College of Cardinals

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The College of Cardinals, formerly styled Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.[1]

Functions[edit]

A function of the college is to advise the pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory,[2] a term derived from the Roman Emperor's crown council. It also attends various functions as a matter of protocol, for example, during the canonization process.

It also convenes on the death or resignation of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor,[3] but is then restricted to eligible Cardinals under the age limit, which was set for the first time in 1970 by Pope Paul VI at 80.[4]

The college has no ruling power except during the sede vacante (papal vacancy) period, and even then its powers are extremely limited by the terms of the current law, which is laid down in the Apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis (1996) and the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State.

Historically, cardinals were the clergy serving parishes of the city of Rome under its bishop, the pope. The College acquired particular importance following the crowning of Henry IV as King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor at the age of six, after the unexpected death of Henry III in 1056. Until then, the Holy See was often bitterly fought for among Rome's aristocratic families and external secular authorities had significant influence over who was to be appointed pope, and the Holy Roman Emperor in particular had the special power to appoint him. This was significant as the aims and views of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Church did not always coincide. Churchmen involved in what has become known as the Gregorian Reform took advantage of the new king's lack of power and in 1059 reserved the election of the pope to the clergy of the Church in Rome. This was part of a larger power struggle, which became known as the Investiture Controversy, as the Church and the Emperor each attempted to gain more control over the appointment of bishops, and in doing so wield more influence in the lands and governments they were appointed to. Reserving to the cardinals the election of the pope represented a significant shift in the balance of power in the Early Medieval world. From the beginning of the 12th century, the College of Cardinals started to meet as such, when the cardinal bishops, cardinal priests and cardinal deacons ceased acting as separate groups.[5]

Officials[edit]

In the Catholic church, the Dean of the College of Cardinals and the Cardinal Vice-Dean are the president and vice-president of the college. Both are elected by and from the six Cardinal-bishops (cardinals of the highest order, holding suburbicarian dioceses), but the election requires Papal confirmation. Except for presiding and delegating administrative tasks, they have no authority over the cardinals, acting as primus inter pares (first among equals).

The Secretary of State, the prefects of the Congregations of the Roman Curia, the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, the Vicar General of Rome, and the Patriarchs of Venice and Lisbon, are usually Cardinals, with few, usually temporary, exceptions. The Fundamental Law of Vatican City State requires that appointees to the state's legislative body, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, be cardinals.[6]

Origins[edit]

The word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning "hinge." The office of cardinal as it is known today slowly evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. "The first time that the term cardinal appears in the Liber Pontificalis is in the biography of Pope Stephen III(IV) when in the Roman Synod of 769, it was decided that the Roman pontiff should be elected from among the deacons and cardinal priests."[7]

In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts."[8] At the same time, the popes began referring to the cardinal priests of Rome to serves as legates and delegates within Rome at ceremonies, synods, councils, etc., as well as abroad on diplomatic missions and councils. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere (Cardinal Legate) and Missus Specialis (Special Missions).[9]

During the pontificate of Stephen V (816-17), the three classes of the College that are present today began to form. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to sing Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday. The first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, and finally, the cardinal-bishops.[9]

The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope Leo IX (1050). In the 12th century, the Third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed. In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections; up to this point, only cardinal-bishops had this role.[9]

By the end of the 14th century, the practice of solely Italian cardinals had ceased. Between the 14th century and 17th century, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes. The most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him. Those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence. In 1517, Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority among the cardinalate. Paul IV brought the total to seventy. Pope Pius IV raised an additional six. By the papacy of Sixtus V, the number was set at seventy, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, and six cardinal-bishops.[9]

Choosing the pope[edit]

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Under the terms of Pope Paul VI's motu proprio Ingravescentem Aetatem, cardinals who reached the age of 80 before a conclave opened had no vote in papal elections. Pope John Paul II's Universi Dominici gregis of 22 February 1996 modified that slightly, so that cardinals who have reached the age of 80 before the day the see becomes vacant do not have a vote.[3]

Canon law sets the general qualifications required of someone to be appointed bishop quite broadly, requiring someone of faith and good reputation, thirty-five years old, with a certain level of education.[10] The cardinals have nevertheless elected the Bishop of Rome from among their own membership since the election of Pope Urban VI in 1378. The conclave rules specify the procedures to be followed should they elect someone residing outside Vatican City or not yet a bishop.[11]

Of the 117 cardinals under the age of 80 at the time of Pope Benedict XVI's resignation, 115 participated in the conclave of March 2013 that elected his successor. The two who did not participate were Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja (for health reasons) and Keith O'Brien (following allegations of sexual misconduct).[12] Of the 115 cardinals who participated in the conclave that elected Pope Francis, 48 were appointed by Pope John Paul II, and 67 by Pope Benedict XVI.

As of 28 November 2016, there are a total of 228 cardinals, of whom 121 are under 80. The Holy See announced on 20 March 2015 that Pope Francis had accepted the resignation by Cardinal Keith O'Brien of the rights and privileges of a Cardinal, although he will retain the title.[13] As a result, only 120 cardinals are eligible to participate in a future papal election. Of those 120, 21 were appointed by Pope John Paul II, 55 by Pope Benedict XVI, and 44 by Pope Francis.

Audrys Bačkis will be the next cardinal to turn 80 on 1 February 2017, when he will lose his right to participate in a conclave.

Members of the College of Cardinals[edit]

The following is the list of all cardinals living as of 28 November 2016. Cardinals appear in order of precedence, based on seniority by date of appointment. Paulo Evaristo Arns is the most senior member of the College by length of service (the Protopriest) and the last surviving cardinal elevated by Pope Paul VI. Angelo Sodano has the highest precedence as a Cardinal Bishop and Dean of the College of Cardinals. Roger Etchegaray has second highest precedence as a fellow Cardinal Bishop and Sub-Dean of the College of Cardinals. The oldest living cardinal is José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez, born in 1919.

Within the College of Cardinals, there are three categories, the highest-ranked Cardinal Bishops, then Cardinal Priests, and finally Cardinal Deacons. Within each category, cardinals are ranked by seniority of appointment to that category. Despite these titles, almost every cardinal is, since the pontificate of Pope John XXIII (1958–1963), a bishop. Any one not a bishop when his appointment is announced has generally been consecrated bishop before his formal installation, although a few priests appointed cardinals when near or over 80 have obtained permission not to become bishops.

Most of the cardinals are from the Latin Church; those who are from the Eastern Catholic Churches have their church indicated.

College of Cardinals
Consistory Name Country Born Age Title(s)
Cardinals of the Order of Bishops
Titular Bishops of Seven Suburbicarian Sees
28 June 1991 Angelo Sodano  Italy 23 November 1927 89 Bishop of Ostia and Cardinal Bishop of Albano, Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Secretary of State Emeritus
30 June 1979 Roger Etchegaray  France 25 September 1922 94 Cardinal Bishop of Porto-Santa Rufina, Sub-Dean of the College of Cardinals, President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
21 February 2001 Giovanni Battista Re  Italy 30 January 1934 82 Cardinal Bishop of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops
25 May 1985 Francis Arinze  Nigeria 1 November 1932 84 Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
21 October 2003 Tarcisio Bertone, SDB  Italy 2 December 1934 82 Cardinal Bishop of Frascati, Camerlengo Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church and Cardinal Secretary of State Emeritus
21 February 2001 José Saraiva Martins, CMF  Portugal 6 January 1932 84 Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
Patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches
28 February 1994 Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir  Lebanon 15 May 1920 96 Patriarch Emeritus of Antioch (Maronite Catholic Church)
20 November 2010 Antonios Naguib  Egypt 18 March 1935 81 Patriarch Emeritus of Alexandria (Coptic Catholic Church)
24 November 2012 Bechara Boutros al-Rahi  Lebanon 25 February 1940 76 Patriarch of Antioch (Maronite Catholic Church)
Cardinals of the Order of Priests
5 March 1973 Paulo Evaristo Arns, OFM  Brazil 14 September 1921 95 Archbishop Emeritus of São Paulo, Cardinal Protopriest since 9 July 2012
2 February 1983
Michael Michai Kitbunchu  Thailand 26 January 1929 87 Archbishop Emeritus of Bangkok
Alexandre do Nascimento  Angola 1 March 1925 91 Archbishop Emeritus of Luanda
Godfried Danneels  Belgium 4 June 1933 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Mechelen-Brussels
Thomas Stafford Williams  New Zealand 20 March 1930 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Wellington
Joachim Meisner  Germany 25 December 1933 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Cologne
25 May 1985
Miguel Obando y Bravo, SDB  Nicaragua 2 February 1926 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Managua
Ricardo Vidal  Philippines 6 February 1931 85 Archbishop Emeritus of Cebu
Henryk Gulbinowicz  Poland 17 October 1923 93 Archbishop Emeritus of Wrocław
Jozef Tomko  Slovakia 11 March 1924 92 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses
Paul Poupard  France 30 August 1930 86 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Culture
Friedrich Wetter  Germany 20 February 1928 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Munich and Freising
Adrianus Johannes Simonis  Netherlands 26 November 1931 85 Archbishop Emeritus of Utrecht
Bernard Francis Law  United States 4 November 1931 85 Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
28 June 1988
Eduardo Martínez Somalo  Spain 31 March 1927 89 Camerlengo Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
Achille Silvestrini  Italy 25 October 1923 93 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
José Freire Falcão  Brazil 23 October 1925 91 Archbishop Emeritus of Brasília
Alexandre José Maria dos Santos, OFM  Mozambique 18 March 1924 92 Archbishop Emeritus of Maputo
Christian Wiyghan Tumi  Cameroon 15 October 1930 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Douala
28 June 1991
Edward Idris Cassidy  Australia 5 July 1924 92 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez  Dominican Republic 31 October 1936 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Santo Domingo
Roger Mahony  United States 27 February 1936 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Los Angeles
Camillo Ruini  Italy 19 February 1931 85 Vicar General Emeritus of Rome
Henri Schwery   Switzerland 14 June 1932 84 Bishop Emeritus of Sion
26 November 1994
Miloslav Vlk  Czech Republic 17 May 1932 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Prague
Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, SJ  Indonesia 20 December 1934 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Jakarta
Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino  Cuba 18 October 1936 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Havana
Gilberto Agustoni   Switzerland 26 July 1922 94 Prefect Emeritus of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Emmanuel Wamala  Uganda 15 December 1926 89 Archbishop Emeritus of Kampala
William Henry Keeler  United States 4 March 1931 85 Archbishop Emeritus of Baltimore
Adam Joseph Maida  United States 18 March 1930 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Detroit
Vinko Puljić  Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 September 1945 71 Archbishop of Vrhbosna (Sarajevo)
Juan Sandoval Íñiguez  Mexico 28 March 1933 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Guadalajara
21 February 1998
Jorge Medina Estévez  Chile 23 December 1926 89 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
Darío Castrillón Hoyos  Colombia 4 July 1929 87 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei and Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy
James Francis Stafford  United States 26 July 1932 84 Major Penitentiary Emeritus
Salvatore De Giorgi  Italy 6 September 1930 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Palermo
Serafim Fernandes de Araújo  Brazil 13 August 1924 92 Archbishop Emeritus of Belo Horizonte
Antonio María Rouco Varela  Spain 20 August 1936 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Madrid
Dionigi Tettamanzi  Italy 14 March 1934 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Milan
Polycarp Pengo  Tanzania 5 August 1944 72 Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam
Christoph Schönborn, OP  Austria 22 January 1945 71 Archbishop of Vienna
Norberto Rivera Carrera  Mexico 6 June 1942 74 Archbishop of Mexico
Marian Jaworski  Ukraine 21 August 1926 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Lviv
Jānis Pujāts  Latvia 14 November 1930 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Riga
21 February 2001
Agostino Cacciavillan  Italy 14 August 1926 90 President Emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
Sergio Sebastiani  Italy 11 April 1931 85 President Emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Zenon Grocholewski  Poland 11 October 1939 77 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Catholic Education
Crescenzio Sepe  Italy 2 June 1943 73 Archbishop of Naples
Walter Kasper  Germany 5 March 1933 83 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Ivan Dias  India 14 April 1936 80 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Geraldo Majella Agnelo  Brazil 19 October 1933 83 Archbishop Emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia
Pedro Rubiano Sáenz  Colombia 13 September 1932 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Bogotá
Theodore Edgar McCarrick  United States 7 July 1930 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Washington
Desmond Connell  Ireland 24 March 1926 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Dublin
Audrys Juozas Bačkis  Lithuania 1 February 1937 79 Archbishop Emeritus of Vilnius
Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, PSchoenstatt  Chile 5 September 1933 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Santiago de Chile
Wilfrid Fox Napier, OFM  South Africa 8 March 1941 75 Archbishop of Durban
Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, SDB  Honduras 29 December 1942 73 Archbishop of Tegucigalpa
Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne  Peru 28 December 1943 72 Archbishop of Lima
Francisco Álvarez Martínez  Spain 14 July 1925 91 Archbishop Emeritus of Toledo
Cláudio Hummes, OFM  Brazil 8 August 1934 82 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy
Severino Poletto  Italy 18 March 1933 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Turin
Cormac Murphy-O'Connor  United Kingdom 24 August 1932 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Westminster
Lubomyr Husar, MSU  Ukraine 26 February 1933 83 Major Archbishop Emeritus of Kyiv-Halych (Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church)
Karl Lehmann  Germany 16 May 1936 80 Bishop Emeritus of Mainz
21 October 2003[a]
Jean-Louis Tauran  France 3 April 1943 73 Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue
Julián Herranz Casado  Spain 31 March 1930 86 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
Javier Lozano Barragán  Mexico 26 January 1933 83 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers
Attilio Nicora  Italy 16 March 1937 79 President Emeritus of the Financial Information Authority
Angelo Scola  Italy 7 November 1941 75 Archbishop of Milan
Anthony Olubumni Okogie  Nigeria 16 June 1936 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Lagos
Bernard Panafieu  France 26 January 1931 85 Archbishop Emeritus of Marseille
Gabriel Zubeir Wako  Sudan 27 February 1941 75 Archbishop of Khartoum
Carlos Amigo Vallejo, OFM  Spain 23 August 1934 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Seville
Justin Francis Rigali  United States 19 April 1935 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia
Keith O'Brien  United Kingdom 17 March 1938 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh
Eusebio Oscar Scheid, SCI  Brazil 8 December 1932 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Rio de Janeiro
Ennio Antonelli  Italy 18 November 1936 80 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family
Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson  Ghana 11 October 1948 68 President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
Telesphore Placidus Toppo  India 13 October 1939 77 Archbishop of Ranchi
George Pell  Australia 8 April 1941 75 Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy
Josip Bozanić  Croatia 20 March 1949 67 Archbishop of Zagreb
Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn  Vietnam 5 March 1934 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Ho Chi Minh City
Philippe Barbarin  France 17 October 1950 66 Archbishop of Lyon
Péter Erdő  Hungary 25 June 1952 64 Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest
Marc Ouellet, PSS  Canada 8 June 1944 72 Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops
24 March 2006
William Joseph Levada  United States 15 June 1936 80 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Franc Rode, CM  Slovenia 23 September 1934 82 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Agostino Vallini  Italy 17 April 1940 76 Vicar General of Rome
Jorge Urosa Savino  Venezuela 28 August 1942 74 Archbishop of Caracas
Gaudencio Borbon Rosales  Philippines 10 August 1932 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Manila
Jean-Pierre Ricard  France 25 September 1944 72 Archbishop of Bordeaux
Antonio Cañizares Llovera  Spain 15 October 1945 71 Archbishop of Valencia
Nicolas Cheong Jin-suk  South Korea 7 December 1931 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Seoul
Seán Patrick O'Malley, OFM Cap  United States 29 June 1944 72 Archbishop of Boston
Stanisław Dziwisz  Poland 27 April 1939 77 Archbishop of Kraków
Carlo Caffarra  Italy 1 June 1938 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Bologna
Joseph Zen Ze-Kiun, SDB  Hong Kong[b] 13 January 1932 84 Bishop Emeritus of Hong Kong
Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo  Italy 27 August 1925 91 Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls
Albert Vanhoye, SJ  France 23 July 1923 93 formerly rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute and secretary of the Pontifical Biblical Commission
24 November 2007
Seán Brady  Ireland 16 August 1939 77 Archbishop Emeritus of Armagh
Lluís Martínez Sistach  Spain 29 April 1937 79 Archbishop Emeritus of Barcelona
André Armand Vingt-Trois  France 7 November 1942 74 Archbishop of Paris
Angelo Bagnasco  Italy 14 January 1943 73 Archbishop of Genoa
Théodore-Adrien Sarr  Senegal 28 November 1936 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Dakar
Oswald Gracias  India 24 December 1944 71 Archbishop of Bombay
Francisco Robles Ortega  Mexico 2 March 1949 67 Archbishop of Guadalajara
Daniel DiNardo  United States 23 May 1949 67 Archbishop of Galveston-Houston
Odilo Pedro Scherer  Brazil 21 September 1949 67 Archbishop of São Paulo
John Njue  Kenya 31 December 1944[c] 71 Archbishop of Nairobi
Estanislao Esteban Karlic  Argentina 7 February 1926 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Paraná
20 November 2010
Raúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga  Ecuador 1 January 1934 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Quito
Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya  Democratic Republic of the Congo 7 October 1939 77 Archbishop of Kinshasa
Paolo Romeo  Italy 20 February 1938 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Palermo
Donald William Wuerl  United States 12 November 1940 76 Archbishop of Washington
Raymundo Damasceno Assis  Brazil 15 February 1937 79 Archbishop Emeritus of Aparecida
Kazimierz Nycz  Poland 1 February 1950 66 Archbishop of Warsaw
Malcolm Ranjith  Sri Lanka 15 November 1947 69 Archbishop of Colombo
Reinhard Marx  Germany 21 September 1953 63 Archbishop of Munich and Freising
José Manuel Estepa Llaurens  Spain 1 January 1926 90 Military Archbishop Emeritus of Spain
18 February 2012
George Alencherry  India 19 April 1945 71 Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly (Syro-Malabar Catholic Church)
Thomas Christopher Collins  Canada 16 January 1947 69 Archbishop of Toronto
Dominik Duka, OP  Czech Republic 26 April 1943 73 Archbishop of Prague
Wim Eijk  Netherlands 22 June 1953 63 Archbishop of Utrecht
Giuseppe Betori  Italy 25 February 1947 69 Archbishop of Florence
Timothy Michael Dolan  United States 6 February 1950 66 Archbishop of New York
Rainer Maria Woelki  Germany 18 August 1956 60 Archbishop of Cologne
John Tong Hon  Hong Kong 31 July 1939 77 Bishop of Hong Kong
Lucian Mureșan  Romania 23 May 1931 85 Major Archbishop of Făgăraş and Alba Iulia (Romanian Greek-Catholic Church)
24 November 2012
Baselios Cleemis  India 15 June 1959 57 Major Archbishop of Trivandrum (Syro-Malankara Catholic Church)
John Onaiyekan  Nigeria 29 January 1944 72 Archbishop of Abuja
Rubén Salazar Gómez  Colombia 22 September 1942 74 Archbishop of Bogotá
Luis Antonio Tagle  Philippines 21 June 1957 59 Archbishop of Manila
22 February 2014
Pietro Parolin  Italy 17 January 1955 61 Cardinal Secretary of State
Vincent Gerard Nichols  United Kingdom 8 November 1945 71 Archbishop of Westminster
Leopoldo José Brenes Solórzano  Nicaragua 7 March 1949 67 Archbishop of Managua
Gérald Cyprien Lacroix, ISPX  Canada 27 July 1957 59 Archbishop of Québec
Jean-Pierre Kutwa  Côte d'Ivoire 22 December 1945 70 Archbishop of Abidjan
Orani João Tempesta, OCist  Brazil 23 June 1950 66 Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro
Gualtiero Bassetti  Italy 7 April 1942 74 Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve
Mario Aurelio Poli  Argentina 29 November 1947 69 Archbishop of Buenos Aires
Andrew Yeom Soo-jung  South Korea 5 December 1943 73 Archbishop of Seoul
Ricardo Ezzati Andrello, SDB  Chile 7 January 1942 74 Archbishop of Santiago de Chile
Philippe Nakellentuba Ouédraogo  Burkina Faso 25 January 1945 71 Archbishop of Ouagadougou
Orlando Beltrán Quevedo, OMI  Philippines 11 March 1939 77 Archbishop of Cotabato
Chibly Langlois  Haiti 29 November 1958 58 Bishop of Les Cayes
Fernando Sebastián Aguilar, CMF  Spain 14 December 1929 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela
Kelvin Edward Felix  Saint Lucia 15 February 1933 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Castries
14 February 2015
Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente  Portugal 16 July 1948 68 Patriarch of Lisbon
Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel, CM  Ethiopia 14 July 1948 68 Archbishop of Addis Abeba (Ethiopian Catholic Church)
John Atcherley Dew  New Zealand 5 May 1948 68 Archbishop of Wellington
Edoardo Menichelli  Italy 14 October 1939 77 Archbishop of Ancona-Osimo
Pierre Nguyễn Văn Nhơn  Vietnam 1 April 1938 78 Archbishop of Hanoi
Alberto Suárez Inda  Mexico 30 January 1939 77 Archbishop Emeritus of Morelia
Charles Maung Bo, SDB  Myanmar 29 October 1948 68 Archbishop of Yangon
Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovithavanij  Thailand 27 June 1949 67 Archbishop of Bangkok
Francesco Montenegro  Italy 22 May 1946 70 Archbishop of Agrigento
Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet, SDB  Uruguay 4 July 1959 57 Archbishop of Montevideo
Ricardo Blázquez Pérez  Spain 13 April 1942 74 Archbishop of Valladolid
José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán, OAR  Panama 24 February 1944 72 Bishop of David
Arlindo Gomes Furtado  Cape Verde 15 November 1949 67 Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde
Soane Patita Paini Mafi  Tonga 19 December 1961 54 Bishop of Tonga
José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez  Colombia 18 February 1919 97 Archbishop Emeritus of Manizales
Luis Héctor Villalba  Argentina 11 October 1934 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Tucumán
Júlio Duarte Langa  Mozambique 27 October 1927 89 Bishop Emeritus of Xai-Xai
19 November 2016
Dieudonné Nzapalainga, CSSp  Central African Republic 14 March 1967 49 Archbishop of Bangui
Carlos Osoro Sierra  Spain 16 May 1945 71 Archbishop of Madrid
Sérgio da Rocha  Brazil 21 October 1959 57 Archbishop of Brasília
Blase J. Cupich  United States 19 March 1949 67 Archbishop of Chicago
Patrick D’Rozario, CSC  Bangladesh 1 October 1943 73 Archbishop of Dhaka
Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo  Venezuela 10 October 1944 72 Archbishop of Mérida
Jozef De Kesel  Belgium 17 June 1947 69 Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels
Maurice Piat  Mauritius 19 July 1941 75 Bishop of Port-Louis
Carlos Aguiar Retes  Mexico 9 January 1950 66 Archbishop of Tlalnepantla
John Ribat, MSC  Papua New Guinea 9 February 1957 59 Archbishop of Port Moresby
Joseph William Tobin, CSsR  United States 3 May 1952 64 Archbishop of Newark[15][16]
Anthony Soter Fernandez  Malaysia 22 April 1932 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Kuala Lumpur
Renato Corti  Italy 1 March 1936 80 Bishop Emeritus of Novara
Sebastian Koto Khoarai, OMI  Lesotho 11 September 1929 87 Bishop Emeritus of Mohale’s Hoek
Cardinals of the Order of Deacons[d]
21 October 2003 Renato Raffaele Martino  Italy 23 November 1932 84 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Cardinal Protodeacon since 12 June 2014
24 November 2007
Leonardo Sandri  Argentina 18 November 1943 73 Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
Giovanni Lajolo  Italy 3 January 1935 81 President Emeritus of the Governorate of Vatican City State
Paul Josef Cordes  Germany 5 September 1934 82 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum
Angelo Comastri  Italy 17 September 1943 73 Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica, Vicar General for the Vatican City State, and President of the Fabric of St. Peter
Stanisław Ryłko  Poland 4 July 1945 71 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Laity
Raffaele Farina, SDB  Italy 24 September 1933 83 Librarian and Archivist Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
20 November 2010
Angelo Amato, SDB  Italy 8 June 1938 78 Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
Robert Sarah  Guinea 15 June 1945 71 Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
Francesco Monterisi  Italy 28 May 1934 82 Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
Raymond Leo Burke  United States 30 June 1948 68 Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Kurt Koch   Switzerland 15 March 1950 66 President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Paolo Sardi  Italy 1 September 1934 82 Patron Emeritus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Mauro Piacenza  Italy 15 September 1944 72 Major Penitentiary
Velasio de Paolis, CS  Italy 19 September 1935 81 President Emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Gianfranco Ravasi  Italy 18 October 1942 74 President of the Pontifical Council for Culture
Elio Sgreccia  Italy 6 June 1928 88 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Academy for Life
Walter Brandmüller  Germany 26 January 1929 87 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences
18 February 2012
Fernando Filoni  Italy 15 April 1946 70 Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Manuel Monteiro de Castro  Portugal 29 March 1938 78 Major Penitentiary Emeritus
Santos Abril y Castelló  Spain 21 September 1935 81 Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
Antonio Maria Vegliò  Italy 3 February 1938 78 President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants
Giuseppe Bertello  Italy 1 October 1942 74 President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State
Francesco Coccopalmerio  Italy 6 March 1938 78 President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
João Braz de Aviz  Brazil 24 April 1947 69 Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Edwin Frederick O'Brien  United States 8 April 1939 77 Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem
Domenico Calcagno  Italy 3 February 1943 73 President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
Giuseppe Versaldi  Italy 30 July 1943 73 Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
Prosper Grech, OSA  Malta 24 December 1925 90 Docent at various Roman universities and Consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
24 November 2012
James Michael Harvey  United States 20 October 1949 67 Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
22 February 2014
Lorenzo Baldisseri  Italy 29 September 1940 76 Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops
Gerhard Ludwig Müller  Germany 31 December 1947 68 Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Beniamino Stella  Italy 18 August 1941 75 Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy
14 February 2015
Dominique Mamberti  France 7 March 1952 64 Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Luigi de Magistris  Italy 23 February 1926 90 Major Pro-Penitentiary Emeritus
Karl-Josef Rauber  Germany 11 April 1934 82 Apostolic Nuncio (retired)
19 November 2016
Mario Zenari  Italy 5 January 1946 70 Apostolic Nuncio to Syria
Kevin Joseph Farrell  United States 2 September 1947 69 Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life
Ernest Simoni  Albania 18 October 1928 88 Priest of the Archdiocese of Shkodrë-Pult

Cardinals from Italy over time (percentage)[edit]

Italian-born cardinals as percentage of total College of Cardinals (1903–2013)
February 2013 22.60
April 2005 17.09
October 1978 22.50
August 1978 22.80
1963 35.36
1958 35.80
1939 54.80
1922 51.60
1914 50.76
1903 56.25

Cardinals vs. geographic distribution of Catholics[edit]

2013 World Representation in the College of Cardinals
Region Total Population Catholics  % Catholic  % of Catholic total  % of College of Cardinals
Africa 885,103,542 135,211,325 15.27% 12.57% 8.17%
Asia and Middle East 3,889,093,723 123,851,272 3.18% 11.51% 9.62%
Europe 750,072,510 283,916,457 37.85% 26.37% 57.65%
Continental Central America 42,883,849 32,317,384 75.36% 3.00% 1.00%
North America and Caribbean 472,952,469 192,274,838 40.65% 17.88% 12.98%
South America 371,363,897 299,570,011 80.66% 27.87% 10.58%
Oceania 30,686,468 7,747,654 25.24% 0.72% 1.92%

Cardinals by nationality[edit]

As of 19 November 2016

Number of cardinals Nationality
46 Italy
18 United States
12 Spain
11 Brazil
10 Germany
9 France
6 Mexico
5 India, Poland
4 Argentina, Colombia, Philippines,
3 Canada, Chile, Nigeria, Portugal, Switzerland, United Kingdom
2 Australia, Belgium, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Ireland, Lebanon, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, South Korea, Thailand, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vietnam
1 Albania, Angola, Austria, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Indonesia, Kenya, Latvia, Lesotho, Lithuania, Malta, Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Romania, Saint Lucia, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Tonga, Uganda, Uruguay

Size of the College of Cardinals[edit]

As of 28 November 2016, the College had 228 members, 120 of whom were eligible to participate in a conclave. The group's size has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself. From 1099 to 1986, the total number of cardinals appointed was approximately 2,900 (excluding possibly undocumented 12th-century cardinals, cardinals appointed during the Western Schism by pontiffs now considered to be antipopes, and subject to some other sources of uncertainty), nearly half of whom were created after 1655.[17]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 2003 Pope John Paul II announced he was also creating one cardinal secretly (in pectore). This appointment would have taken effect if it had been announced before the Pope's death. There was press speculation that it was Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz, Archbishop of Moscow, Joseph Zen Ze-kiun, Bishop of Hong Kong, or Archbishop Stanislaw Dziwisz, the pope's private secretary. Zen said he thought a mainland Chinese prelate was more likely than he. On 6 April 2005 a Vatican spokesman said that Pope John Paul II had not announced the name of this cardinal before witnesses prior to his death and that the appointment was therefore without effect.[14]
  2. ^ Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, with which the Holy See does not currently maintain diplomatic relations.
  3. ^ Cardinal Njue's date of birth is unknown. The Vatican provides only the year 1944.
  4. ^ Cardinal-Deacons have the right to apply to become Cardinal-Priests after ten years as a Cardinal-Deacon. All living eligible Cardinal-Deacons have exercised this right, with the sole exception of Renato Raffaele Martino.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1983 CIC, Bk. II, Pt. II, Sec. I, Chap. III The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Archived 3 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ CIC 1983, can. 349
  3. ^ a b John Paul II, Ap. Const. Universi Dominici gregis in AAS 88 (1996)
  4. ^ Walsh, Michael (2011). The Cardinals: Thirteen Centuries of the Men Behind the Papal Throne. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 17. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  5. ^ Broderick, J.F. 1987. "The Sacred College of Cardinals: Size and Geographical Composition (1099–1986)." Archivum historiae Pontificiae, 25: 8.
  6. ^ Pope John Paul II (26 November 2000). "Fundamental Law of Vatican City State" (PDF). Retrieved 11 April 2008. 
  7. ^ Miranda, S. (2003). The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition. Detroit: Gale. [page needed]
  8. ^ van Lierde, Peter C. (1964). What Is a Cardinal?. New York: Hawthorne Books Inc. p. 14. 
  9. ^ a b c d Noonan, James-Charles (2012). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church, Revised Edition. New York: Sterling Ethos. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-40278730-0. 
  10. ^ "Code of Canon Law, Chapter II: Bishops". The Holy See. Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  11. ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 88–90
  12. ^ Pigott, Robert (25 February 2013). "Cardinal Keith O'Brien resigns as Archbishop". BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  13. ^ Allen Jr., John L. (20 March 2015). "In rare step, Scottish prelate caught in sex scandal quits as cardinal". Crux. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  14. ^ Boudreaux, Richard (7 April 2005). "Mystery Cardinal Will Never Be Able to Join Peers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  15. ^ L'Osservatore Romano, no. 267/2016, 20 November 2016, p. 1
  16. ^ Ordinary Public Consistory 19 November 2016, Booklet for the Celebration, p. 5
  17. ^ Broderick, 1987, p. 11.

External links[edit]