Colloque Walter Lippmann
The Walter Lippmann Colloquium (French: Colloque Walter Lippmann), was a conference of intellectuals organized in Paris in August 1938 by French philosopher Louis Rougier. After interest in classical liberalism had declined in the 1920s and 1930s, the aim was to construct a new liberalism as a rejection of collectivism, socialism and laissez-faire liberalism. At the meeting, the term neoliberalism was coined by Alexander Rüstow referring to the rejection of the (old) laissez-faire liberalism.
The colloquium was named after American journalist Walter Lippmann. Lippman's 1937 book An Enquiry into the Principles of the Good Society had been translated into French as La Cité libre and was studied in detail at the meeting.
Twenty-six intellectuals, including some of the most prominent liberal thinkers, took part. The participants chose to set up an organization to promote liberalism which was called the Comité international d'étude pour le renouveau du libéralisme (CIERL). Though CIERL had few consequences because of the war, it inspired Friedrich Hayek in the postwar creation of the Mont Pelerin Society.
The participants were divided into two primary camps; one, represented by Mises, Hayek, Jacques Rueff, and Étienne Mantoux, which advocated a strict adherence to Manchester liberalism and laissez-faire; the other camp, represented by Rüstow, Raymond Aron, Wilhelm Röpke, Auguste Detoeuf, Robert Marjolin, Louis Marlio, and Lippmann, opted for a kind of social liberalism which was more favorable to state intervention and regulation and Keynesian solutions. Röpke went as far as to state that "Mises’s and Hayek’s ideas should shoulder the blame for the crisis of capitalism and ought to be locked away in a museum."
Participants of the Colloquium included:
- Raymond Aron, French philosopher, sociologist, journalist and political scientist
- Friedrich Hayek, Austrian and British economist and philosopher
- Walter Lippmann, American writer, reporter and political commentator
- Auguste Detoeuf, French economist
- Étienne Mantoux, French economist
- Robert Marjolin, French economist and politician
- Louis Marlio, French economist
- Ernest Mercier, French industrialist
- Ludwig von Mises, Austro-Hungarian born economist
- Michael Polanyi, Hungarian-British polymath
- Wilhelm Röpke, German economist
- Louis Rougier, French philosopher
- Jacques Rueff, French economist
- Alexander Rüstow, German sociologist and economist
Walter Eucken was invited to the colloqium, but he was not given permission to leave Germany.
- Denord, François (2009). "French Neoliberalism and its Divisions: From the Colloque Walter Lippmann to the Fifth Republic". In Philip Mirowski and Dieter Plehwe. The Road from Mont Pèlerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective. Harvard University Press. pp. 45–67. ISBN 978-0-674-03318-4. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Plehwe, Dieter (2009). "Introduction". In Philip Mirowski and Dieter Plehwe. The Road from Mont Pèlerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective. Harvard University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-674-03318-4. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Foucault, Michel (2010). The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–1979. tr, Graham Burchell. Picador. pp. 132–3, 151–2. ISBN 978-0-312-20341-2. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Rosenblatt, Helena (2012). French Liberalism from Montesquieu to the Present Day. Cambridge University Press. pp. 214–219.