|Republic of Colombia
República de Colombia (Spanish)
|Motto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish)
"Freedom and Order"
|Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible! (Spanish)
O unfading glory!
and largest city
| Bogotá D.C
|Recognised regional languages||68 ethnic languages and dialects. English also official in the San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands.|
|Ethnic groups (2005)|
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|-||President||Juan Manuel Santos|
|-||Vice President||Angelino Garzón|
|-||Lower house||Chamber of Representatives|
|Independence from Spain|
|-||Declared||20 July 1810|
|-||Recognized||7 August 1819|
|-||Current constitution||4 July 1991|
|-||Total||1,141,748 km2 (26th)
440,831 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||8.8 (17th)|
|-||January 2014 estimate||47,425,437  (27th)|
|-||2005 census||42,888,592 |
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|-||Total||$553.462 billion (28)|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|-||Total||$388.858 billion (30)|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.719
high · 91st
|Time zone||COT (UTC−5b)|
|Date format||dd−mm−yyyy (CE)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||CO|
|a.||Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Castilian as the official language in all its territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups (approximately 68 languages) are also official in their territories. English is also official in San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands.|
|b.||The official Colombian time  is controlled and coordinated by the state agency Superintendency of Industry and Commerce.|
Colombia (// kə-LUM-biə, or // kə-LOM-biə), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: República de Colombia [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja]), is a country on the northwestern coast of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments.
The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá. Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903.
Colombia is ethnically diverse, and the interaction between descendants of the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans originally brought to the country as slaves, and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, has produced a rich cultural heritage. This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography, and the imposing landscape of the country has resulted in the development of very strong regional identities, in many cases stronger than the national. The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines.
Ecologically, Colombia is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and is considered the most megadiverse per square kilometer.   Colombia is a middle power with the third largest economy in South America, and is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets. Its principal industries include oil, mining, chemicals, health related products, food processing, agricultural products, textile and fabrics, garments, forest products, machinery, electronics, military products, metal products, home and office material, construction equipment and materials, banking, financial services, software, IT services and the automotive industry.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Health
- 9 Education
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish: Cristóbal Colón). It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those under the Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed out of the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil).
In 1835, when Venezuela and Ecuador parted ways, the Cundinamarca region that remained became a new country – the Republic of New Granada. In 1858 New Granada officially changed its name to the Granadine Confederation, then in 1863 the United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886.
To refer to the country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia.
Due to its geographical location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of population migration from Mesoamerica and the Andes to the Caribbean and Amazon. The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá, dating from about 14,400 BCE. These sites correspond to the Paleoindian period (18,000-8000 BCE). In Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period (~8000-2000 BCE) have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was also early occupation in regions like El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca. The oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000 - 4000 BCE.
By 10,500 BCE, the territory of what is now Colombia was inhabited by aboriginal people. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes existed near present-day Bogotá (at El Abra and Tequendama sites) which traded with one another and with cultures living in the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies; fixed settlements were established, and pottery appeared. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona developed the political system of "cacicazgos" with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques. The Muiscas inhabited mainly the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau (Altiplano Cundiboyacense). They farmed maize, potato, quinoa and cotton, and traded worked gold, emeralds, blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and salt with neighboring nations. The Taironas inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated Andes mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The Quimbayas inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Occidental and Central cordilleras.
Alonso de Ojeda (who had sailed with Columbus) reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration of the Caribbean littoral in 1500. Christopher Columbus navigated near the Caribbean in 1502. In 1508, Vasco Núñez de Balboa accompanied an expedition to the territory through the region of Gulf of Urabá and founded Santa María la Antigua del Darién in 1510, the first city established in the Americas by the conquistadors.[Note 1]
Santa Marta was founded in 1525, and Cartagena in 1533. Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada led an expedition to the interior in April, 1536, and christened the districts through which he passed "New Kingdom of Granada". In August, 1538, he founded its capital near the Muisca cacicazgo of Bacatá, and named it "Santa Fe". The name soon acquired a suffix and was called Santa Fe de Bogotá. Two other notable journeys by early conquistadors to the interior took place in the same period. Sebastián de Belalcázar, conqueror of Quito, traveled north and founded Cali, in 1536, and Popayán, in 1537; from 1536-1539, German conquistador Nikolaus Federmann crossed the Llanos Orientales and went over the Cordillera Oriental in a search for El Dorado, the "city of gold".
In 1542, the region of New Granada, along with all other Spanish possessions in South America, became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with its capital at Lima. In 1547, New Granada became the Captaincy-General of New Granada within the viceroyalty.
In 1549, the institution of the Audiencia in Santa Fe de Bogotá gave that city the status of capital of New Granada, which comprised in large part what is now territory of Colombia. New Granada was ruled by the Royal Audience of Santa Fe de Bogotá, but important decisions were taken to the colony from Spain by the Council of the Indies.
The Caribbean people, indigenous to Colombia, experienced a reduction in population due to conquest by the Spanish as well as European-carried diseases such as smallpox, to which they had no immunity. With the risk that the land was deserted, the Spanish Crown sold properties to the governors, conquerors and their descendants creating large farms and possession of mines. In the 16th century, Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa.[Note 2] Also to protect the indigenous population decimated, and Indian reservations were created. The repopulation was achieved by allowing colonization by farmers and their families who came from Spain.
In 1717 the Viceroyalty of New Granada was originally created, and then it was temporarily removed, to finally be reestablished in 1739. The Viceroyalty had Santa Fé de Bogotá as its capital. This Viceroyalty included some other provinces of northwestern South America which had previously been under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond mainly to today's Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. So, Bogotá became one of the principal administrative centers of the Spanish possessions in the New World, along with Lima and Mexico City, though it remained somewhat backward compared to those two cities in several economic and logistical ways.
The 18th-century priest, botanist and mathematician José Celestino Mutis was delegated by Viceroy Antonio Caballero y Góngora to conduct an inventory of the nature of the New Granada. Started in 1783, this became known as the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada which classified plants, wildlife and founded the first astronomical observatory in the city of Santa Fe de Bogotá. On 15 August 1801 the Prussian scientist Alexander von Humboldt reached Fontibón where he joined Mutis in New Granada expedition to Quito.
Since the beginning of the periods of conquest and colonization, there were several rebel movements under Spanish rule, most of them were either crushed or remained too weak to change the overall situation. The last one which sought outright independence from Spain sprang up around 1810, following the independence of St. Domingue (present-day Haiti) in 1804, which provided a non-negligible degree of support to the eventual leaders of this rebellion: Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander.
A movement initiated by Antonio Nariño, who opposed Spanish centralism and led the opposition against the viceroyalty, led to the independence of Cartagena in November 1811, and the formation of two independent governments which fought a civil war – a period known as La Patria Boba. The following year Nariño proclaimed the United Provinces of New Granada, headed by Camilo Torres Tenorio. Despite the successes of the rebellion, the emergence of two distinct ideological currents among the liberators (federalism and centralism) gave rise to an internal clash which contributed to the reconquest of territory by the Spanish. The viceroyalty was restored under the command of Juan de Samano, whose regime punished those who participated in the uprisings. The retribution stoked renewed rebellion, which, combined with a weakened Spain, made possible a successful rebellion led by the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was finally defeated in 1822 in the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela.
The territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Colombia organized as a union of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela (Panama was then an integral part of Colombia). The Congress of Cúcuta in 1821 adopted a constitution for the new Republic. Simón Bolívar became the first President of Colombia, and Francisco de Paula Santander was made Vice President. However, the new republic was unstable and ended with the rupture of Venezuela in 1829, followed by Ecuador in 1830.
Colombia was the first constitutional government in South America, and the Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in 1848 and 1849 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas. Slavery was abolished in Colombia in 1851.
Internal political and territorial divisions led to the secession of Venezuela and Quito (today's Ecuador) in 1830. The so-called "Department of Cundinamarca" adopted the name "Nueva Granada", which it kept until 1856 when it became the "Confederación Granadina" (Granadine Confederation). After a two-year civil war in 1863, the "United States of Colombia" was created, lasting until 1886, when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia. Internal divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, occasionally igniting very bloody civil wars, the most significant being the Thousand Days' War (1899–1902).
The United States of America's intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of the Department of Panama in 1903 and the establishment of it as a nation. The United States paid Colombia $25,000,000 in 1921, seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt's role in the creation of Panama, and Colombia recognized Panama under the terms of the Thomson–Urrutia Treaty. Colombia was engulfed in the Year-Long War with Peru over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas department and its capital Leticia.
Soon after, Colombia achieved some degree of political stability, which was interrupted by a bloody conflict that took place between the late 1940s and the early 1950s, a period known as La Violencia ("The Violence"). Its cause was mainly mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which subsequently ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on 9 April 1948. The ensuing riots in Bogotá, known as El Bogotazo, spread throughout the country and claimed the lives of at least 180,000 Colombians.
Colombia entered the Korean War when Laureano Gómez was elected as President. It was the only Latin American country to join the war in a direct military role as an ally of the United States. Particularly important was the heroic resistance of the Colombian troops at Old Baldy. 
From 1953 to 1964 the violence between the two political parties decreased first when Gustavo Rojas deposed the President of Colombia in a coup d'état and negotiated with the guerrillas, and then under the military junta of General Gabriel París Gordillo.
After Rojas' deposition, the Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party agreed to create the "National Front", a coalition which would jointly govern the country. Under the deal, the presidency would alternate between conservatives and liberals every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices. The National Front ended "La Violencia", and National Front administrations attempted to institute far-reaching social and economic reforms in cooperation with the Alliance for Progress. In the end, the contradictions between each successive Liberal and Conservative administration made the results decidedly mixed. Despite the progress in certain sectors, many social and political problems continued, and guerrilla groups were formally created such as the FARC, ELN, EPL, MAQL and M-19 to fight the government and political apparatus.
Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict between the government forces, left-wing guerrilla groups and right-wing paramilitaries. The conflict escalated in the 1990s. The conflict in Colombia takes place mainly in remote rural areas or marginalized sectors of very difficult access.
The United States has been heavily involved in the conflict since its beginnings, when in the early 1960s the U.S. government encouraged the Colombian military to attack leftist militias in rural Colombia. This was part of the U.S. fight against communism.
During the presidency of Álvaro Uribe, the government applied more military pressure on the FARC and other outlawed groups. After the offensive, many security indicators improved. Since 2002 the violence decreased significantly, with some paramilitary groups demobilizing as part of a controversial peace process and the guerrillas lost control of much of the territory they had once dominated. Colombia achieved a great decrease in cocaine production, leading White House drug czar R. Gil Kerlikowske to announce that Colombia is no longer the world's biggest producer of cocaine.
In February 2008, millions of Colombians demonstrated against the FARC. 26,648 FARC and ELN fighters have decided to demobilize since 2002. During these years the military forces of the Republic of Colombia managed to be strengthened.
The Peace process in Colombia, 2012 refers to the dialogue between the Colombian government and guerrilla of FARC-EP with the aim to find a political solution to the armed conflict. The Colombian government and rebel groups meet in Cuba. As of November 2013, the talks have represented breakthroughs. The Government also began a process of assistance and reparation for victims of conflict.
Colombia shows modest progress in the struggle to defend human rights, as expressed by HRW. In terms of international relations, Colombia has moved from a period of tense animosity with Venezuela, towards a prosperous outlook to further enhance integration. Colombia has also won a seat on the Security Council of the UN.
In 2012, the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) reported that 32.7% of the population were living below the poverty line, of which 10.4% in "extreme poverty". More than 1.2 million Colombians have been lifted out of poverty.
In 2012, the Colombian Government launched a policy to deliver 100,000 houses for poor people, the expansion of fiber optic and broadband coverage across the country and a subsidy for to reduce the digital divide.
The geography of Colombia is characterized by its six main natural regions that present their own unique characteristics, from the Andes mountain range region shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; the Pacific coastal region shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean coastal region shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos (plains) shared with Venezuela; to the Amazon Rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador.
Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by Panama and the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by Ecuador and the Pacific Ocean. Including its Caribbean islands, it lies between latitudes 14°N and 5°S, and longitudes 66° and 82°W 
Part of the Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, Colombia is dominated by the Andes (which contain the majority of the country's urban centres). Beyond the Colombian Massif (in the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño) these are divided into three branches known as cordilleras (mountain ranges): the Cordillera Occidental, running adjacent to the Pacific coast and including the city of Cali; the Cordillera Central, running between the Cauca and Magdalena river valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín, Manizales, Pereira and Armenia; and the Cordillera Oriental, extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta.
Peaks in the Cordillera Occidental exceed 4,700 m (15,420 ft), and in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 5,000 m (16,404 ft). At 2,600 m (8,530 ft), Bogotá is the highest city of its size in the world.
East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos, part of the Orinoco River basin, and, in the far south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest. Together these lowlands comprise over half Colombia's territory, but they contain less than 3% of the population. To the north the Caribbean coast, home to 20% of the population and the location of the major port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena, generally consists of low-lying plains, but it also contains the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, which includes the country's tallest peaks (Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar), and the La Guajira Desert. By contrast the narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are sparsely populated and covered in dense vegetation. The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura.
The main rivers of Colombia are Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare, Atrato, Meta, Putumayo and Caquetá. Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin. The Orinoco and Amazon Rivers mark limits with Colombia to Venezuela and Peru respectively.
Protected areas and the "National Park System" cover an area of about 12,744,512.9 hectares (127,445.129 km2) and account for 11.28% of the Colombian territory. Compared to neighboring countries, rates of deforestation in Colombia are still relatively low. Colombia is the fourth country in the world by magnitude of total freshwater supply, and still has large reserves of freshwater.
Colombians customarily describe their country in terms of the climatic zones. Below 1,000 meters (3,281 ft) in elevation is the tierra caliente (hot land), where temperatures are above 24 °C (75.2 °F). About 82.5% of the country's total area lies in the tierra caliente.
The majority of the population can be found in the tierra templada (temperate land, between 1,001 and 2,000 meters (3,284 and 6,562 ft)), where temperatures vary between 17 and 24 °C (62.6 and 75.2 °F) and the tierra fría (cold land, 2,001 and 3,000 meters (6,565 and 9,843 ft)). 
In the tierra fría mean temperatures range between 12 and 17 °C (53.6 and 62.6 °F). Beyond the tierra fría lie the alpine conditions of the forested zone and then the treeless grasslands of the páramos. Above 4,000 meters (13,123 ft), where temperatures are below freezing, is the tierra helada, a zone of permanent snow and ice.
Colombia is one of the megadiverse countries in biodiversity, ranking first in bird species. As for plants, the country has between 40,000 and 45,000 plant species, equivalent to 10 or 20% of total global species, this is even more remarkable given that Colombia is considered a country of intermediate size, roughly 1/9 the size of the US . Colombia is the second most biodiverse country in the world, lagging only after Brazil which is approximately 10 times bigger.
Colombia is the country in the planet more characterized by a high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide and it has the largest number of endemisms (species that are not found naturally anywhere else) of any country. About 10% of the species of the Earth live in Colombia, including over 1,900 species of bird, more than in Europe and North America combined, Colombia has 10% of the world’s mammals species, 14% of the amphibian species and 18% of the bird species of the world.
Colombia has about 2,000 species of marine fish and is the second most diverse country in freshwater fish. Colombia is the country with more endemic species of butterflies, number 1 in terms of orchid species and approximately 7,000 species of beetles. Colombia is second in the number of amphibian species and is the third most diverse country in reptiles and palms. There are about 2,900 species of mollusks and according to estimates there are about 300,000 species of invertebrates in the country. In Colombia there are 32 terrestrial biomes and 314 types of ecosystems.
Government and politics
The government of Colombia takes place within the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic as established in the Constitution of 1991. In accordance with the principle of separation of powers, government is divided into three branches: the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch.
As the head of the executive branch, the President of Colombia serves as both head of state and head of government, followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers. The president is elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms and is limited to a maximum of two such terms (increased from one in 2005). At the provincial level executive power is vested in department governors, municipal mayors and local administrators for smaller administrative subdivisions, such as corregidores or corregimientos.
The legislative branch of government is represented nationally by the Congress, a bicameral institution comprising a 166-seat Chamber of Representatives and a 102-seat Senate. The Senate is elected nationally and the Chamber of Representatives by every region and minority groups. Members of both houses are elected to serve four-year terms two months before the president, also by popular vote. At the provincial level the legislative branch is represented by department assemblies and municipal councils. All regional elections are held one year and five months after the presidential election.
The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, consisting of 23 judges divided into three chambers (Penal, Civil and Agrarian, and Labour). The judicial branch also includes the Council of State, which has special responsibility for administrative law and also provides legal advice to the executive, the Constitutional Court, responsible for assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution, and the Superior Council of Judicature, responsible for auditing the judicial branch. Colombia operates a system of civil law, which since 2005 has been applied through an adversarial system.
Despite a number of controversies, most notably the ongoing parapolitics scandal, dramatic improvements in security and continued strong economic performance have ensured that former President Uribe remained popular among Colombian people, with his approval rating peaking at 85%, according to a poll in July 2008. However, having served two terms, he was constitutionally barred from seeking re-election in 2010. In presidential elections held on 30 May 2010 the former Minister of defense Juan Manuel Santos received 46% of the vote. A second round was required since no candidate received over the 50% winning threshold of votes. In the run-off elections on 20 June 2010 against the second most popular candidate, Antanas Mockus who had scored 21%, Santos was declared the winner. His term as Colombia's president runs for four years beginning 7 August 2010.
The foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President, as head of state, and managed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Colombia has diplomatic missions in all continents.
Colombia was one of the 4 founding members of the Pacific Alliance, which is a political, economic and co-operative integration mechanism that promotes the free circulation of goods, services, capital and persons between the members, as well as a common stock exchange and joint embassies in several countries. Colombia is also a member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union of South American Nations and the Andean Community of Nations.
The executive branch of government is responsible for managing the defense of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Ministry of Defence exercises day-to-day control of the military and the Colombian National Police. Colombia has 444,518 active military personnel, as of September 2013. And in 2012 3.3% of the country's GDP went towards military expenditure, placing it 18th in the world. Colombia's armed forces are the largest in Latin America, and it is the second largest spender on its military after Brazil.
The Colombian military is divided into three branches: the National Army of Colombia; the Colombian Air Force; and the Colombian National Armada. The National Police functions as a gendarmerie, operating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country. Each of these operates with their own intelligence apparatus separate from the national intelligence agency, the Administrative Department of Security.
The National Army is formed by divisions, regiments and special units; the National Armada by the Colombian Naval Infantry, the Naval Force of the Caribbean, the Naval Force of the Pacific, the Naval Force of the South, Colombia Coast Guards, Naval Aviation and the Specific Command of San Andres y Providencia; and the Air Force by 13 air units. The National Police has a presence in all municipalities.
Colombia is divided into 32 departments and one capital district, which is treated as a department (Bogotá also serves as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca). Departments are subdivided into municipalities, each of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in turn subdivided into corregimientos in rural areas and into comunas in urban areas. Each department has a local government with a governor and assembly directly elected to four-year terms. Each municipality is headed by a mayor and council, and each corregimiento by an elected corregidor, or local leader.  
In addition to the capital nine other cities have been designated districts (in effect special municipalities), on the basis of special distinguishing features. These are Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, Cúcuta, Popayán, Bucaramanga, Tunja, Turbo, Buenaventura and Tumaco. Some departments have local administrative subdivisions, where towns have a large concentration of population and municipalities are near each other (for example in Antioquia and Cundinamarca). Where departments have a low population (for example Amazonas, Vaupés and Vichada), special administrative divisions are employed, such as "department corregimientos", which are a hybrid of a municipality and a corregimiento. 
Click on a department on the map below to go to its article.
Historically an agrarian economy, Colombia urbanised rapidly in the 20th century, by the end of which just 22.7% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, generating just 11.5% of GDP; 18.7% of the workforce were employed in industry and 58.5% in services, responsible for 36% and 52.5% of GDP respectively.
Colombia's market economy grew steadily in the latter part of the 20th century, with gross domestic product (GDP) increasing at an average rate of over 4% per year between 1970 and 1998. The country suffered a recession in 1999 (the first full year of negative growth since the Great Depression), and the recovery from that recession was long and painful. However, in recent years growth has been impressive, reaching 6.9% in 2007, one of the highest rates of growth in Latin America.  According to International Monetary Fund estimates, in 2012 Colombia's GDP (PPP) was US$500 billion (28th in the world and third in South America).
Government spending has stabilized at about 29 percent of total domestic output. Public debt remains at around 33 percent of GDP. A strong fiscal climate was reaffirmed by a boost in bond ratings. Inflation has remained relatively low in recent years, standing at 1.94% in December 2013. The national unemployment rate fell to 8.4 percent in December 2013, although the informality is the biggest problem facing the labour market (the income of formal workers climbed 24.8% in 5 years while labor incomes of informal workers rose only 9%). Colombia has Free trade Zone (FTZ), such as Zona Franca del Pacifico, located in the Valle del Cauca, one of the most striking areas for foreign investment.
Colombia is rich in natural resources, and its main exports include mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, precious stones, forest products, pulp and paper, coffee, meat, cereals and vegetable oils, cotton, oilseed, sugars and sugar confectionery, fruit and other agricultural products, food processing, processed fish products, beverages, machinery, electronics, military products, aircraft, ships, motor vehicles, metal products, ferro-alloys, home and office material, chemicals and health related products, petrochemicals, agrochemicals, inorganic salts and acids, perfumery and cosmetics, medicaments, plastics, animal fibers, textile and fabrics, clothing and footwear, leather, construction equipment and materials, cement, software, among others.
Colombia is also known as the world's leading source of emeralds, while over 70% of cut flowers imported by the United States are Colombian. Non-traditional exports have boosted the growth of Colombian foreign sales as well as the diversification of destinations of export thanks to new free trade agreements. Principal trading partners are the United States, India, China, the European Union and some Latin American countries.
The financial sector has grown favorably due to good liquidity in the economy, the growth of credit and in general to the positive performance of the Colombian economy.   The Colombian stock exchange through the Integrated Latin American Market (MILA, in Spanish) offers a financial integration with other countries in the region.  
Tourism in Colombia is an important sector in the country's economy. Foreign tourist visits were predicted to have risen from 0.5 million in 2003 to 1.3 million in 2007, while Lonely Planet picked Colombia as one of their top ten world destinations for 2006. In 2010, tourism in Colombia increased 11% according to UNWTO Tourism Highlights for that year. In 2011 Colombia received 3 million foreign visitors, according to official statistics.
Science and technology
Colombia has more than 4,705 research groups in science and technology. iNNpulsa, a government body that promotes entrepreneurship and innovation in the country, provides roughly $150,000 USD grants to startups, in addition to other services it and institutions like Apps.co provide. Co-working spaces have arisen to serve as communities for startups large and small. Organizations such as the Corporation for biological research for the support of young people interested in scientific work has been successfully developed in Colombia.
Important inventions related to the medicine have been made in Colombia, such as the first external artificial pacemaker with internal electrodes, invented by the electronics engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo, invention of great importance for those who suffer from heart failure. Also were invented in Colombia one of the most important techniques for the correction of refractive errors of vision known as LASIK and the Hakim valve for the treatment of Hydrocephalus, among others. Colombia has begun to innovate in military technology for its army and other armies of the world; especially in the design and creation of personal ballistic protection products, military robots, simulators and radar.
The International Center for Tropical Agriculture based in Colombia investigates the increasing challenge of global warming and food security. The Group of research of the University of the Andes, led by Carlos Avila, Juan Carlos Sanabria and Bernardo Gómez collaborates with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Some leading Colombian scientists are Joseph M. Tohme, researcher recognized for his work on the genetic diversity of food, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo who developed the first synthetic vaccine against malaria, Francisco Lopera who discovered the "Paisa Mutation" or a type of early-onset Alzheimer's, Rodolfo Llinás known for his study of the intrinsic neurons properties and the theory of a syndrome that had changed the way of understanding the functioning of the brain, Jairo Quiroga Puello recognized for his studies on the characterization of synthetic substances which can be used to fight fungus, tumors, tuberculosis and even some viruses and Ángela Restrepo who established accurate diagnoses and treatments to combat the effects of a disease caused by the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, among other scientists.
Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries to have a nuclear reactor in operation, the IAN-R1, its function is the production of neutrons for research purposes, each year radiates and analyzes 4,400 samples.
Transportation in Colombia is regulated within the functions of the Ministry of Transport and entities such as the National Roads Institute (INVÍAS) responsible for the Highways in Colombia (13 000 km), the Aerocivil, responsible for civil aviation and airports, the General Maritime Directorate (Dimar) has the responsibility of coordinating maritime traffic control along with the Colombian Navy, among others and under the supervision of the Superintendency of Ports and Transport. There will be 2,279 kilometres (1,416 miles) of divided expressways in Colombia by 2014.
With an estimated 46 million people in 2008, Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. It is also home to the second-largest number of Spanish speakers in the world after Mexico. At the beginning of the 20th century, Colombia's population was approximately 4 million. The population increased at a rate of 1.9% between 1975 and 2005, predicted to drop to 1.2% over the next decade. Colombia is projected to have a population of 50.7 million by 2015. These trends are reflected in the country's age profile. In 2005 over 30% of the population was under 15 years old, compared to just 5.1% aged 65 and over.
The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast. The nine eastern lowland departments, comprising about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two persons per square mile). Traditionally a rural society, movement to urban areas was very heavy in the mid-20th century, and Colombia is now one of the most urbanized countries in Latin America. The urban population increased from 31% of the total in 1938 to 60% in 1975, and by 2005 the figure stood at 72.7%. The population of Bogotá alone has increased from just over 300,000 in 1938 to approximately 8 million today. In total seventy one cities now have populations of 100,000 or more (2013). As of 2010 Colombia has the world's largest populations of internally displaced persons (IDPs), estimated to be up to 4.3 million people.
The life expectancy is 75.02 years in 2013 and infant mortality is 15 per thousand in 2012.  In 2011, 93.2% of adults and 97.9% of youth are literate and the government spends about 4.4% of its GDP in education. 
Colombia is ranked third in the world in the Happy Planet Index.
More than 99.2% of Colombians speak the Spanish language, also called Castilian; 65 Amerindian languages, 2 Creole languages and the Romani language are also spoken in the country. English has official status in the San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands.
The overwhelming majority of Colombians speak Spanish (see also Colombian Spanish), but in total 101 languages are listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database. The specific number of spoken languages varies slightly since some authors consider as different languages what others consider are varieties or dialects of the same language, the best estimates recorded that 70 languages are spoken in the country today. Most of these belong to the Chibchan, Arawak and Cariban language families. There are currently about 500,000 speakers of indigenous languages.
The descendants of the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, African people originally brought to the country as slaves and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East have produced a diverse cultural heritage in Colombia. The demographic distribution reflects a pattern is influenced by colonial history. Whites tend to live mainly in urban centers, particularly in Bogotá and the burgeoning highland cities. The populations of the major cities also include mestizos. Mestizo campesinos (people living in rural areas) also live in the Andean highlands where the Spanish conquerors mixed with the women of Amerindian chiefdoms. Mestizos include artisans and small tradesmen that have played a major part in the urban expansion of recent decades.
According to the 2005 census, 49% of Colombia's population is Mestizo or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry. Approximately 37% is of European ancestry (predominantly Spanish, and a part of Italian, Portuguese, and German). About 10.6% is of African ancestry. Indigenous Amerindians comprise 3.4% of the population. The 2005 census reported that the "non-ethnic population", consisting of whites and mestizos (those of mixed white European and Amerindian ancestry), constituted 86% of the national population.
Many of the Indigenous peoples in Colombia experienced a reduction in population during the Spanish rule  and many others were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty-five distinct cultures. 567 reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples occupy 365,004 square kilometres (140,929 sq mi) (over 30% of the country's total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people in over 67,000 families. Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu, the Arhuacos, the Muisca, the Kuna, the Paez, the Tucano and the Guahibo. Cauca, Nariño, La Guajira, Putumayo, Amazonas and Guainia have the largest indigenous populations.
The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia, who comprise some 800,000 people – roughly 2% of the population. In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.
Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century. Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The population of the department of Chocó, running along the northern portion of Colombia's Pacific coast, is over 80% black. A number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and, in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War.
Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla (the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Palestinian, Lebanese, and other Arabs, Sephardi Jews and Romanis. There are also important communities of Chinese and Japanese. There is a major migration trend of Venezuelans, due to the political and economic situation in Venezuela.
The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are difficult to obtain. However, based on various studies, more than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity, the vast majority of which (between 81% and 90%) are Roman Catholic. About 1% of Colombians adhere to indigenous religions and under 1% to Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. However, around 60% of respondents to a poll by El Tiempo reported that they did not practice their faith actively.
Like the rest of Latin America, Colombia is seeing a continuous increase of Protestant adherents, most of them being converts from Catholicism to Protestantism. Now Protestants constitute between 10 to 13% of the Colombian population (Compared to 3.5% in 1965)  While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the 1991 Colombian constitution guarantees freedom and equality of religion. Today there is more openness to a great diversity of beliefs, including the activity of atheists.
Largest cities or towns of Colombia
|3||Cali||Valle del Cauca||3,225,580||13||Pasto||Nariño||422,618|
|6||Cúcuta||Norte de Santander||1,358,676||16||Montería||Córdoba||400,790|
|9||Ibagué||Tolima||600,000||19||Buenaventura||Valle del Cauca||369,753|
Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a wide range of cultural influences. Native American, Spanish and other European, African, American, Caribbean, and Middle Eastern influences, as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia's modern culture. Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic changes have also left an impression.
Many national symbols, both objects and themes, have arisen from Colombia's diverse cultural traditions and aim to represent what Colombia, and the Colombian people, have in common. Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government through the Ministry of Culture.
Colombian literature dates back to pre-Columbian era; a notable example of the period is the epic poem known as the Legend of Yurupary.  In Spanish colonial times notable writers include Hernando Domínguez Camargo and his epic poem to San Ignacio de Loyola, Juan Rodríguez Freyle (The Sheep) and the nun Francisca Josefa de Castillo, representative of mysticism. Post-independence literature linked to Romanticism highlighted Antonio Nariño, José Fernández Madrid, Camilo Torres Tenorio and Francisco Antonio Zea. In the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the literary genre known as costumbrismo became popular; great writers of this period were Tomás Carrasquilla, Jorge Isaacs and Rafael Pombo (the latter of whom wrote notable works of children's literature). Within that period, authors such as José Asunción Silva, José Eustasio Rivera, León de Greiff, Porfirio Barba-Jacob and José María Vargas Vila developed the modernist movement. In 1872, Colombia established the Colombian Academy of Language, the first Spanish language academy in the Americas. Candelario Obeso wrote the groundbreaking Cantos Populares de mi Tierra (1877), the first book of poetry by an Afro-Colombian author. 
Between 1939 and 1940 seven books of poetry were published under the name Stone and Sky in the city of Bogotá that significantly impacted the country; they were edited by the poet Jorge Rojas. In the following decade, Gonzalo Arango founded the movement of "nothingness" in response to the violence of the time; he was influenced by nihilism, existentialism, and the thought of another great Colombian writer: Fernando González Ochoa. During the boom in Latin American literature, successful writers emerged, led by Nobel laureate Gabriel García Márquez and his magnum opus, One Hundred Years of Solitude, Eduardo Caballero Calderón, Manuel Mejía Vallejo, and Álvaro Mutis, a writer who was awarded the Cervantes Prize and the Prince of Asturias Award for Letters. Other leading contemporary authors are Fernando Vallejo (Rómulo Gallegos Prize) and Germán Castro Caycedo, the best-selling writer in Colombia after García Márquez.
Colombian art has over 3,000 years of history. Colombian artists have captured the country's changing political and cultural backdrop using a range of styles and mediums. There is archeological evidence of ceramics being produced earlier in Colombia than anywhere else in the Americas, dating as early as 3,000 BCE.
The earliest examples of gold craftsmanship have been attributed to the Tumaco people  of the Pacific coast and date to around 325 BCE. Gold would play a pivotal role in luring the Spanish and other Europeans to the area now called Colombia during the 16th and 17th centuries. Roughly between 200 BCE and 800 CE, the San Agustín culture, masters of stonecutting, entered its “classical period". They erected raised ceremonial centres, sarcophagi, and large stone monoliths depicting anthropomorphic and zoomorphhic forms out of stone.
Colombian art has followed the trends of the time, so during the 16th to 18th centuries, Spanish Catholicism had a huge influence on Colombian art, and the popular Baroque style was replaced with Rococo when the Bourbons ascended to the Spanish crown. More recently, Colombian artists Pedro Nel Gómez and Santiago Martínez Delgado started the Colombian Murial Movement in the 1940s, featuring the neoclassical features of Art Deco.
Since the 1950s, the Colombian art started to have a distinctive point of view, reinventing traditional elements under the concepts of the 20th century. Examples of this are the Greiff portraits by Ignacio Gomez Jaramillo, showing what the Colombian art could do with the new techniques applied to typical Colombian themes. Carlos Correa, with his paradigmathic “Naturaleza muerta en silencio” (silent dead nature), combines geometrical abstraction and cubism. Alejandro Obregón is often considered as the father of modern Colombian painting, and one of the most influential artist in this period, due to his originality, the painting of Colombian landscapes with symbolic and expressionist use of animals, (specially the andean condor). Fernando Botero and Omar Rayo are probably the most widely known Colombian artists in the international scene. 
The Colombian sculpture from the sixteenth to 18th centuries was mostly devoted to religious depictions of ecclesiastic art, strongly influenced by the Spanish schools of sacred sculpture. During the early period of the Colombian republic, the national artists were focused in the production of sculptural portraits of politicians and public figures, in a plain neoclassicist trend. During the 20th century, the Colombian sculpture began to develop a bold and innovative work with the aim of reaching a better understanding of national sensitivity.
Photography in Colombia began with the arrival in the country of the Daguerreotype that was brought by the Baron Gros in 1841. The Piloto public library has Latin America’s largest archive of negatives, containing 1.7 million antique photographs covering Colombia 1848 until 2005.
In general, Colombian music blends European-influenced guitar and song structure with large gaita flutes and percussion instruments from the indigenous population, while its percussion structure and dance forms come from Africa. Colombian music reflects a wealth of musical influences that have given birth to a dynamic musical environment. Some of the most popular music genres that have marked the Colombian music with special relevance are the cumbia, vallenato, joropo, salsa, bambuco, rock, pop and the classical music. Shakira and Juanes are two of the most well-known Colombian musicians internationally. Colombian music is promoted mainly by the support of the largest record labels, independent companies and the Government of Colombia, through the Ministry of Culture.
Colombian architecture is mainly derived of adapting European styles to local conditions, and Spanish influence, especially Andalusian, can be easily seen. The Teatro Colón in Bogotá is a lavish example of Colombian architecture from the Republican period, and the Archbishopric Cathedral also in the capital, was made in the neoclassic style in 1792, by Colombian architect Domingo de Petrés. Rogelio Salmona, whose works are noted for their use of red brick and natural shapes, is a widely renowned Colombian architect.
Theater was introduced in Colombia during the Spanish colonization in 1550 through zarzuela companies. Colombian theater is supported by the Ministry of Culture and a number of private and state owned organizations. The Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá is the cultural event of the highest importance in Colombia and one of the biggest theater festivals in the world. Other important theater events are: The Festival of Puppet The Fanfare (Medellín), The Manizales Theater Festival, The Caribbean Theatre Festival (Santa Marta) and The Art Festival of Popular Culture "Cultural Invasion" (Bogotá).
Some important national circulation newspapers are El Tiempo and El Espectador. Television in Colombia has two privately owned TV networks and three state-owned TV networks with national coverage, as well as six regional TV networks and dozens of local TV stations. Private channels, RCN and Caracol are the highest-rated. The regional channels and regional newspapers cover a department or more and its content is made in these particular areas.
Colombia's varied cuisine is influenced by its diverse fauna and flora as well as the cultural traditions of the ethnic groups. Colombian dishes and ingredients vary widely by region. Some of the most common ingredients are: cereals such as rice and maize; tubers such as potato and cassava; assorted legumes; meats, including beef, chicken, pork and goat; fish; and seafood. Colombia cuisine also features a variety of tropical fruits such as cape gooseberry, feijoa, arazá, dragon fruit, mangostino, granadilla, papaya, guava, mora (blackberry), lulo, soursop and passionfruit.
Among the most representative appetizers and soups are patacones (fried green plantains), sancocho de gallina (chicken soup with root vegetables) and ajiaco (potato and corn soup). Representative snacks and breads are pandebono, arepas (corn cakes), aborrajados (fried sweet plantains with cheese), torta de choclo, empanadas and almojábanas. Representative main courses are bandeja paisa, lechona tolimense, mamona, tamales and fish dishes (such as arroz de lisa), especially in coastal regions where suero, costeño cheese and carimañolas are also eaten. Representative side dishes are papas criollas al horno (roasted Andean potatoes), papas chorreadas (potatoes with cheese) and arroz con coco (coconut rice). Organic food is a current trend in big cities, although in general across the country the fruits and veggies are very natural and fresh.
Representative desserts are buñuelos, natillas, torta Maria Luisa, bocadillo made of guayaba (guava jelly), cocadas (coconut balls), casquitos de guayaba (candied guava peels), torta de natas, obleas, flan de arequipe, roscón, milhoja, and the tres leches cake (a sponge cake soaked in milk, covered in whipped cream, then served with condensed milk). Typical sauces (salsas) are hogao (tomato and onion sauce) and Colombian-style ají.
Some representative beverages are coffee (Tinto), champús, cholado, lulada, avena colombiana, sugarcane juice, aguapanela, aguardiente, hot chocolate and fresh fruit juices (often made with sugar and water or milk).
Tejo is Colombia’s national sport and is a team sport that involves launching projectiles to hit a target. But of all sports in Colombia, football is the most popular. Colombia was the champion of the 2001 Copa América, in which they set a new record of being undefeated, conceding no goals and winning each match. Interestingly, Colombia was the first team to win FIFA best mover in 1993 where the achievement was first introduced and the second team to win it twice with the second being in 2013.
Colombia is a mecca for roller skaters. The national team is a perennial powerhouse at the World Roller Speed Skating Championships. Colombia has traditionally been very good in cycling and a large number of Colombian cyclists have triumphed in major competitions of cycling.
Baseball, another sport rooted in the Caribbean Coast, Colombia was world amateur champion in 1947 and 1965. Baseball is popular in the Caribbean. Mainly in the cities, Cartagena, Barranquilla and Santa Marta. Of those cities have come good players like: Orlando Cabrera, Edgar Rentería who was champion of the World Series in 1997 and 2010, and others who have played in Major League Baseball.
Boxing is one of the sports that more world champions has produced for Colombia. Motorsports also occupies an important place in the sporting preferences of Colombians; Juan Pablo Montoya is a race car driver known for winning 7 Formula One events. Colombia also has excelled in sports such as taekwondo, shooting sport, wrestling, judo, bowling, athletics and has a long tradition in weightlifting.
Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 72.3 years; the life expectancy increased to 75.02 years by 2013. Health standards in Colombia have improved very much since the 1980s, healthcare reforms have led to the massive improvements in the healthcare systems of the country. Although this new system has widened population coverage by the social and health security system from 21% (pre-1993) to 66% in 2005 and 96% in 2012,  health disparities persist, with the poor continuing to suffer less attention in their medical procedures.
Through health tourism, many people from over the world travel from their places of residence to other countries in search of medical treatment and the attractions in the countries visited. Colombia is projected as one of Latin America’s main destinations in terms of health tourism due to the quality of its health care professionals, a good number of institutions devoted to health, and an immense inventory of natural and architectural sites. Cities such as Bogotá, Cali and Medellín are the most visited in cardiology procedures, cosmetic procedures, neurology, dental treatments, stem cell therapy, ENT, joint replacements and ophthalmology for its high quality. Every year the city of Cali receives approximately 14,000 patients from abroad for cosmetic procedures.  
According to América Economía 16 of the best 40 hospitals in Latin America are located in Colombia. The level and quantity of specialized and sub-specialized physicians is also noticeable. "In average, 85.4% of the physicians in ranked Colombian hospitals are specialized, and 27.7% sub-specialized; whereas the general average for the top 40 was of 82.2% and 22.8%.
The educational experience of many Colombian children begins with attendance at a preschool academy until age five (Educación preescolar). Basic education (Educación básica) is compulsory by law. It has two stages: Primary basic education (Educación básica primaria) which goes from first to fifth grade – children from six to ten years old, and Secondary basic education (Educación básica secundaria), which goes from sixth to ninth grade. Basic education is followed by Middle vocational education (Educación media vocacional) that comprises the tenth and eleventh grades. It may have different vocational training modalities or specialties (academic, technical, business, and so on.) according to the curriculum adopted by each school.
After the successful completion of all the basic and middle education years, a high-school diploma is awarded. The high-school graduate is known as a bachiller, because secondary basic school and middle education are traditionally considered together as a unit called bachillerato (sixth to eleventh grade). Students in their final year of middle education take the ICFES test (now renamed Saber 11) in order to gain access to higher education (Educación superior). This higher education includes undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies.
Bachilleres (high-school graduates) may enter into a professional undergraduate career program offered by a university; these programs last up to five years (or less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies), even as much to six to seven years for some careers, such as medicine. In Colombia, there is not an institution such as college; students go directly into a career program at a university or any other educational institution to obtain a professional, technical or technological title. Once graduated from the university, people are granted a (professional, technical or technological) diploma and licensed (if required) to practice the career they have chosen. For some professional career programs, students are required to take the Saber-Pro test, formerly known as ECAES, in their final year of undergraduate academic education.
Public spending on education as a proportion of gross domestic product in 2011 was 4.4% – one of the highest rates in Latin America – as compared with 2.4% in 1991. This represented 15.5% of total government expenditure.  In 2011, the primary and secondary net enrollment rates stood at 111% and 97% respectively. School-life expectancy was 13.6 years. A total of 93.2% of the population aged 15 and older were recorded as literate, including 97.9% of those aged 15–24, both figures slightly higher than the regional average.
- Index of Colombia-related articles
- International rankings of Colombia
- Outline of Colombia
- List of Colombians
- National Library of Colombia
- Balboa is best known for being the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1513, which he called Mar del Sur (or "Sea of the South") and would facilitate Spanish exploration and settlement of South America.
- A royal decree of 1713 approved the legality of Palenque de San Basilio founded by runaway slaves. From the mid-16th century, slaves had fled and sought refuge in the jungles of the Caribbean coast. The Spanish forces could not tolerate them and ended up submitting, thereby giving rise to the first free place in the Americas. Its main leader was Benkos Biohó, born in the region Bioho, Guinea Bissau, West Africa. Palenque de San Basilio was declared in 2005 as a "Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO.
- "Visibilidad Estadistica Etnicos". Censo General 2005. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Bushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: 87. Washingtion D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
- "Animated clock". Colombian State Department. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. October 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "Colombia alcanzó la tasa de desigualdad más baja en 15 años" (in Spanish). Dinero.com. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Indicadores Internacionales sobre Desarrollo Humano – PNUD" (in Spanish). Hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 14 May 2012.[dead link]
- "Constitution of Colombia, 1991 (Article 10)" (in Spanish). pdba.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "LEY 47 DE 1993" (in Spanish). alcaldiabogota.gov.co. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "The official Colombian time" (in Spanish). horalegal.sic.gov.co. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Decreto 2153 de 1992, articulo 20" (in Spanish). Presidencia de la República de Colombia. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- Gerhar Sandner, Beate Ratter, Wolf Dietrich Sahr and Karsten Horsx (1993). "Conflictos Territoriales en el Mar Caribe: El conflicto fronterizo en el Golfo de Venezuela". Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2008.
- The Geographer Office of the Geographer Bureau of Intelligence and Research (15 April 1985). "Brazil-Colombia boundary" (PDF). International Boundary Study. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
- CIA. "Ecuador". World Fact Book. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
- Nicolás del Castillo Mathieu (March 1992). "La primera vision de las costas Colombianas, Repaso de Historia". Revista Credencial (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- CIA world fact book. "Colombia". CIA. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- Familia y Comunidad – Ritmos de Colombia. Colombiaaprende.edu.co. Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Luis Fernando Potes. "Colombia is the second most biodiverse country in the world" (in Spanish). prodiversitas.bioetica.org. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Paisajes naturales de Colombia" (in Spanish). telepolis.com. Archived from the original on 2009-03-20. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Steve Slater (27 April 2010). "After BRICs, look to CIVETS for growth – HSBC CEO". Reuters.
- "International Trade Centre: Colombia Exports". intracen.org. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "Colombian economy" (in spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- Carlos Restrepo Piedrahita (February 1992). "El nombre "Colombia", El único país que lleva el nombre del Descubrimiento". Revista Credencial (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- Correal, Urrego G. (1993). "Nuevas evidencias culturales pleistocenicas y megafauna en Colombia". Boletin de Arqueologia (8): 3–13.
- Hoopes, John (1994). "Ford Revisited: A Critical Review of the Chronology and Relationships of the Earliest Ceramic Complexes in the New World, 6000-1500 B.C. (1994)". Journal of World Prehistory 8 (1): 1–50.
- Van der Hammen, T. and Correal, G. 1978: "Prehistoric man on the Sabana de Bogotá: data for an ecological prehistory"; Paleography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 25:179–190
- Broadbent, Sylvia 1965: Los Chibchas: organización socio-política. Série Latinoamericana 5. Bogotá: Facultad de Sociología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
- Simons, Geoff. Colombia: A Brutal History (London: Saqi, 2004), p. 19 ISBN 0-86356-758-4.
- "The Story Of ... Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian Germs". Pbs.org. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- The Cultural Space of Palenque de San Basilio. Unesco.org. Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Aguilera, Miguel (1965). La Legislacion y el derecho en Colombia. Historia extensa de Colombia 14. Bogota: Lemer. pp. 428–442.
- Charles Bergquist and David J. Robinson (1997–2005). "Colombia". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005. Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2006. On 9 April 1948, Gaitán was assassinated outside his law offices in downtown Bogotá. The assassination marked the start of a decade of bloodshed, called La Violencia (the violence), which took the lives of an estimated 180,000 Colombians before it subsided in 1958.
- Carlos Horacio Urán (1986). "Colombia y los Estados Unidos en la Guerra de Corea" (in Spanish). The Kellogg Institute for International Studies.
- Lilian Yaffe (3 October 2011). "Armed conflict in Colombia: analysis of the economic, social and institutional causes of violent opposition" (in Spanish). icesi.edu.co. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Guerrillas" (in Spanish). elnuevosiglo.com.co. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- Mario A. Murillo; Jesús Rey Avirama (2004). Colombia and the United States: war, unrest, and destabilization. Seven Stories Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-58322-606-3.
- "20 grandes cambios que generó la Constitución de 1991" (in Spanish). elpais.com.co. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "Colombian Constitution of 1991" (in Spanish). banrep.gov.co. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "Kidnapping on the rise for 1st time in decade". Colombia Reports. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Disminuir la tasa anual de homicidios por cada 100. 000 habitantes (Sin accidentes de transito)" (in Spanish). SIGOB. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
- "Colombia grew less coca in 2012, UN survey reports". un.org. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- "Colombia no longer top cocaine producer". usatoday.com. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Oscar Morales and One Million Voices Against FARC". movements.org. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "One Million Voices Against the FARC: A Milestone for Freedom". bushcenter.org. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "One Million Voices Against FARC" (in Spanish). millondevoces.org. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Desmovilización, principal arma contra las guerrillas" (in Spanish). eltiempo.com. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Presidente Santos reitera que seguirá fortaleciendo las Fuerzas Armadas inclusive en el posconflicto" (in Spanish). rcnradio.com. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- "Colombia agrees Farc political participation". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- "Ley de víctimas y restitución de tierras" (in Spanish). derechoshumanos.gov.co. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "Unidad de restitución de tierras". restituciondetierras.gov.co. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Colombia 'ha mejorado en el clima político': Human Rights Watch. Caracol.com.co (11 October 2011). Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Colombia lidera Consejo de Seguridad de ONU en medio de crisis árabe – Política en Colombia y el Mundo. Eltiempo.Com (2 April 2011). Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- efe / bogotá (2012-12-31). "Colombia supera el millón de barriles de petróleo diarios". ABC.es. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "Poverty in Colombia dropped from 34.1% to 32.7% in 2012: Govt". colombiareports.co. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "Programa 100 mil viviendas gratis.". 100milviviendasgratis.gov.co. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Ministerio TIC alista versión 2.0 de Vive Digital". eltiempo.com. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Proyecto Nacional de Fibra Óptica". mintic.gov.co. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Colombia starts tender to expand broadband coverage". telecompaper.com. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "País de ricos" (in Spanish). dinero.com. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Aumenta el número de colombianos en la lista de los más ricos del mundo" (in Spanish). rcnradio.com. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Natural regions of Colombia and description of the three branches of the andes cordillera". colombia-sa.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Location, boundaries and geography" (in Spanish). granalisis.org. Retrieved 7 March 2014l.
- "Colombia is part of the Ring of Fire" (in Spanish). seisan.ingeominas.gov.co. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Hydrography of Colombia". colombia-sa.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Dirección de Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia" (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- "Human Development Report: Deforestation, 2007/2008". Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- "The World's Water". Pacific Institute. 2008. pp. tables 1. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
- "Thermal floors" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Phyllobates terribilis". amphibiaweb.org. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- Delegatarios de países megadiversos. "Declaración de Cancún de países megadiversos afínes" (in Spanish). inecc.gob.mx. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Colombia Celebrates over 1,900 Bird Species". proaves.org. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Flora of Colombia" (in Spanish). parquesnacionales.gov.co. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Colombia accounts for around 10% of the flora and fauna of the world.". humboldt.org.co. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "System of information about biodiversity of Colombia" (in spanish). Sistema de Información sobre Biodiversidad de Colombia. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Colombian Constitution. 1991
- Hugh Bronstein (6 July 2008). "Reuters, Popularity of Colombia's Uribe soars after rescue". Reuters. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- "Registraduria, Registraduria Nacional del Estado Civil". Registraduria.gov.co. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
- "The Pacific Alliance and its Objectives". alianzapacifico.net. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- "Military Personnel, 2013" (in (Spanish)). mindefensa.gov.co. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "Military expenditure (% of GDP)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "División Político-Administrativa de Colombia, Divipola" (in Spanish). dane.gov.co. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Herrera Llanos, W (2011). Régimen municipal en Colombia (Continuación del tema sobre Organización Territorial). Universidad del Norte, Colombia University. p. 27.
- "Colombia’s GDP growth". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Colombia - Heritage Foundation, Index of Economic Freedom". heritage.org. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "Colombia Inflation Rate". banrep.gov.co. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "Colombia Unemployment Rate". dane.gov.co. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Incomes of informal workers grow less" (in Spanish). portafolio.co. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "Colombia´s Permanent Free Trade Zones Directory". investincolombia.com.co. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Zonas Francas. zonafrancadelpacifico.com
- "El Cerrejón" (in Spanish). barrancas-laguajira.gov.co. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "International Colored Gemstone Association: Emerald". Gemstone.org. 28 September 2001. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- America's Flower Basket: Colombian Flowers and the American Marketplace at the Wayback Machine (archived March 27, 2009). florverde.org
- mincit.gov.co. "Non-traditional exports" (in spanish). Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Exports - partners". dane.gov.co. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Imports - partners". dane.gov.co. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Colombian Electricty Market" (in spanish). Unidad de Planeación Minero Energética de Colombia. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Informe de operaciones" (in spanish). superfinanciera.gov.co. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Reporte de Estabilidad Financiera" (in spanish). banrep.gov.co. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Colombia's Colcap Index" (in spanish). banrep.org. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Economic and Financial Data for Colombia". banrep.gov.co. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- By Marián Hens (7 December 2007). "BBC News, A new hot-spot for the tourism industry". BBC News. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- "Hot Destination: Colombia". Christian Science Monitor. 9 May 2006.
- UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2010 Edition. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
- By Juan Uribe and Astrid López (29 February 2012). "Portafolio, En el 2011 llegaron a Colombia 3 millones de extranjeros" (in spanish). Portafolio.
- "research groups in science and technology" (in (Spanish)). colciencias.gov.co. Retrieved 2013-06-10.
- "entrepreneurship and innovation in Colombia". venturebeat.com. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "Colombia Startups" (in Spanish). apps.co. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Corporation for biological research in Medellín" (in Spanish). cib.org.co. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "Inventos colombianos" (in Spanish). 20minutos.es. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "highly effective simulators and radar". codaltec.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "bulletproof clothing". miguelcaballero.com. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Colombian Naval Industry". cotecmar.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Crean en Colombia a ‘Arcadio’, robot contra minas antipersona" (in Spanish). canalrcnmsn.com. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "Plantilla detectora de minas antipersona". lemurstudio.com.co. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "International Center for Tropical Agriculture". Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Carlos Ávila. "The High Energy Physics Group, Universidad de Los Andes (Colombia) in CMS".
- "Beyond Alzheimer’s: the "Paisa Mutation"". udea.edu.co. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "Científicos colombianos" (in Spanish). cienciagora.com.co. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "científicos del país más consultados" (in Spanish). portal.redcolombiana.com. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "Estos son los científicos colombianos más destacados en el último lustro" (in Spanish). cambio.com.co. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "Ingeominas: Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería" (in (Spanish)). ingeominas.gov.co. Retrieved 2013-06-10.
- "Aeronáutica Civil de Colombia – Objetivos Institucionales". Portal.aerocivil.gov.co. Retrieved 2013-03-11.
- "the General Maritime Directorate (Dimar)" (in Spanish). dimar.mil.co. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Superintendencia De Puertos Y Transporte". Supertransporte.gov.co. Retrieved 2013-03-11.
- García, Alfredo (18 November 2011). "El Gobierno invertirá en la construcción de más dobles calzadas" (in Spanish). El Pais.
- "República de Colombia Libertad y Orden". Aerocivil.gov.co. 2011-05-16. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- Rathbone, Jhn Paul and Mapstone, Naomi (13 February 2011). "China in talks over Panama Canal rival". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Colombia – Population". Library of Congress Country Studies.
- "Colombia: A Country Study". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Number of internally displaced people remains stable at 26 million. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 4 May 2009.
- "Life expectancy at birth". cia.gov. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- "Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- "UNESCO Institute for Statistics Colombia Profile". Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "Languages of Colombia" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Jon Landaburu, Especialista de las lenguas de Colombia" (in Spanish). ambafrance-co.org. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Map of the languages of Colombia" (in Spanish). lenguasdecolombia.gov.co. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "The Languages of Colombia". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Bushnell & Hudson, pp. 87–88.
- EPM (2005). "La etnia Wayuu". Empresas Publicas de Medellín (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- "Society and slavery" (in Spanish). colombia.com. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "Los Resguardos Indígenas". Etniasdecolombia.org. Archived from the original on 2008-07-12. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- EPM (2005). "La etnia Wayuu". Empresas Publicas de Medellín (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- (Spanish) Colombia una Los grupos étnicos colombianos
- "The Arab immigration to Colombia" (in Spanish). nodo50.org. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Análisis de la migración venezolana a Colombia durante el gobierno de Hugo Chávez (1999–2011). Identificación de capital social y compensación económica | Echeverry Hernández | Revista Análisis Internacional. Revistas.utadeo.edu.co (10 February 2012). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
- Llegaron los venezolanos, Articulo Impreso Archivado. Semana.com (11 March 2012). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
- "QUÉ TAN CATÓLICOS SOMOS?". eltiempo.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Colombia. State.gov. Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Constitution of Colombia, 1991 (Article 19)
- "2011 Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (estimate)". Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
- Legend of Yurupary. Cooperativa Editorial Magisterio. 2006. ISBN 958-20-0836-9.
- "Colombian Academy of Language" (in Spanish). colombiaaprende.edu.co. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Obeso: Poet of the Magdalena". thecitypaperbogota.com. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Lucía Ortiz (2007). "Chambacú, la historia la escribes tú": ensayos sobre cultura afrocolombiana (Candelario Obeso) (in Spanish). IBEROAMERICANA. p. 47 - 69. ISBN 978-84-8489-266-3.
- "Artículo: Piedra y Cielo a contraluz" (in Spanish). Lablaa.org. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango" (in Spanish). Lablaa.org. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "Biography of German Castro Caycedo" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Colombian Art". donquijote.org. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Tumaco: People and Gold on the Pacific Coast". banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "El Dorado Legend Snared Sir Walter Raleigh". science.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "San Agustín Archaeological Park". unesco.org. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Rayo Museum" (in Spanish). museorayo.co. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Colombian sculptors" (in Spanish). colombia.com. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Latin America’s largest antique negative archive in Medellín". colombiareports.co. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "Apuntes para una cronología de la fotografía en Antioquía" (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Colombian music". about.com. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Theater Festival". The Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Main performing arts festivals". iti-worldwide.org. Archived from the original on 2008-08-21. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Theater of Colombia" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Television in Colombia" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "the Film Act passed in 2003" (in Spanish). secretariasenado.gov.co. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Typical Colombian Food". Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "Colombian Food: Variety, Tradition and Nature Fruits". going2colombia.com. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "Colombian Food; A List of Traditional and Modern Colombian Recipes". southamericanfood.about.com. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "Colombian desserts". uncovercolombia.wordpress.com. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "10 Colombian Drinks You Must Try Before You Leave". Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "Tejo – Colombia’s national sport". thecitypaperbogota.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- Spain finish 2012 on top, Colombia in fifth. fifa.com (19 December 2012). Retrieved on 19 December 2012
- "Patinaje colombiano, el más ganador del mundo" (in Spanish). elpais.com.co. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Colombian cyclists" (in Spanish). diarioadn.co. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "The 2010 SF N World Series Batting Log for Edgar Renteria". Retrosheet. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- "Recordando a nuestras glorias del béisbol" (in Spanish). eltiempo.com. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "History of boxing in Colombia" (in Spanish). boxeodecolombia.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Boxing champions" (in Spanish). boxeodecolombia.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Ministra de Salud dice que la cobertura en este sector subió al 96%" (in Spanish). elpais.com.co. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Colombia Medical Tourism". mymedholiday.com. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "Cali, destino mundial para turismo de salud y cirugías estéticas" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "16 Colombian clinics among the best 40 in Latin America". proexport.com.co, America Economia magazine. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Facultad de Minas (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre" (in (Spanish)). Es.wikipedia.org. 2013-01-22. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Artículo 67, Constitución Política de Colombia
- "Ministerio de Educación de Colombia, Estructura del sistema educativo". Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
|Find more about Colombia at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- General information
- Colombia at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Colombia at UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Colombia on the Open Directory Project
- Colombia entry at The World Factbook
- Key Development Forecasts for Colombia from International Futures
- The City Paper – The City Paper is Colombia's largest English-language newspaper
- Official investment portal
- Official Colombia Tourism Website
- Study Spanish In Colombia
- National Administrative Department of Statistics (Spanish)
- Colombia Online Government web site (Spanish)
- Ministry of Culture (Spanish)