Collision avoidance system
||This article may have too many section headers dividing up its content. (January 2017)|
A collision avoidance system is an automobile safety system designed to reduce the severity of a collision. It is also known as a precrash system, forward collision warning system, or collision mitigating system. It uses radar (all-weather) and sometimes laser (LIDAR) and camera (employing image recognition) to detect an imminent crash. GPS sensors can detect fixed dangers such as approaching stop signs through a location database.
Once the detection is done, these systems either provide a warning to the driver when there is an imminent collision or take action autonomously without any driver input (by braking or steering or both). Collision avoidance by braking is appropriate at low vehicle speeds (e.g. below 50 km/h), while collision avoidance by steering is appropriate at higher vehicle speeds. Cars with collision avoidance may also be equipped with adaptive cruise control, and use the same forward-looking sensors.
In March 2016, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety announced the manufacturers of 99% of U.S. automobiles had agreed to include automatic emergency braking systems as a standard feature on virtually all new cars sold in the U.S. by 2022. In Europe there was a related agreement about advanced emergency braking system (AEBS) or autonomous emergency braking (AEB) in 2012. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has announced that this kind of system will become mandatory for new heavy vehicles starting in 2015. NHTSA projected that the ensuing acceleration of the rollout of automatic emergency braking would prevent an estimated 28,000 collisions and 12,000 injuries.
- 1 History
- 2 Features
- 3 Automobile manufacturers
- 4 List of cars with collision avoidance features available
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The first demonstration of forward collision avoidance was performed in 1995 by a team of scientists and engineers at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California. The project was funded by Delco Electronics, and was led by HRL physicist Ross D. Olney. The technology was labeled for marketing purposes as "Forewarn". The system was radar based - a technology that was readily available at Hughes Electronics, but not commercially elsewhere. A small custom fabricated radar-head was developed specifically for this automotive application at 77 GHz. The forward radar-head, plus the signal processing unit and visual-audio-tactile feedbacks were first integrated into a Volvo S40, and shortly thereafter into a Cadillac STS. An SUV-style concept vehicle known as SSC (Safety Security & Communications), that contained many other of Delco's most advanced technologies, also received the "Forewarn" collision avoidance system and was shown to the public for the first time at the North American International Auto Show at Cobo Hall in Detroit in 1996. This was a fully functional vehicle, and demonstrations were concurrently being provided by a duplicate vehicle.
In 2011, a question was submitted to the European Commission regarding stimulation of these "collision mitigation by braking" systems. The mandatory fitting (extra cost option) of Advanced Emergency Braking Systems in commercial vehicles will be implemented on 1 November 2013 for new vehicle types and on 1 November 2015 for all new vehicles in the European Union. This could, according to the impact assessment, ultimately prevent around 5,000 fatalities and 50,000 serious injuries per year across the EU.
A 2012 study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety examined how particular features of crash-avoidance systems affected the number of claims under various forms of insurance coverage. The findings indicate that two crash-avoidance features provide the biggest benefits: (a) autonomous braking that would brake on its own, if the driver does not, to avoid a forward collision, and (b) adaptive headlights that would shift the headlights in the direction the driver steers. They found lane departure systems to be not helpful, and perhaps harmful, at the circa 2012 stage of development.
Collision avoidance features are rapidly making their way into the new vehicle fleet. In a study of police-reported crashes, automatic emergency braking was found to reduce the incidence of rear-end crashes by 39 percent. A 2012 study suggests that if all cars feature the system, it will reduce accidents by up to 27 percent and save up to 8000 lives per year on European roads.
Several features are commonly found across collision avoidance systems.
Manufacturers that include pedestrian detection in some cars in their lineup include BMW, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, Subaru, Toyota, Volkswagen, and Volvo.
BMW includes a "Driving Assistant Plus" package that includes "Approach and Pedestrian Warning with City Brake Activation". The system detects vehicles driving ahead and, at speeds of up to 60 km/h, also persons who are approaching with possibility of collision. The driver is warned by visual and acoustic signals and should the driver not react to the warning, and the range falls into the software programming, braking will be activated to reduce speed and help mitigate the critical situation.
Ford vehicles utilizes its "Obstacle Avoidance" technology relying on a mix of sensors, including a camera behind the rearview mirror, to scan the road for vehicles and pedestrians so as to steer away if the driver does not take action.
In 2004, Honda developed a night vision system that highlights pedestrians in front of the vehicle by alerting the driver with an audible chime and visually displaying them via HUD. The system only works in temperatures below 30 degrees Celsius (86 Fahrenheit). This system first appeared on the Honda Legend.
Manufacturers that include lane-departure warning in some cars in their lineup include BMW, General Motors, Mitsubishi, Toyota, Skoda, and Subaru.
2006: "Braking guard" radar-assisted forward collision warning introduced on Audi Q7.
2010: "Pre sense" autonomous emergency braking system uses twin radar and monocular camera sensors and was introduced in 2010 on the 2011 Audi A8. "Pre sense plus" works in four phases. The system first provides warning of an impending accident, activating hazard warning lights, closing windows and sunroof, and pretensioning front seat belts. The warning is followed by light braking to get the driver's attention. The third phase initiates autonomous partial braking at a rate of 3 m/s² (9.8 ft/s²). The fourth phase increases braking to 5 m/s² (16.4 ft/s²) followed by automatic full braking power, roughly half a second before projected impact. "Pre sense rear", is designed to reduce the consequences of rear-end collisions. The sunroof and windows are closed and seat belts are prepared for impact. The seats are moved forward to protect the car's occupants.
2015 introduced the "avoidance assistant" system that intervenes in the steering to help the driver avoid an obstacle. If an accident occurs the "turning assistant" monitors opposing traffic when turning left at low speeds. In critical situation, it brakes the car. "Multicollision brake assist" uses controlled braking maneuvers during the accident to aid the driver. Both systems were introduced on the Second generation Q7.
2012 BMW introduced two systems on the 7 Series. "Active Protection" detects imminent accidents to pretension safety belts, close windows and moonroof, bring backrest of the front passenger seat to an upright position, and activate post-crash braking. A driver drowsiness detection includes an advice to take a break from driving. An "Active Driving Assistant" combines lane departure warning, pedestrian protection, and city collision mitigation.
In 2013, "Driving Assistant Plus" was introduced on most models combining the front-facing camera, lane-departure warning, and in some cases front radar sensors to detect vehicles ahead. Should the driver not react to the warning of a potential collision, the system would gradually prime brake pressure and apply – with maximum deceleration power - if necessary. In the case of a crash, the system can bring the vehicle to a standstill.
Later iterations of the system on cars equipped with Automatic Cruise Control system are improved by combining radar and camera detection during fog, rain, and other situations where normal camera operations may be compromised.
In 2012, Cadillac introduced two systems on the Cadillac XTS, now also available on ATS, CTS, and Escalade: the "Forward Collision Alert" uses a camera to detect and warn you when an impact may be imminent, and the "Front and Rear Automatic Braking" to detect when a frontal or rear collision is imminent and automatically applies the brakes to lessen impact severity, helping the driver avoid certain low-speed impacts. The automatic braking also functions at low speeds (in heavy traffic or even in parking lots and driveways) when a collision is imminent.
2014: Chrysler 200 and 300 introduced "Full-Speed Forward Collision Warning" (FCW) with active braking. The system readies the brakes and alerts the driver when it senses a potential frontal impact. If the driver does not respond and the risk of a collision continues, the brakes can bring the vehicle to a full stop. Advanced Brake Assist will increase the brake force automatically if the force applied is not sufficient.
Fiat's autonomous emergency braking system, dubbed City Brake Control, is an urban low-speed crash avoidance system that works between 5 and 30 km/h. It was first made available as an option on the third generation Panda; it was also made available on the 500L and its variants. The system employs a laser Lidar sensor located on top of the windscreen. If an impending collision is detected it intervenes in three steps: brake pre-fill, enhancing the hydraulic brake assist sensitivity, and if the driver still has not reacted, it automatically applies the brakes and warns the occupants through a buzzer.
In 2009 Ford introduced the Collision Warning with Brake Support on the Lincoln MKS and MKT and the Ford Taurus. This system provides a warning through a Head Up Display that visually resembles brake lamps. If the driver does not react, the system pre-charges the brakes and increases the brake assist sensitivity to maximize driver braking performance.
2012 GM's collision alert system is introduced in the GMC Terrain SUVs and uses a camera to provide warning when there is a vehicle ahead or there is a lane departure
The 2014 Chevrolet Impala received the radar- and camera-based crash imminent braking (radar technology detects a possible crash threat and alerts the driver. If the driver does not appear to react quickly enough or doesn’t react at all, this feature intervenes to apply the brakes in an effort to avoid the crash. Forward collision alert, Lane departure warning, side blind zone alert (using radar sensors on both sides of the vehicle, the system “looks” for other vehicles in the blind zone areas of the Impala and indicates their presence with LED-lit symbols in the outside mirrors. Rear cross traffic alert features
The 2016 Chevrolet Malibu features forward collision alert with following distance indicator, adaptive cruise control with front automatic braking, and front pedestrian alert with last-second automatic braking.
In 2003, Honda introduced a pre-crash system with autonomous braking (Collision Mitigation Brake System CMBS, originally CMS) on the Inspire and later in Acura, using a radar-based system to monitor the situation ahead and provide brake assistance if the driver reacts with insufficient force on the brake pedal after a warning in the instrument cluster and a tightening of the seat belts. The Honda system was the first production system to provide automatic braking. The 2003 Honda system also incorporated an "E-Pretensioner", which worked in conjunction with the CMBS system with electric motors on the seat belts. When activated, the CMBS has three warning stages. The first warning stage includes audible and visual warnings to brake. If ignored, the second stage would include the E-Pretensioner's tugging on the shoulder portion of the seat belt two to three times as an additional tactile warning to the driver to take action. The third stage, in which the CMBS predicts that a collision is unavoidable, includes full seat belt slack takeup by the E-Pretensioner for more effective seat belt protection and automatic application of the brakes to lessen the severity of the predicted crash. The E-Pretensioner would also work to reduce seat belt slack whenever the brakes are applied and the brake assist system is activated.
Mazda's smart city brake support (SCBS) system uses lasers to detect vehicles or obstacles in front of the car. The system is able to apply the brakes and cut engine power, and if the difference in speed between the car and the obstacle is 30 km/h (19 mph) or less, the system can avoid or at least lessen potential damage from a collision.
Mazda also has a higher speed collision avoidance system called smart brake support (SBS). This system uses millimeter wave radar to detect vehicles up to 200 m (656 ft) ahead at speeds between 15 km/h (9 mph) and 145 km/h (90 mph) and warn the driver of a potential collision. If the driver does not respond, the brakes are applied in a two-stage operation.
Mercedes' "Pre-Safe" system was exhibited at the Paris Motor Show on the 2003 S-Class. Using electronic stability control sensors to measure steering angle, vehicle yaw, and lateral acceleration and brake assist (BAS) sensors to detect emergency braking, the system can tighten the seat belts, adjust seat positions including rear seats (if installed), raise folded rear headrests (if installed), and close the sunroof if it detects a possible collision (including rollover). A later version of the Pre-Safe system was supplemented by an additional function that can close any open windows if necessary.
The "Brake Assist BAS plus" was Mercedes-Benz's first forward warning collision system introduced on the 2006 W221 S-Class, incorporates the autonomous cruise control system and adds a radar-based forward collision warning.
In 2006, the "Pre-Safe Brake" on the CL-Class C216 was the first partial autonomous braking (40%, or up to 0.4g deceleration) if the driver does not react to the BAS Plus warnings and the system detects a severe danger of an accident.
In 2013 Mercedes updated Pre-Safe on the W222 S-Class as plus with cross-traffic assist. Pre-Safe with pedestrian detection and City Brake function is a combination of stereo camera and radar sensors to detect pedestrians in front of the vehicle. Visual and acoustic warnings are triggered when a hazard is spotted. If the driver then reacts by braking, the braking power will be boosted as the situation requires, up to a full brake application. Should the driver fail to react, Pre-Safe Brake triggers autonomous vehicle braking. Pedestrian detection is active up to about 72 km/h (45 mph) , and is able to reduce collisions with pedestrians autonomously from an initial speed of up to 50 km/h (31 mph). A radar sensor in the rear bumper monitors the traffic behind the vehicle. If the risk of an impact from the rear is detected, the rear hazard warning lights are activated to alert the driver of the vehicle behind (not on vehicles with USA/Canada coding). Anticipatory occupant protection measures, such as the reversible belt tensioners, are deployed. If the vehicle is stopped and the driver indicates a wish to remain stationary – by depressing the brake pedal, activating the hold function, or moving the selector lever to "P" – the system increases the brake pressure to keep the vehicle firmly braked during a possible rear-end collision. Pre-Safe Impulse works an early phase of the crash, before the resulting deceleration starts to increase, the front occupants are pulled away from the direction of impact and deeper into their seats by their seat belts. By the time the accident enters the phase when loads peak, the extra distance they are retracted by can be used while dissipating energy in a controlled fashion. Pre-acceleration and force limitation allow the occupants to be temporarily isolated from the effects of the crash, significantly reducing the risk and severity of injuries in a frontal collision.
Available on Outlander is Mitsubishi's forward collision mitigation (FCM), ("e-Assist" a new active safety system that uses millimeter-wavelength radar as well as a camera) adaptive cruise control (ACC), and lane departure warning system (LDW). Forward collision mitigation is designed to help avoid or reduce the crash speed in certain frontal collisions. Adaptive cruise control is not a collision avoidance system or an automatic driving system. The lane departure warning system is designed to read lane markers under certain conditions.
Brake assist with preview function anticipates the need to apply emergency braking and pre-pressurize the brake system to help improve brake response. Intelligent brake assist (IBA) with forward emergency braking (FEB) (on QX80) uses radar to monitor approaching speed to the vehicle ahead, helping detect an imminent collision. It provides a two-stage warning to alert the driver, and if the driver takes no action, the system automatically engages the brakes to mitigate collision speed and impact.
Predictive forward collision warning system warns the driver of risks that may be obscured from the driver's view. It senses the relative velocity and distance of a vehicle directly ahead, as well as a vehicle travelling in front of the preceding one. The forward emergency braking system judges that deceleration is required, it alerts the driver using both a screen display and sound, then generates a force that pushes the accelerator pedal up and applies partial braking to assist the driver in slowing the vehicle down. When the system judges that there is the possibility of a collision, it will automatically apply harder braking to help avoid one.
By 2016, Nissan's radar-based collision avoidance system was available on the Murano as well, as a part of its Technology Package, including both visual and audible warnings and the application of braking to a full stop.
Skoda introduced four new security system in 2013, alongside other car models of the VW group. The systems include multi collision brake, crew protect assist, lane assistant and front assistant. The first Skoda model with these new systems was the Skoda Citigo in June 2012, along with the VW up! and the Seat Mii, the new Skoda Octavia (2013).
In 2008, Subaru introduced the EyeSight system to Japanese drivers on the Legacy sedan, wagon and Outback, which, unlike radar-based systems, uses two CCD stereo cameras mounted to the roof beside the rear view mirror. This system also offers lane departure warning and adaptive cruise functions. As of model year 2014, it is optional on the Legacy, Forester, or Impreza, and only on vehicles with the automatic or CVT transmission. In 2014 Subaru updated the system using cameras that can detect color (brake lights) and reducing the bulk of the system.
The Tesla Model S has a collision avoidance assist system that automatically engages the brakes to reduce the impact of a frontal collision. Automatic emergency braking will stop applying the brakes when the driver presses the accelerator pedal, the brake pedal, or sharply turns the steering wheel. The Tesla Model X has a side collision avoidance assist system that automatically engages the brakes to reduce the impact of a side collision.
Toyota's pre-collision system (PCS) is a radar-based system that uses a forward-facing millimeter-wave radar. When the system determines that a frontal collision is unavoidable, it preemptively tightens the seat belts, removing any slack, and pre-charges the brakes using brake assist to give the driver maximum stopping power when the driver depresses the brake pedal.
2006: Pre-collision system with Driver Monitoring System introduced in March 2006 on the Lexus GS 450h using a CCD camera on the steering column. This system monitors the driver's face to determine where the driver is looking. If the driver's head turns away from road and a frontal obstacle is detected, the system will alert the driver using a buzzer, and if necessary, pre-charge the brakes and tighten the safety belts.
2006: the Lexus LS introduced an advanced pre-collision system (APCS), added a twin-lens stereo camera located on the windshield and a more sensitive radar to detect smaller "soft" objects such as animals and pedestrians. A near-infrared projector located in the headlights allows the system to work at night. With the adaptive variable suspension (AVS) and electric power steering, the system can change the shock absorber firmness, steering gear ratios, and torque assist to aid the driver's evasive steering measures. The lane departure warning system will make automatic steering adjustments to help ensure that the vehicle maintains its lane in case the driver fails to react. Driver Monitoring System was introduced on the Lexus LS. Rear-end pre-collision system includes a rearward-facing millimeter-wave radar mounted in the rear bumper. This system adjusts the active head restraints by moving them upward and forward to reduce the risk of whiplash injuries if an imminent rear collision is detected.
2008 Updated Driver Monitoring System added on the Crown for detecting whether the driver's eyes are properly open. It monitors the driver's eyes to detect the driver's level of wakefulness. This system is designed to work even if the driver is wearing sunglasses, and at night.
2008 PCS with GPS-navigation linked brake assist function on the Crown. The system is designed to determine if the driver is late in decelerating at an approaching stop sign, will then sound an alert and can also pre-charge the brakes to provide braking force if deemed necessary. This system works in certain Japanese cities and requires Japan specific road markings that are detected by a camera.
The 2009 Crown added a front-side millimeter-wave radar to detect potential side collisions primarily at intersections or when another vehicle crosses the center line. The latest version tilts the rear seat upward, placing the passenger in a more ideal crash position if it detects a front or rear impact.
2012: Higher Speed A-PCS on the Lexus LS enables deceleration from up to 37 mph (60 km/h), compared to the previous of 25 mph (40 km/h). This higher speed A-PCS uses the same technologies as the current A-PCS. This system increases the braking force up to twice that applied by average drivers. It is not available in U.S. markets.
2013: Pre-collision system with pedestrian-avoidance steer assist and steering bypass assist can help prevent collisions in cases where automatic braking alone is not sufficient, such as when the vehicle is travelling too fast or a pedestrian suddenly steps into the vehicle’s path. An on-board sensor detects pedestrians and issues a visual alert on the dashboard immediately in front of the driver if the system determines that there is a risk of collision. If the likelihood of a collision increases, the system issues an audio and visual alarm to encourage the driver to take evasive action, and the increased pre-collision braking force and automatic braking functions are activated. If the system determines that a collision cannot be avoided by braking alone and there is sufficient room for avoidance, steer assist is activated to steer the vehicle away from the pedestrian.
2012: Volkswagen Golf Mk7 introduced a "Proactive Occupant Protection" that will close the windows and retract the safety belts to remove excess slack if the potential for a forward crash is detected. Multi-collision brake system (automatic post-collision braking system) to automatically brake the car after an accident in order to avoid a second collision. City emergency braking automatically activates brakes at low speeds in urban situations.
2014: Volkswagen Passat (B8) introduces pedestrian recognition a part of the system. It uses a sensor fusion between a camera and the radar sensor. There is an "emergency assist" in case of a non-reacting driver, the car takes the control of the brakes and the steering until a complete stop.
2016: Volkswagen Passat (NMS - North American model) becomes the first vehicle in its class to have autonomous emergency braking as standard equipment on all models at the start of the 2017 model year.
2006: Volvo's "Collision Warning with Auto Brake", developed in cooperation with Mobileye, was introduced on the 2007 S80. This system is powered by a radar/camera sensor fusion and provides a warning through a head up display that visually resembles brake lamps. If the driver does not react, the system pre-charges the brakes and increases the brake assist sensitivity to maximize driver braking performance. Later versions will automatically apply the brakes to minimize pedestrian impacts. In some models of Volvos, the automatic braking system can be manually turned off. The V40 also included the first pedestrian airbag, when it was introduced in 2012.
2013: Volvo introduced the first cyclist detection system. All Volvo automobiles now come standard with a lidar laser sensor that monitors the front of the roadway, and if a potential collision is detected, the safety belts will retract to reduce excess slack. Volvo now includes this safety device as an optional in FH series trucks.
2015: "IntelliSafe" with auto brake at intersection. The Volvo XC90 features automatic braking if the driver turns in front of an oncoming car. This is a common scenario at busy city crossings as well as on highways, where the speed limits are higher.
List of cars with collision avoidance features available
- Acura RL, MDX, ZDX Acura RDX, TLX, ILX
- Audi A8, A7 from 2010, A6 from 2011, Audi A3 from 2013, Audi Q7 from 2015.
- BMW 2-Series, 3-Series, 5-Series, and others
- Buick Enclave
- 2013 Cadillac ATS, 2013 Cadillac XTS
- Tenth generation Chevrolet Impala, Chevrolet Traverse, Chevrolet Equinox, Chevrolet Volt
- Dodge Durango from 2011
- Ford Edge, Everest, Fiesta, Fusion, Flex, Focus, Kuga, Taurus, Lincoln MKC, MKZ, MKX
- 2012 GMC Terrain, GMC Acadia
- Honda Accord, Honda Civic, Honda CR-V, Inspire from 2003,
- Hyundai Elantra from 2016
- Infiniti FX, EX, Q50, QX56, QX60
- Lexus LS from 2003, GS (2005), IS (2005), RX (2008), NX (2014)
- Mazda 2, Mazda 3, 6, CX-3, CX-5, CX-9
- Mercedes-Benz B Class, CLA Class, E-Class, S-class, M Class
- Mitsubishi Outlander, Pajero Sport
- Nissan X-Trail Tekna, 2015
- Peugeot 308, 2014
- Skoda Octavia, 2013, third generation
- SsangYong Rexton
- Subaru Legacy, Outback, Forester, Impreza Subaru XV Crosstrek With Subaru EyeSight
- Suzuki Kizashi, PRECRS, JDM only
- Tesla Model S (2015 model year) Tesla Model X
- Toyota Avensis Third Generation, Toyota Camry (with XLE option package), Toyota Mirai, Toyota Prius
- Volkswagen Up!, SEAT Mii, Skoda Citigo
- Volvo V40, S60 II, V60, XC60, V70 III, XC70 II, S80 II, XC90 II, S90 II, V90 II
- mydigitallife.com: Toyota Develops Automatic Brake System Assisted by GPS Technology for Safety Driving. http://www.mydigitallife.info/2008/02/13/toyota-develops-automatic-brake-system-assisted-by-gps-technology-for-safety-driving/
- The Volvo Owners Club: New Collision Warning with Auto Brake helps prevent rear-end collisions. http://www.volvoclub.org.uk/press/releases/2007/collision_warning.shtml
- howstuffworks.com: How Pre-Collision Systems Work. Types of Pre-collision Systems. http://auto.howstuffworks.com/car-driving-safety/safety-regulatory-devices/pre-collision-systems2.htm
- Kanarachos, Stratis (2009). "A new method for computing optimal obstacle avoidance steering manoeuvres of vehicles". International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems. 7 (1): 73–95. doi:10.1504/IJVAS.2009.027968. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "U.S. DOT and IIHS announce historic commitment of 20 automakers to make automatic emergency braking standard on new vehicles". U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "Automakers agree to make auto braking a standard by 2022".
- "UNECE works on new standards to increase the safety of trucks and coaches".
- Olney R.D.; et al. (November 1995), "Collision Warning System Technology", Intelligent Transport Systems World Congress, Yokohama, Japan
- "The Mensa-Mobile". Car & Driver: 144–145. August 1996.
- Wiesenfelder, Joe (February 1996). "The Information Superhighway (This is not a metaphor)". Wired (4.02).
- Keenan, Tim (May 1, 1996), "Delco's dream machine", Wards Auto
- "Forward Collision Warning Requirements Project Final Report - Task 1" (PDF). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. January 2003. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Written question - Rear-end traffic collisions in the European Union - E-011477/2011". europa.eu. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Answer to a written question - Rear-end traffic collisions in the European Union - E-011477/2011". europa.eu. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Annex to the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning type-approval requirements for the general safety of motor vehicles - Impact Assessment" (PDF). Commission of the European Communities. 23 May 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "Crash avoidance features cut insurance claims". iihs.org. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- Beene, Ryan (2016-01-28). "Automatic braking reduces rear-end crashes, IIHS study finds". Automotive News. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "Automatic brakes stopped Berlin truck during Christmas market attack". Deutsche Welle. 28 December 2016.
- Cicchino, Jessica (2016). "Effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning Systems with and without Autonomous Emergency Braking in Reducing Police-Reported Crash Rates". Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.
- euroncapcom (13 June 2012). "Euro NCAP - Autonomous Emergency Braking AEB" – via YouTube.
- "New EU legislation requires cars to include autonomous braking system".
- "New Toyota, Ford Systems Can Steer Clear of Pedestrians". thedetroitbureau.com. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
-  Archived August 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Extensive safety in the new Audi A8" (Press release). Bosch Media Services. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "The new Audi A8" (PDF) (Press release). Retrieved 17 February 2010.[dead link]
- "The new Audi Q7 – Sportiness, efficiency, premium comfort" (Press release). Audi Media Center. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- "Cadillac 'Virtual Bumpers' Can Help Avoid Crashes". media.gm.com (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Chrysler Group LLC (2 June 2010). "All-new 2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee Earns 'Top Safety Pick' From the Insurance...". prnewswire.com (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "City Brake Control wins the 'Euro NCAP Advanced' award". FGA EMEA Press site (Press release). June 26, 2013. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- "Euro NCAP Advanced: FIAT City Brake Control". Euro NCAP official site. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- "Ford's latest safety brakethrough – collision warning with brake support – coming in 2009". Media Ford (Press release). 6 April 2009. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "New Camera-Based Collision Alert Debuts on GMC Terrain". media.gm.com (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Chevrolet News - United States - Impala" (Press release). Media.gm.com. 2014-12-15. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "2016 Malibu" (Press release). Media.gm.com. 2014-12-15. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "Honda Announces a Full Model Change for the Inspire" (Press release). Honda. 2003-06-18. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
- "Honda Worldwide". honda.com (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Honda Worldwide - World News - News Releases". honda.com (Press release). 20 May 2003. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Features | Safety Technology | The All-New 2015" (Press release). Hyundai Genesis. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "MAZDA:Mazda to Feature Smart City Brake Support Advanced Safety Technology in All-New Mazda CX-5 Crossover SUV". mazda.com (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "SCBS & SBS | Pre-Crash Safety Technology" (Press release). Mazda. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- (Press release) https://web.archive.org/web/20071008151232/http://www.mercedes-benz.ca/index.cfm?NewsID=121&id=2959. Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2013. Missing or empty
- (Press release) https://web.archive.org/web/20141229221136/http://www.daimler.com/dccom/0-5-658451-1-1767861-1-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0.html. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved December 29, 2014. Missing or empty
- Daimler Media: Innovation as a tradition Archived December 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- Breuer, Joerg J.; Faulhaber, Andreas; Gleissner, Stefan. "Real world Safety benefits of brake assistance systems" (PDF). DaimlerChrysler. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "Impact: Real Drivers. Life Changing Stories - Mercedes-Benz". Impact. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Mercedes-Benz TecDay Special Feature: PRE-SAFE And PRE-SAFE Brake". emercedesbenz.com (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Extended PRE-SAFE protection: Prevention is better than cure". daimler.com (Press release). May 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Press Release - News･Events - MITSUBISHI MOTORS".
- "e-Assist - Technology Library - Automobile Technology - Mitsubishi Motors Automobile Manufacturing - MITSUBISHI MOTORS".
- "ADAS: a range of technologies promoting safety and easier driving experience". renault.com (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Euro NCAP 2013 Award - Skoda Multi-Collision Brake". Retrieved 2013-04-17.
- Neff, John. "2013 Subaru models to see with optional EyeSight safety system". Autoblog. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Subaru U.S. Media Center - SUBARU DEBUTS NEXT GENERATION EyeSight™ SYSTEM
- EVino (27 March 2015). "Version 6.2 Release Notes". Tesla Forums. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "Safety matters: advanced crash avoidance technology finds its way into production vehicles in Japan". Automotive Industries. 2004.
- http://www.densocorp-na.com/news/pr.php?Action=241. Retrieved March 14, 2013. Missing or empty
- "Toyota - Technical Development - Electronics Parts". toyota-global.com (Press release). Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- "Toyota Crown Majesta undergoes complete redesign". theautochannel.com. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- "(Really Playing it Safe)". Designnews.com. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "Toyota: News Releases". toyota.co.jp (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Matsubayashi, Kiyoka; Yamada, Yukinori; Iyoda, Motomi; Koike, Shin; Kawasaki, Tomoya; Tokuda, Masanori. "Development of Rear Pre-Crash Safety System For Rear-End Collisions" (PDF). Toyota Motor. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "Toyota Enhances Pre-crash Safety System with Eye Monitor" (Press release). Toyota.co.jp. 2008-01-22. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "Toyota Launches Redesigned Crown Majesta in Japan". Worldcarfans. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Toyota Adds to Pre-crash Safety Technologies" (Press release). Toyota.co.jp. 2009-02-26. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "Toyota Global Site - Technology File". toyota-global.com (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Different driveway alert systems". www.drivewayalertsystems.net.
- Crowe, Phillipe. "oyota Develops New Pedestrian Safety Technology". HybridCars.
- "Lexus and Toyota Will Make Automated Braking Standard on Nearly Every Model and Trim Level by End of 2017". Toyota Press Room (Press release). 21 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "Nearly Every Toyota to Have Automatic Emergency Braking by 2017 » AutoGuide.com News". 21 March 2016.
- "To the Point: The New Touareg. Volkswagen SUV is one of the safest automobiles of all times" (Press release). Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- Ltd, Newspress. "2017 VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT: MORE STANDARD EQUIPMENT MAKES FOR THE BEST PASSAT YET : Volkswagen Media Centre". Volkswagen Media Centre. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
- "Volvo Trucks - Emergency braking at its best!". YouTube. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Jensen, Cheryl (29 May 2014). "Tests Show Improvements in Crash-Avoidance Systems" – via NYTimes.com.
- "Der neue Nissan X-Ttrail Fahrzeuge". nissan.ch (Press release). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Breaking the Bank: Precrash systems are available now for a hefty price". AutoWeek. Retrieved March 17, 2006.
- "Keeping Cars from Crashing". IEEE Spectrum.
- Crash Avoidance Technology Overview, IIHS
- Ratings of existing crash avoidance systems, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, January 2017.
- Argenia Railway Technologies (2005). Collision Avoidance Systems for The Railways (2005).
- US Department of Transportation: Research and Innovative Technology Administration
- Ford: Safer Driving Through Vehicle collision avoidance systems
- Intelligent Transportation Systems: Collision Avoidance
- ERSEC Project (FP7 247955): Enhanced Road Safety by integrating Egnos-Galileo data with on-board Control system for car collision avoidance applications
- Acumine Collision Avoidance Safety System (ACASS)
- DSRC/Wave Vehicle Communication and Traffic Simulator eTEXAS