||This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. (November 2014)|
"College athletics" is a term encompassing the non-professional, collegiate and university-level competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance.
The assimilation of sport into academic life at Cambridge University in the nineteenth century was documented by Andrew Warwick:
- Competitive sport was employed to improve discipline, health, and appetite while keeping students away from illicit activities when not in the classroom. Sport was also used to build bonds of respect and admiration between masters and pupils…and to reconcile…a determination to win with respect for rules and established authority.
World University Games
The first World University Games were held in 1923. There were originally called the Union Nationale des Étudiants Français. In 1957, following several previous renames, they became known in English as the World University Games.
Continents and countries
University sports are viewed as having a positive social impact in Canada. The Federal government is involved with university sport. Wrestling is a university sport in Canada, with the system helping to provide future and current members of the Canadian national wrestling team.
University sport has received little academic attention in Australia. In 1863, rugby union was first played in Australia at the University of Sydney when several clubs affiliated with the university were established. One of Australia's earliest cricket teams was founded at the University of Sydney in 1854. This university affiliated team is one of the only teams from that period that still exists.
New Zealand universities's sports teams normally compete in local sports leagues against non-university teams. There is an annual national event which covers a large number of sports and competitive cultural activities (such as debating). The event is typically held over Easter, rotating around university centers.
- University Athletic Association of the Philippines
- National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines)
- Cebu Schools Athletic Foundation, Inc. (Phillippines)
- Liga Mahasiswa (Indonesia)
University sport was established in China by the 1930s. One of these programs was at the Catholic University of Peking. In 1936, members of the team traveled to Japan as members of a team to participate in a basketball and association football competition. During the early stages of World War II in the region, most universities suspended their sport programmes. The exceptions were Fu Ren University and Yanjing University which kept these programmes open until 1942 before shutting them down.
Chinese universities organised boat races before the cultural revolution. These races were modeled after the boat races in England.
University sport was established in Japan by the 1930s. By 1977, ultimate Frisbee had been established as a university sport. National championships were held that year with Aichi Gakuin University winning the inaugural event.
During the 1970s, the National Union of South African Students worked to create a university sport programme where race was not considered in team and competition arrangements. The organisation faced some governmental hurdles. At the time, inter-racial sport was only allowed to be played on private grounds, which meant games and competitions could not be played on public university grounds. They had models from the University of Witwatersrand and the University of Cape Town which had already held such events.
British Universities and Colleges Sport (BUCS) is the governing body for university and college sport in the UK. It runs leagues in 16 sports and an annual championship meeting, which in 2011 covered 19 sports. BUCS organization is very different from the USA's NCAA in the sense that BUCS is not competitive to compete in like the NCAA.
There were undergraduate boat races in Victorian England, and The Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge is still a notable annual event. During the 1990s, ultimate frisbee became a popular sport in England with events organized on many university campuses. This university participation would help lead to the establishment of a national sport federation for ultimate Frisbee.
Universities in Wales support national development of athletics. One example of this is the Wales National Pool at Swansea University which with local government constructed a pool for high level development of swimming in Wales.
- Andrew Warwick (2003) Masters of Theory: Cambridge and the Rise of Mathematical Physics, page 213, University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-87374-9
- "World Student Games (Pre-Universiade)". Gbrathletics.com. Retrieved 2012-04-18.
- Trevor Slack (2004). The Commercialisation of Sport. Routledge. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-7146-8078-1. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Donald MacIntosh; Tom Bedecki; C. E. S. Franks (1 April 1988). Sport and Politics in Canada: Federal Government Involvement Since 1961. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-0665-7. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Peter Standish; Steven M. Bell (2004). Culture and Customs of Mexico. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-313-30412-5. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
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- Geoffrey Sherington; Steve Georgakis (1 June 2008). Sydney University Sport 1852-2007: More Than a Club. Sydney University Press. ISBN 978-1-920898-91-5. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- John Shujie Chen (2004). The Rise and Fall of Fu Ren University, Beijing: Catholic Higher Education in China. Psychology Press. pp. 139–. ISBN 978-0-415-94816-6. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- J. A. Mangan; Lamartine Pereira Da Costa (2002). Sport in Latin American Society: Past and Present. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7146-5126-2. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Pasquale Anthony Leonardo and Adam Zagoria; Ultimate History (1 August 2005). Ultimate: The First Four Decades. Joe Seidler. ISBN 978-0-9764496-0-7. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- South African Institute of Race Relations. A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-86982-010-0. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "2011 championship results". BUSC. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Michael Hill (20 July 2007). In Pursuit of Excellence: A Student Guide to Elite Sports Development. Taylor & Francis. pp. 83–. ISBN 978-0-415-34934-5. Retrieved 19 April 2012.