Collinsonia canadensis

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Collinsonia canadensis
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Collinsonia
C. canadensis
Binomial name
Collinsonia canadensis

Collinsonia canadensis, commonly called richweed[1] or stoneroot,[2] is a species of perennial herb in the mint family.

It is native to eastern North America, primarily east of the Mississippi River, where it is widespread. It is the most broadly distributed member of the genus Collinsonia,[3] ranging north to Quebec and south to Florida.[4] Its natural habitat is nutrient-rich mesic forests, most often in rocky, calcareous areas.[5][6] Collinsonia canadensis can grow up to 4 feet (1.2 m) tall and has terminal clusters of tiny, tubular yellow flowers. Leaves are green, large, sharply toothed, and ovate.[7]

It produces lemon-scented flowers in mid-summer, a time when little else is in bloom in densely shaded forests.[5]

Traditional herbal use[edit]

Collinsonia canadensis was used by Native Americans to treat a variety of ailments.[3] However, European-American settlers in North America did not often use this species after they initially discovered it, due to it lacking any conspicuous toxic qualities.[8] It was not until the mid-1800s when it regained popularity as a medicinal herb.[9][10]

The leaves can be brewed into tea, and the subterranean stem was once used as a diuretic, tonic, and astringent.[11]



  1. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Collinsonia canadensis". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  2. ^ Hoffmann, David (2003-10-24). Medical Herbalism. Inner Traditions. p. 383. ISBN 9781594778902.
  3. ^ a b Yatskievych, George (2013). Flora of Missouri, Volume 3. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 312.
  4. ^ "Collinsonia canadensis". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  5. ^ a b IllinoisWildflowers
  6. ^ Alan Weakley (2015). "Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States".
  7. ^ "Collinsonia canadensis - Plant Finder". Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  8. ^ Scudder; Fyfe; Felter; Locke; Webster; et al. (1904). Mundy, William (ed.). A Treatise on Collisonia canadensis (PDF). Lloyd Brothers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-23. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
  9. ^ Cook, William (1869). Collinsonia canadensis in Physiomedical Dispensatory. Scanned and republished on Web.
  10. ^ Petersen, J. Fred (1905). Materia Medica and Clinical Therapeutics.
  11. ^ Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) [1979]. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Eastern Region. Knopf. p. 571. ISBN 0-394-50432-1.