%
2011 693,631 648,946 93.56%
2012 668,522 621,336 92.94%
2013 650,747 606,813 93.25%
2014 640,621 594,835 92.85%
2015 631,187 585,332 92.74%
2009 Revisions 2016 605,987 552,297 91.14%
2017 593,527 531,327 89.52%
2018 594,924 530,220 89.12%
2019 548,734 484,737 88.34%
2015 Revisions 2020 493,433 421,034 85.33%
2021 509,821 448,138 87.90%

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Member Research Institute". NRCS. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
  2. ^ a b "대학⌒수학⌒능력⌒시험大學修學能力試驗". NAVER Corp. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  3. ^ "2017년 대학수학능력시험부터 문과 • 이과 구분 폐지 검토…한국사 필수". August 27, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
  4. ^ Wilde, Erik (1999), "Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)", Wilde’s WWW, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 173–262, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-95855-7_6, ISBN 978-3-642-95857-1, retrieved November 12, 2020
  5. ^ "The One-shot Society". The Economist Limited Newspaper 2013. December 17, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  6. ^ a b c "South Korean students' 'year of hell' culminates with exams day". Cable News Network. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
  7. ^ The All-Work, No-Play Culture Of South Korean Education
  8. ^ a b c "Plan for 2019 CSAT". Retrieved May 16, 2019.
  9. ^ "KICE's homepage introducing CSAT". Retrieved May 16, 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d "Suneung: The day silence falls over South Korea". BBC News. November 26, 2018. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  11. ^ ko:전국연합학력평가
  12. ^ "서울특별시교육청 학력평가 자료실". Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education.
  13. ^ "부산광역시교육청 학력평가 자료실". Busan Metropolitan Office of Education. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014.
  14. ^ "경기도교육청 학력평가 자료실". Gyeonggi-do Office of Education.
  15. ^ "인천시교육청 학력평가 자료실". Incheon Office of Education.
  16. ^ As of 2013, mathematics, social studies and science section on March exams covers the previous year's curriculum for freshmen and sophomores; in other months, the exams normally follows the curriculum. For freshmen, there are ethics, Korean history, geography, and general social studies in the social-studies section; physics, chemistry, biology, and earth science in the science section. The categories are the same for sophomores only on the March exam. After March, social studies include all subjects: geography of Korea, world geography, East Asian history, world history, law and politics, economics, society and culture, life and ethics, and ethics and thought; the science section covers level I subjects (Physics I, Chemistry I, Biology I, and Earth Science I).
  17. ^ As of 2014, the Career Exploration and Second Language sections are tested only in the year's last exam: the November exam for sophomores and the October exam for seniors. The Career Exploration section covers every subject, and the Second Language section covers German, French, Spanish, Japanese, Chinese, and Russian.
  18. ^ The Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education temporarily took charge of testing in 2005, and it was taken over by the Incheon Office of Education in 2007.
  19. ^ It was a special occasion to take the exam in December instead of November. Sophomores took the NUAT prepared by KICE.
  20. ^ ko:대학수학능력시험#.EB.8C.80.ED.95.99.EC.88.98.ED.95.99.EB.8A.A5.EB.A0.A5.EC.8B.9C.ED.97.98 .EB.AA.A8.EC.9D.98.ED.8F.89.EA.B0.80
  21. ^ "수능 대박나세요!". NAVER Corp. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  22. ^ a b c d "대입제도 변천사, 4년마다 손질… 입시현장 혼선 초래". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  23. ^ a b c "입시제도". Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  24. ^ "대학입학예비고사[preliminary college entrance examination,大學入學豫備考査]". Doosan Cooperation. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  25. ^ a b c "대학수학능력시험[大學修學能力試驗]". Doosan Corporation. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
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