College rugby, more specifically rugby union, is played throughout universities in the United States of America. College rugby is governed by USA Rugby, and does not fall under the auspices of the NCAA. There are over 900 college teams — male and female — registered with USA Rugby. There are over 32,000 college players registered with USA Rugby, making college rugby the largest section of USA Rugby's membership.
Rugby has been played in universities since as early as the 1800s, but it was the 1960s when rugby really found a foothold in colleges, led by the Catholic colleges such as Notre Dame and particularly the Jesuit universities such as Boston College and St. Joseph's in Philadelphia.
Today, college rugby continues to grow in popularity, and rugby is one of the fastest growing sports across college campuses. The 32,000 registered college players in 2010 marked a 14% increase from 28,000 college players in 2008. The National Small College Rugby Organization grew from 85 teams in 2007 to 151 teams in 2011 and to over 200 men's teams for 2012. Several schools have increased their investments in men's and women's rugby programs, by creating rugby programs with varsity or quasi-varsity status and funding for scholarships, and Notre Dame and Texas have upgraded their rugby programs from "club" status to "Olympic" status. Women's rugby is now classified by the NCAA as an emerging varsity sport.
There has been increased interest in college rugby (particularly in rugby sevens) from TV since the International Olympic Committee's announcement in 2009 that rugby would return to the Summer Olympics in 2016. The highest profile college rugby sevens competition is the Collegiate Rugby Championship (CRC), which began in 2010. The CRC, which is played every June at PPL Park in Philadelphia, is televised live by NBC Sports and regularly draws attendances of 18,000. Several top schools started a competition in 2013 called the Varsity Cup, with the 2014 Varsity Cup final broadcast live on NBC Sports.
College rugby includes a national championship competition (since 1980). California has won the majority of titles, with Air Force and BYU also winning multiple championships. In 2011 a new Division 1-A was created with approximately 30 schools forming the new division.
- 1 Governance
- 2 Play and Participation
- 3 Promotion and Relegation
- 4 Varsity programs
- 5 Division 1 National Championships (15's)
- 6 College Rugby Sevens
- 7 Conference membership
- 8 Organization and Conferences
- 9 Conferences and Conference Tournaments
- 10 Other Competitions: Rivalry Trophies
- 11 Other Competitions: Divisions 2 – 4
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
In the United States, college rugby is governed by (in descending order of authority): USA Rugby, geographical unions (GUs) and local area unions (LAUs) (e.g., NERFU). USA Rugby has established a College Management Committee and a collegiate director, Rich Cortez, to oversee college rugby. The NCAA has no authority over college rugby. Often called a club sport, each college team is administered by either the athletic department or the student club department.
In 2011, USA Rugby continued to urge college rugby programs to adopt new conference structures similar to the conferences used by their other athletic programs. The highest profile example was the formation of the Ivy Rugby Conference in 2009. This move signals a shift away from the LAUs and TUs as the governing bodies for regional college rugby.
Play and Participation
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2015)|
Winter and spring are the primary seasons for conferences in the pacific, northwest and south regions (e.g., PAC, Southeastern); the fall is the primary season for conferences in the northeast, mid-atlantic and upper midwest regions (e.g., Big 10, Atlantic Coast). Conferences establish playing schedules in the primary season, while in the secondary season the teams often set up friendly matches or focus on playing rugby sevens.
USA Rugby maintains player eligibility guidelines, administered by the local area unions. College players generally have five years of rugby eligibility from the time they graduate high school. On-field disciplinary issues are generally handled by the local area unions, while off-field disciplinary issues are governed by the academic institution and the local area union. USA Rugby's CIPP insurance program provides liability insurance to players, teams, administrators and pitch hosts in exchange for an annual dues payment.
Outstanding college rugby players are recognized as All-Americans. Qualified All-Americans can represent the United States in international tournaments by playing on the United States national under-20 rugby union team.
Promotion and Relegation
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2012)|
College rugby competition is divided into several tiers. The highest is Division I-A (formerly known as the College Premier Division). Other tiers include Division I-AA, and Divisions 2 through 4. USA Rugby generally allows colleges to select the division in which the college thinks it would fit best. Most schools remain in the same division from year-to-year, but there are exceptions. Schools that have been successful in a particular division may move up but are not required to do so; likewise, poorly performing schools may move down a division, but are not required to. Successful schools may have varied reasons for declining promotion. For example, a school may prefer to remain in its current conference against traditional rivals, or a school with a small budget might resist the additional travel expense that might come from switching divisions and conferences.
The most recent significant movement across divisions occurred in 2011 when USA Rugby separated Division I into Division I-A and I-AA. This new arrangement caused Division I schools to choose one or the other, with 31 schools joining Division I-A and the majority of Division I schools joining Division I-AA. Additionally, the creation of Division I-AA caused several successful Division II schools to move up to Division I-A. The evolving division structures, caused significant shifts in schools between Divisions I-A and I-AA in the following years, with half of the original 31 D I-A members leaving by the end of 2013, and new schools from lower divisions taking their place.
Most colleges classify their rugby programs as club sports rather than varsity sports. A small but growing number of universities, however, have begun offering rugby as a varsity sport, realizing that varsity rugby can be a profitable endeavor, as a successful varsity rugby program can result in national championships and increased marketability. Other schools have promoted rugby to quasi-varsity status, committing resources for scholarships and for paid full-time coaches.
|University of California, Berkeley||D1-Pac-12||Berkeley, CA||1882||26 national championships since 1980|
|SUNY Maritime College||D3-Skyline||Bronx, NY||???|
|Paul Smiths College||(USCAA)||Paul Smiths, NY||???|
|Cal Maritime||(NAIA)||Vallejo, CA||2001||NSCRO rank #1 (2009, 2010); runner up (2012)|
|Franciscan Univ. of Steubenville||D3-3RRC||Steubenville, OH||2001||NSCRO Ranked #1 (2012); 3rd at Nationals|
|Norwich||D3-GNAC||Northfield, VT||2008||D2 national playoffs (2013)|
|American International College||D2-Northeast 10||Springfield, MA||2009|
|Davenport||(NAIA)||Grand Rapids, MI||2009||D1-AA champion (2011, 2012)|
|Life University||(NAIA)||Atlanta, GA||2010||D1-A champion (2013); D1-A semifinals (2012)|
|Lindenwood||D2-MIAA||Saint Louis, MO||2011||USA Rugby D1 7s champion (2015); D1-AA runner-up (2013); D2 champion (2012)|
|Wheeling Jesuit||D2-Mtn. East||Wheeling, WV||2012|
|Notre Dame College||D2-Great Lakes||Cleveland, OH||2012||2012 Great Lakes Conference Champion|
|Penn State||D1-Big 10||University Park, PA||2012||10 national semifinals (1989-2007)|
|Spring Hill College||(NAIA)||Mobile, AL||2013||TBD|
|BYU||D1-West Coast||Provo, UT||1965||5 National Championships since 2009|
|Central Washington University||D2-Great NW||Ellensburg, WA||2014|
|Army||D1-Patriot||West Point, NY||2014|
Women's Rugby: An Emerging Varsity Sport
Since 2002, a small but growing number of schools have begun adding women's rugby as a varsity sport. Some of those varsity women's rugby programs have received sanctioning by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The NCAA has identified women's rugby as an "Emerging Sport." An "Emerging Sport" must gain championship status (minimum 40 varsity programs for team sports, except 28 for Division III) within 10 years, or show steady progress toward that goal to remain on the list. Until then, it is under the auspices of the NCAA and its respective institutions. Emerging Sport status allows for competition to include club teams to satisfy the minimum number of competitions bylaw established by the NCAA.
The NCAA identified women's rugby as an "Emerging Sport" in 2002 in light of the fact that nearly 350 collegiate women's rugby clubs were active. Growth was initially slow, with only 3 women's varsity programs forming within the first few years. The push for varsity rugby status received a boost in 2009 when the International Olympic Committee announced that rugby would return to the Summer Olympics in 2016. Although NCAA Division I programs dropped 72 women's varsity sports during 2008-2012 due to the economic recession, women's rugby programs grew in number during that time frame.
|1||Eastern Illinois University||2002||Yes (Div 1)|
|2||West Chester University||2004||Yes (Div 2)|
|3||Bowdoin College||2004||Yes (Div 3)|
|4||Norwich University||2008||Yes (Div 3)|
|5||Quinnipiac University||2010||Yes (Div 1)|
|6||Lindenwood University 1||2011||No|
|7||Harvard University||2013||Yes (Div 1)|
|10||Cent. Washington University||2014||No|
|13||Sacred Heart University 2||2015||No|
|14||University of New England 2||2015||No|
- Lindenwood's program is described as varsity in several sources, but is simultaneously listed as a club sport.
- Text in italics represents varsity rugby programs that have been announced for the following year.
Other schools, such as Penn State and Notre Dame College, do not grant varsity status to women's rugby, but commit significant resources comparable to varsity sports, such as offering scholarships, paid coaches and trainers, and medical attention.
Division 1 National Championships (15's)
Men's National Championship
USA Rugby has crowned an official national men's champion each year since 1980. After the 2010 season, USA Rugby split Division 1 into two, with the top flight called Division 1-A Rugby (formerly called the College Premier Division), and the second flight called Division 1-AA.
- YEAR; CHAMPION; RUNNER-UP
- 1980 – California 15, Air Force 9
- 1981 – California 6, Harvard 3 (a.e.t.)
- 1982 – California 15, Life College 14
- 1983 – California 13, Air Force 3
- 1984 – Harvard 12, Colorado 4
- 1985 – California 31, Maryland 6
- 1986 – California 6, Dartmouth 4
- 1987 – San Diego St. 10, Air Force 9
- 1988 – California 9, Dartmouth 3
- 1989 – Air Force 25, Penn State 7
- 1990 – Air Force 18, Army 12
- 1991 – California 20, Army 14
- 1992 – California 27, Army 17
- 1993 – California 36, Air Force 6
- 1994 – California 27, Navy 13
- 1995 – California 48, Air Force 16
- 1996 – California 47, Penn State 6
- 1997 – California 41, Penn State 15
- 1998 – California 34, Stanford 15
- 1999 – California 36, Penn State 5
- 2000 – California 62, Wyoming 16
- 2001 – California 86, Penn State 11
- 2002 – California 43, Utah 22
- 2003 – Air Force 45, Harvard 37
- 2004 – California 46, Cal Poly 24
- 2005 – California 44, Utah 7
- 2006 – California 29, BYU 26
- 2007 – California 37, BYU 7
- 2008 – California 59, BYU 7
- 2009 – BYU 25, California 22
- 2010 – California 19, BYU 7
- 2011 – California 21, BYU 14
- 2012 – BYU 49, Arkansas State 42
In 2013, eight of the top college rugby teams withdrew from the USA Rugby D1A competition and organized their own championship called the Varsity Cup. The media and other rugby commentators view the Varsity Cup as equivalent to the USA Rugby D1A championship, given the strength of the teams participating and the fact that the 2013 Varsity Cup finalists – BYU and Cal – finished the spring 2013 season as the consensus #1 and #2 ranked teams in all of college rugby. Four additional schools joined the Varsity Cup for 2014, bringing the number of teams in that tournament to twelve. The Varsity Cup was successful in gaining media exposure, with the 2014 Varsity Cup final televised live on NBCSN. USA Rugby responded to the successful promotion of its Varsity Cup rivals by signing a ten-year contract in October 2014 with IMG that would focus on the marketing and increase exposure of USA Rugby's Collegiate National Championship.
The lists below show the champions for the Division 1-A Rugby and the Varsity Cup championships for each year, along with the teams' final rankings, as ranked by RugbyMag.
Men's Division 1-AA
- YEAR; CHAMPION; RUNNER-UP
- 2011: Davenport 38 – 19 UC Santa Barbara
- 2012: Davenport 39 – 0 San Diego State (Davenport promoted to D-1A for the following season)
- 2013: Central Florida 27 – 25 Lindenwood (Lindenwood promoted to D-1A for the following season)
- 2014: Central Florida 64 – 13 Arizona
- 2015: UC Davis 18 – 15 Central Florida
Women's Division 1
The following are the results from the D1 women's national championship, from 1991 to the present.
- 1991 – Air Force, runner-up Boston College
- 1992 – Boston College, runner-up Connecticut
- 1993 – Connecticut, runner-up Air Force
- 1994 – Air Force, runner-up Boston College
- 1995 – Princeton, runner-up Penn State
- 1996 – Princeton, runner-up Penn State
- 1997 – Penn State, runner-up Radcliffe
- 1998 – Radcliffe, runner-up Penn State
- 1999 – Stanford, runner-up Princeton
- 2000 – Penn State, runner-up Princeton
- 2001 – Chico State, runner-up Penn State
- 2002 – Air Force, runner-up Penn State
- 2003 – Air Force, runner-up Illinois
- 2004 – Penn State, runner-up Princeton
- 2005 – Stanford 53, Penn State 6
- 2006 – Stanford 15, Penn State 12
- 2007 – Penn State 22, Stanford 21
- 2008 – Stanford 15, Penn State 10
- 2009 – Penn State 46, Stanford 7
- 2010 – Penn State 24, Stanford 7
- 2011 – Army 33, Penn State 29
- 2012 – Penn State 32, Stanford 12
- 2013 – Penn State 65, Norwich 10
- 2014 – Penn State 38, Stanford 0
- 2015 – Penn State 61, Central Washington 7
College Rugby Sevens
Since the 2009 announcement that rugby sevens will be included in the 2016 Olympics, college rugby sevens has grown in popularity. The addition of Rugby 7s to the 2016 Olympic games has led to increasing interest from TV and other media, and an increased emphasis in the collegiate ranks on the 7s game. For example, the University of Texas founded its competitive rugby sevens program in 2010. Cal rugby announced in December 2011 that beginning in 2013 it would use the fall term for sevens.
Collegiate Rugby Championship
The Collegiate Rugby Championship (CRC) is the highest profile college sevens rugby championship in the US. The inaugural CRC, held in Columbus, Ohio in June 2010 was televised live by NBC and NBC Universal. The result was high ratings, with the CRC ratings beating the NCAA lacrosse championship. The success of the inaugural 2010 tournament lead to a second tournament in 2011 at PPL Park in Philadelphia, again televised live by NBC. NBC recognized that rugby is growing in popularity, participation and interest. In 2014, the Penn Mutual Life Insurance company become the title sponsor of the championship. The CRC is run by United World Sports, the same company that organizes the USA Sevens rugby sevens tournament every February in Las Vegas at Sam Boyd Stadium.
- YEAR: CHAMPION; SCORE; RUNNER-UP
- 2010: Utah 31 – 26 California
- 2011: Dartmouth 32 – 10 Army
- 2012: Dartmouth 24 – 5 Arizona
- 2013: California 19 – 14 Life
- 2014: California 24 – 21 Kutztown
- 2015: California 17 – 12 (a.e.t.) Kutztown
- 2013 – Penn State 31, Ohio State 5
- 2014 – Penn State 29, James Madison 12
- 2015 – Penn State 24, Lindenwood 7
USA Rugby National Championship
USA Rugby announced in September 2011 the creation of a new sevens tournament, the USA Rugby Sevens Collegiate National Championships. The tournament is held annually at the end of the fall season and features 24 teams. Qualification is based on performance at sevens tournaments during the fall, where tournament winners receive automatic bids, with the remaining places in the 24-team field filled by invitation. Some of the more high-profile qualifying tournaments include tournaments based on traditional conference rivalries, such as the Atlantic Coast 7s (composed mostly of ACC schools), the Southeastern 7s (composed mostly of SEC schools) and the Heart of America 7s (composed mostly of Big 12 schools).
The inaugural Championship tournament was held December 16–17, 2011 in College Station, Texas, and was contested by 24 teams that qualified based on performance in qualifying tournaments throughout the fall of 2011. The 2011 tournament was won by Life University, defeating Central Washington 22-17 in overtime. Tim Stanfill of Central Washington was the tournament MVP, Derek Patrick of Miami was the tournament's leading try scorer, and Colton Caraiga of Life University was the tournament's leading points scorer. In the first three years, strong teams that won bids have declined to participate.
- 2011: Life University 22–17 Central Washington
- 2012: Arkansas State 21–7 Life University
- 2013: Arkansas State 32–12 Saint Mary's (CA)
- 2014: (moved from fall 2014 to spring 2015)
- 2015: Lindenwood 28–10 Davenport
- 2011: Norwich
- 2012: Norwich
- 2013: Norwich
- 2014: (moved from fall to spring)
- 2015: Penn State 47–26 Central Washington
Team rankings are in parenthesis, based on Goff Rugby Report rankings, current as of December 2014.
- The California, West, Mid-South and East conferences each send 1-2 teams to the quarterfinals of the national championship playoffs; the Big Ten and Red River conferences each send 0-1 teams to the quarterfinals.
- The Mid-Eastern conference disbanded in summer 2012, as most members went to the D1-A Big Ten Universities or to the D1-AA Mid-America conference.
- The Midwest conference disbanded in summer 2012, as most members went to the D1-A Big Ten Universities or to Division 2.
Organization and Conferences
Organization of college rugby has been evolving, however. Since 2009 many schools have been organizing into conferences similar to the traditional NCAA conferences. In November 2010, USARFU's college management committee set out a plan for transitioning universities to NCAA style groupings. The purpose of the realignment is for college rugby to be able to capitalize on the marketability of major college conferences. Playing in traditional conferences capitalizes on traditional rivalries, and brings in more sponsorship.
Conferences and Conference Tournaments
Beginning around 2010, college rugby programs began realigning into conference structures that mirror the traditional NCAA conferences used by the member schools' other athletic programs. The first high profile example was the formation of the Ivy League Rugby Conference in 2010. Following the organization of the Ivy League schools, the members of the Atlantic Coast Conference and the Southeastern Conference followed suit in 2010.
Ivy Rugby Conference
The Ivy Rugby Conference was formed and had its first full season in 2009. in 2009. The IRC was formed to foster better competition among rugby teams from the Ivy League schools and to raise the quality of play. The IRC has had consistent success in attracting commercial interests. The IRC formed committees to manage the league, independently of the LAUs and TUs. Prior to formation of the IRC, clubs from the eight Ivy League schools had competed in the Ivy Rugby Championship Tournament since 1969.
Atlantic Coast Rugby League
The formation of the Atlantic Coast Rugby League was announced in March 2010, beginning play in the spring 2011 season. The purpose behind the formation of the ACRL was for the Atlantic Coast schools to schedule rugby union matches against other regional schools, which would both reduce travel and create more competitive matchups with traditional college rivalries. Maryland won the 2011 inaugural ACRL, defeating North Carolina in the title match.
The Atlantic Coast Rugby League schools started moving in the direction of setting up their own conference in 2008, beginning with the Atlantic Coast Invitational (ACI) tournament. The ACI tournament changed to a sevens format in 2010. N.C. State won the 2010 tournament. Beginning in 2011, the winner of the Atlantic Coast Invitational has advanced to the USA Rugby National Championship. N.C. State again won the ACI tournament in 2011 defeating Virginia 24-17 in the final.
In March 2010, nine of the twelve schools that participate in the NCAA's Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) announced that they had formed the Atlantic Coast Rugby League (ACRL) that would begin play in spring 2010. The ACRL quickly gained commercial success, announcing in February 2011, before it had even begun its inaugural season, that it has partnered with Adidas as its corporate sponsor. In addition to its early commercial success, the ACRL expects to improve rugby in the ACRL universities by capitalizing on traditional ACC rivalries, increasing the number of fans, and attracting talented high school rugby players.
Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Conference
In December 2010 a core group of founding schools formed the Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Conference (SCRC). By April 2010 the SCRC had expanded to 11 schools, comprising the entire membership of the NCAA's Southeastern Conference (SEC) at that time except for Arkansas. Tennessee won the 2010 Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Sevens Championship beating LSU 19-17, and repeated in the 2011 SCRC Olympic Sevens Championship, beating Florida 26-14 in the final. Similar to other conferences, the SCRC has also enjoyed commercial success, announcing in fall 2010 that the SCRC had formed commercial partnership agreements with Adidas and the World Rugby Shop.
The Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Conference, formed by the aforementioned 11 SEC schools, was created in late 2010 and began play in the 2011-12 season. Florida won the conference title in the inaugural season, defeating Tennessee in the championship match. Although the SEC has since expanded to 14 schools, the SCRC membership remains at 11.
Pacific Athletic Conference
Several members of the Pac-12 conference agreed in spring 2012 to form a conference beginning play in the 2012-13 season.
Big Ten Universities
The Big Ten schools have formed the Big Ten 7s tournament, which features a round of pool play followed by knockout play. The inaugural Big Ten tournament was held August 2011, and hosted by Wisconsin. Wisconsin and Penn State both won their respective pools. Both teams were also successful in knockout play, reaching the finals, where Wisconsin defeated Penn State 21-14. Wisconsin's Ben Knight was the tournament MVP. Wisconsin's victory at the 2011 Big Ten 7s earned it the right to compete for the national championship at the 2011 USA Rugby Sevens Collegiate National Championships.
The Red River Conference, which replaced the Allied Rugby Conference in 2014–15, is composed mostly of teams from what had been the Big 12 South from 1996 to 2011. The Southwest Conference (SWC) was created in 2011 with the charter members from seven Texas schools. University of Texas was immediately added, and Texas won the conference in the inaugural 2011-12 season.
Other Competitions: Rivalry Trophies
College rugby includes rivalry trophies such as the World Cup between the University of California, Berkeley and the University of British Columbia (Canada), the Wasatch Cup between BYU and Utah, the University Cup between Texas and Texas A&M, and the Common Wealth Shield between Virginia and Virginia Tech.
Other Competitions: Divisions 2 – 4
Division III is governed by the National Small College Rugby Organization (NSCRO). The National Small College Rugby Organization was created to give a competitive outlet to small colleges which would not otherwise have an opportunity to compete on a national stage. Each year, the NSCRO hosts rugby tournaments for Division III Men's and Women's college teams, and during 2006-2011 it also conducted a Division IV Women's college tournament.
2002-03 – College of New Jersey; Runner Up: University of Maine
The National Small College Rugby Organization conducted a Division IV championship from 2006 to 2011.
2006 – University of Rhode Island; Runner Up: Ursinus College
2007 – Roger Williams University; Runner Up: Gettysburg College
2008 – College of the Holy Cross; Runner Up: Albright College
2009 – Drexel University; Runner-Up: Wentworth Institute of Technology
2010 – Lock Haven University; Runner-Up: Mount Holyoke College
2011 – Johnson State College; Runner-up: Albright College
2013: Principia College def. UW-Stout
2014: moved from fall to spring
2015: James Madison 40, UW-Whitewater 22
National Small College Rugby Organization
|2014||New England College|
|2015||New Mexico Highlands 22, New England College 19|
|2014||Wayne State College (Nebraska)|
|2015||Wayne State College 22, Mt. Saint Mary's 17|
- Forbes, "Why Pro Rugby Could Win In The United States", February 25, 2011.
- USA Rugby, "Membership Statistics, 2010-2011".
- Delco Times, "Notre Dame and Boston College to Represent Catholc College Rugby in National Sevens Championship", June 2, 2011.
- Florida Rugby Union, "Latest stats from USAR membership", May 7, 2009.
- Rugby Rugby, "NSCRO Changes D3 Reference to Small College Rugby", August 24, 2012.
- WV Metro News – Sports
- Sports Field Guide, "Rugby emerging as NCAA sport", November 3, 2010.
- Bleacher Report "Rugby: NBC's Collegiate Sevens Championship Preview".
- 2011 USA Sevens Collegiate Rugby Championship
- Royall Rugby, "College Premier Division Set to Launch".
- College Contacts, USA Rugby.
- About Ivy Rugby, Ivy Rugby Conference.
- USA Rugby, College
- "USA Rugby: 'What BYU won ... was a mythical championship'", Deseret News, May 17, 2013.
- Rugby Mag, College Rugby State of the Union: Part Deux, Oct. 12, 2011, http://rugbymag.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2303:college-rugby-state-of-the-union-part-deux&catid=101:op-eds&Itemid=302
- Cal Maritime, Cal Maritime's Highly Successful Rugby Coach Announces Departure, August 25, 2010, http://www.csum.edu/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=1a48d66d-7506-4e55-aec4-88776bcd4a14&groupId=61902
- Rugby Mag, CWU Goes Varsity for Men and Women, Feb. 26, 2014, http://www.rugbymag.com/college-news/10583-cwu-goes-varsity-for-men-and-women.html
- "Army Makes Varsity Move Official", Rugby Today, August 1, 2014.
- "Emerging Sports for Women". www.ncaa.org. NCAA. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- NCAA News Archive, Rugby advocates work to emerge from scrummage, July 2, 2007, http://fs.ncaa.org/Docs/NCAANewsArchive/2007/Association-wide/rugby+advocates+work+to+emerge+from+scrummage+-+07-02-07+ncaa+news.html
- Washington Post, Maryland athletics’ financial woes reveal a broken college sports revenue model, June 28, 2012, http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-06-28/sports/35459616_1_college-sports-maryland-athletics-public-universities
- name='usarugby' usarugby.org
- USA Rugby, NCAA Women's Rugby.
- A list of NCAA sanctioned rugby programs can be found on the NCAA Sports Sponsorship page.
- "An NCAA Emerging Sport … Women’s Rugby Goes Varsity", Nov. 16, 2005.
- D1A Rugby, "Lindenwood University steps boldly into Division 1-A", 21 August 2013.
- Rugby Mag, "Harvard Women Rugby to go Varsity", August 9, 2012.
- The DU Daily, "DU to add Women’s Ice Hockey and Women’s Rugby to Athletic Department", Oct. 12, 2012.
- Rugby Mag, CWU Goes Varsity for Men and Women, February 26, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
- Life University, "LIFE's Dominant Rugby Program Adding Women's Varsity Team to the Mix".
- Rugby Mag, Brown Elevated to Varsity, April 14, 2014.
- "Sacred Heart Women Go Varsity", Goff Rugby Report, November 5, 2014.
- "University of New England to Promote Womens Rugby to Varsity Status", Rugby Wrap Up, December 6, 2014.
- D1A Rugby, "Lindenwood University steps boldly into Division 1-A", 21 August 2013. ("They made the decision to create both a men’s and women’s varsity rugby program.")
- This Is American Rugby, "Lindenwood University Women’s Rugby Recruitment Weekend", September 23, 2014. ("The Lindenwood Lions are a Division 1, full funded varsity program.")
- Lindenwood Student Life Sports
- Rugby Mag, New Varsity Teams at Notre Dame College, 17 July 2012, http://www.rugbymag.com/college-news/5284-new-varsity-teams-at-notre-dame-college.html
- Cal Rugby at Inaugural CCI Sevens Friday-Sunday - The University of California Official Athletic Site
- Men's National Collegiate Champions: D I (1980-present). eRugbyNews. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- Cal Defeats BYU for CPD Title
- This Is American Rugby, College Top Ten: Final Edition, May 22, 2013, http://www.thisisamericanrugby.com/2013/05/college-top-ten-final-edition.html
- Rugby Mag, All Divisions College Top 25 May 22, 2013, presented by Selective Service, May 22, 2013, http://www.rugbymag.com/cpl/8130-all-divisions-college-top-25-may-22-2013-presented-by-selective-service.html
- "VC or DIA, Which is Better?", Goff Rugby Report, Alex Goff, April 15, 2015.
- "USA RUGBY ANNOUNCES NEW 10-YEAR AGREEMENT WITH IMG", D1A Rugby, October 27, 2014.
- Chaney, Jeff (May 14, 2011). "Davenport rugby team beats University of California-Santa Barbara for national title". Mlive.com (The Grand Rapids Press). Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- Staff (May 20, 2012). "Davenport claims second consecutive club rugby title in a rout". MLive.com. Grand Rapids Press. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Clifton, Pat (May 12, 2013). "UCF upends Lindenwood for DI-AA title". rugbymag.com (RugbyMag). Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "2013-14 Men's DI-AA College National Championship".
- "The UC Davis Aggies are the Men’s DIAA college champions after defeating Central Florida in a hard slog of a final 18-15 at Kennesaw State University’s Fifth Third Bank Stadium Saturday.". May 9, 2015.
- Women's National Collegiate Champions: D I (1991-present). eRugbyNews. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- Lee Sparks Army Women Victory
- National Championships: Stanford 12 Penn St 32 | Stanford Women's Rugby
- "Emirates Airlines Collegiate National Championship Archive". Retrieved 2014-05-11.
- Sevens Main Page
- Cal Withdraws From USAR Premier Division | U.S.News | Rugby News
- Rugby sevens championships to get plenty of TV exposure - Philly.com
- NBC To Broadcast Collegiate Sevens Rugby Championship | Bleacher Report
- Army Inaugural Women 7s Champions
- Finlan, Jackie (3 June 2013). "PSU Women, CRC 7s' Best". Retrieved 2014-01-26.
- USA Rugby Press Release, Sep. 1, 2011, http://www.midwestrugby.org/usarugbynews09.01.11.htm
- Rugby In Texas, Order Of Finish For Collegiate 7s Championship, Dec. 20, 2011, http://rugbyintexas.com/?p=1264
- Rugby Mag, 7s Nationals Men's All-Tourney Team, Dec. 18, 2011, http://rugbymag.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2994:7s-nationals-mens-all-tourney-team&catid=73:collegiate-sevens&Itemid=91
- "College 7s Nationals Fields Finalized". RugbyMag.com. 12 November 2013.
- "One Out, One in for College 7s Nats". RugbyMag.com. 2 November 2011.
- "Razorbacks to 7s Nats, One Spot Left". RugbyMag.com. 27 November 2011.
- "Men DI College Rankings Week 11 - New #1", Goff Rugby Report.
- This Is American Rugby: Tracking College Rugby Changes
- DI-AA Conferences Set
- BYU, Utah Conference in DI-AA
- Cal superleague exit spurs conference gains - Gainline.us
- ACC launch unveiled, national league gains steam - Gainline.us
- Rugby, Rugby, The Future of D1-A Rugby, May 22, 2012, http://www.rugbyrugby.com/news/features/this_is_american_rugby/7003152/the_future_of_di_a_rugby
- Ivy Rugby Conference, About Ivy Rugby, http://www.ivyrugby.com/about-ivy-rugby
- Ivy Rugby, http://www.ivyrugby.com/about-ivy-rugby
- ACI Rugby, University Men's Rugby Clubs Form New Atlantic Coast Rugby League, March 17, 2010, http://www.acirugby.com/news.html
- The Atlantic Coast Rugby League, 2011 All ACRL Teams announced, April 21, 2011, http://www.atlanticcoastrugby.com/1/post/2011/4/2011-all-acrl-teams-announced.html
- ACI Rugby, Winner of Atlantic Coast Invitational Will Advance to USA Rugby Men's Collegiate Sevens Championship, March 17, 2010, http://www.acirugby.com/news.html
- Wolfpack Repeat as Atlantic Coast 7s Champs, Sep. 18, 2011, http://ncsu.edu/stud_affairs/campus_rec/club-sports/results/documents/ACCTournamentRugby7Champions.pdf
- Men’s rugby scores big | News Center | Wake Forest University
- Atlantic Coast teams in breakthrough sponsor pact - Gainline.us
- Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Conference, http://www.varsityrugby.com/scrc/default.html
- Rugby Mag, Pac-12 Rugby On the Horizon, May 27, 2012, http://rugbymag.com/college-news/4708.html
- Midwest Rugby, Big 10 Sevens Championship, August 28, 2011, http://www.midwestrugby.org/bigten7schampionship11.htm
- Rugby Mag, Wisconsin Wings Big Ten 7s, August 29, 2011, http://rugbymag.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1809:wisconsin-wins-big-ten-7s&catid=73:collegiate-sevens&Itemid=91
- Midwest Rugby, Collegiate Sevens Championships Officially Announced, Sep. 1, 2011, http://www.midwestrugby.org/usarugbynews09.01.11.htm
- The Wasatch Cup-College Rugby's Rivalry
- Texas And A&M Go All Rivalry On Us » Rugby In Texas
- Virginia, Virginia Tech Introduce Rivalry Trophy
- Warhawks Edge Middlebury, Win DII National Title
- Clifton, Pat (May 19, 2012). "Lindenwood Finishes in Stride". Rugby Magazine. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Rugby Mag, Salisbury Stonewalls Duluth, Wins DII, May 12, 2013, http://www.rugbymag.com/men's-dii-college-/8022-salisbury-stonewalls-duluth-wins-dii.html
- Radcliffe Best in DII
- Norwich : Women's Rugby: Norwich claims USA Rugby DII title
- USA Rugby: Women's Division II
- Mary Washington finishes Women's Division II National Championship run with defeat of Cal State Northridge
- NSCRO DIII Title Report
- Salve Regina rugby team wins national championship | College Sports | providencejournal.com | The Providence Journal
- "National Small College Rugby Organization: Brackets & Results". Retrieved 2011-06-08.
- "Johnson State Rugby: From Zeroes To Heroes". Dec 3, 2011. Retrieved 2015-06-03.
- "NSCRO Scores and Schedule". Retrieved 2014-05-10.
- "National Small College Rugby Organization LLC: NSCRO 7s: NSCRO 7s National Championship Results". 1 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-03.
- "National Small College Rugby Organization LLC: NSCRO 7s: NSCRO's Inaugural Women’s 7s National Championship - A Big Success". 2014-05-07. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- National Collegiate Club Rugby Club Championships (Men's club winners)
- Men's and Women's Division 1 Club and Men's Division 2 national collegiate club rankings
- "Women's National Collegiate Club Champions: D I" (retrieved Sept 6, 2009)
- "Women's National Collegiate Club Champions: D II" (retrieved Sept 6, 2009)
- News and Articles on current Collegiate Club Competitions
- "Champions 2000; From Sydney to the Bronx, the Winners". New York Times, 12-31-2000 (retrieved Sept 6, 2009)
- "The Year in Review; Winners of 1991 Individual and Team Championships". New York Times, 12-29-1991 (retrieved Sept 6, 2009)
- "The Year in Review -- 1993; The Year's Champions". New York Times, 12-16-1993 (retrieved Sept 6, 2009)
- EPRU Champions (retrieved Sept 6, 2009)
- "From Atlanta To Wembley, Winners All". New York Times, 12-29-1996 (retrieved Sept 6, 2009)
- The Rugby Rugby Guide (History of Rugby, Beginner's Rugby Guide, Coaching Rugby, Equipment Review, Rugby Fitness, How To Guide, Rugby Quotes, Rugby Songs and Anthems)
- RugbyMag.com. Rugby Magazine. Retrieved 2010-02-06.