2018 Colombian presidential election

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2018 Colombian presidential election

← 2014 27 May 2018 (first round)
17 June 2018 (second round)
2022 →
Turnout54.22% (first round) Increase 14.29%
53.93% (second round) Decrease 0.29%
  Cumbre de la Alianza del Pacífico 2019 (cropped).jpg Gustavo Petro Mayor of Bogota (cropped2) (cropped).jpg
Nominee Iván Duque Márquez Gustavo Petro
Party Democratic Center Humane Colombia
Alliance Grand Alliance for Colombia List of Decency
Home state Bogotá Córdoba
Running mate Marta Lucía Ramírez Ángela Robledo
Popular vote 10,398,689 8,040,449
Percentage 54.03% 41.77%

Colombian Presidential Election First Round Results 2018.svg
Candidate with the most votes in the first round by departments
  Iván Duque
  Gustavo Petro
  Sergio Fajardo

Colombian Presidential Election Second Round Results 2018.svg

Candidate with the most votes in the second round by departments
  Iván Duque
  Gustavo Petro

President before election

Juan Manuel Santos
Social Party of National Unity

Elected President

Iván Duque Márquez
Democratic Center

Presidential elections were held in Colombia on 27 May 2018.[1] As no candidate received a majority of the vote, the second round of voting was held on 17 June.[2] Incumbent President Juan Manuel Santos was ineligible for re-election because of already serving for two terms. President Iván Duque was elected to serve a four-year term from 7 August 2018 to 7 August 2022.

Electoral system[edit]

Colombian Presidents are elected for four-year terms using a two-round system; if no candidate receives a majority of the vote in the first round, a runoff is held between the top two candidates.[2] The Vice President is elected on the same ticket as the President. Presidents are limited to a single four-year term and Article 191 of the constitution requires candidates to be Colombian by birth and at least thirty years old.

In line with the constitution, Colombian citizens by birth or by naturalization, aged eighteen or older have the right to vote. Several scenarios can cause the loss of the right to vote, as outlined in the constitution. Citizens in detention centers can vote from the establishments determined by the National Civil Registry. The civil registry inscription is not automatic, and citizens must go to the regional office of the Registry to register.[3]

Legislative act # 2 of 2015 established that the runner-up in the presidential elections is given a seat in the Senate and their Vice President candidate will become a member of the House of Representatives.[4]

Main candidates[edit]

Party/alliance Presidential candidate Vice Presidential candidate
Colombia Coalition Sergio Fajardo Claudia López Hernández
Liberal Party/Indigenous Social Alliance Coalition Humberto de La Calle Clara López
List of Decency Gustavo Petro Ángela María Robledo
Grand Alliance for Colombia
  • Democratic Center
  • For an Honest and Strong Colombia
  • La Patria de Pie Movement
  • Partido Somos Región Colombia
  • Free and Fair Colombia
  • MIRA Party
Iván Duque Márquez Marta Lucía Ramírez
Mejor Vargas Lleras Germán Vargas Lleras Juan Carlos Pinzón
We Are All Colombia Jorge Antonio Trujillo Fredy Obando Pinillo

Candidates that withdrew[edit]

The Common Alternative Revolutionary Force withdrew its presidential aspiration on 9 March 2018, stating the health problems of its candidate Rodrigo Londoño, as the reason.[5]

On 16 March 2018, Juan Carlos Pinzón ended his presidential campaign, accepting a role as Germán Vargas' Vice President candidate.[6]

Piedad Córdoba and her Vice Presidential candidate Jaime Araújo Rentería [es] terminated their candidacy on April 9th, 2018.[7]

Viviane Morales and her Vice presidential candidate Jorge Leyva Durán, of the Somos Región Colombia party, retired their candidacy on May 2nd, 2018.[8][9] After, Morales adhered to Iván Duque's campaign, while Leyva joined Germán Vargas Lleras' candidacy.[10]

Debates[edit]

There were four debates, which took place in the four main departments.

The Antioquia debate was characterised by the lack of attacks made by the candidates. Topics included public order, Venezuelan immigration, the peace treaties with FARC and LGBT couples' rights.[11] Regional topics included the Antioquia railroad, regional connectivity and tourist industry development.[12]

The Caribe debate saw several disqualifications and confrontations between candidates, as well as incidents in the crowds between followers of different parties.[13] Topics included the battle against corruption, the peace process with FARC, the environment and the country's relationship with Venezuelan.[14] Regional topics included Electricaribe (an energy supplier in the Caribe region) and the decisions that the candidates would take to resolve the energy problem.[15]

The Pacific debate saw discussions on flaws in the healthcare system, illegal mining, education, FARC, illegal crops, the battle against corruption, infrastructure, culture, racism and the exploitation of biodiversity. The candidates Humberto de La Calle and Germán Vargas Lleras took advantage of the free questions to comment on absent candidate, Iván Duque.[16]

The Eje Cafetero debate was cancelled due to disturbances that prevented some candidates entering the Los Fundadores de Manizales theatre. Afterwards Iván Duque, Humberto de La Calle, Gustavo Petro y Germán Vargas Lleras met at the city's auditorium and held a closed-door debate. The most important topics were the coffee industry and tourism.[17]

Opinion polls[edit]

First round[edit]

2017[edit]

During the first round, six parties ran for the Presidency. These candidates were; Ivan Duque, Gustavo Petro, Sergio Fajardo, German Vargas Lleras, Humberto de la Calle and Jorge Antonio Trujillo. As none of the candidates received the majority of votes, the elections moved to a runoff between the top two candidates, Ivan Duque and Gustavo Petro, which was held on June 17, 2017.

Pollster Date(s) conducted Sample size Candidate Margin of error
Ordóñez Navarro Claudia López Clara López Santos Vargas Petro De La Calle Duque Robledo Galán Pinzon Ramos Ramirez Cordoba Fajardo Others Blank vote Don't know/No response
Invamer 2017-05-22 1200 4.9% - 6.0% 8.4% - 21.5% 14.2% 5.4% - 4.0% - 2.4% 7.7% 6.5% 2.8% 11.0% - 6.3% - 3.6%
Datexco 2017-05-26 900 1.1% - 3.6% 5.9% 1.1% 16.5% 7.6% 1.5% 0.9% 2.4% 4.1% 1.2% 1.6% 2.6% 1.9% 12.1% 4.2% - 31.3% 3.27%
EcoAnalitica 2017-07-17 1285 - - 15.8% - - 15.1% 14.2% 3.1% 17.4% 7.2% - 0.9% - 2.5% - 8.8% - 8.2% 6.8% 3%
Cifras y Conceptos 2017-08-03 1800 6% 1% 10% 7% - 13% 13% 3% 2% 4% 5% 2% 1% 1% - 8% 6% - 17% 5%
Datexco 2017-08-02 900 0.6% 2.2% 4.9% 6.7% 2.1% 5.3% 14.3% 2.5% 0.4% 2.9% 4.9% 2.2% 1.1% 2.5% 1.8% 10.3% 4.1% - 31.4% 3.27%
Datexco[permanent dead link] 2017-09-07 900 2.1% 1.9% 5.3% 8.3% - 6.7% 11.2% 3.4% 1.3% 2.5% 5.6% 1.7% 1.5% 2.7% 1.3% 9.6% 5% - 29.9 3.27%
EcoAnalitica 2017-09-08 1657 2.0% 1.8% 9.0% 3.3% - 8.3% 10.1% 3.9% 7.8% 3.7% 2.2% 1.6% 2.5% 2.1% 0.5% 6.9% 7.4% 20.7% 6.2% 2.6%
YanHass 2017-09-16 1250 3% 3% 6% 3% 2% 11% 9% 2% 1% 2% 4% 1% 1% 2% 2% 7% 4.8% 23% 13% 3.3%
Invamer 2017-09-28 1200 3.1% - 11.2% 3.2% - 12.5% 10.4% 8.3% 6.9% 5.3% 8.8% 1.2% - 4.6% 1.4% 21.0% - 2.1% 8.2% 3%
Cifras y Conceptos 2017-11-26 1795 2% - 7% 5% - 14% 17% 10% 2% 3% - 1% - 2% 1% 15% 1% - 14% 4,5%
Invamer 2017-12-07 1200 1.2% - 6.9% 2.9% - 12% 14.3% 9.1% 8.4% 2% 3.6% 0.9% - 8.7% 2.2% 18.7% 2.1% 6% 14% 9.6%

2018[edit]

Polling organisation/client Date(s) conducted Sample size Candidate Margin of error Source
Alejandro Ordóñez Clara López German Vargas Lleras Gustavo Petro Humberto de La Calle Iván Duque Márquez Juan Carlos Pinzon Marta Lucia Ramirez Piedad Cordoba Sergio Fajardo Viviane Morales Rodrigo Londoño Others Blank vote Don't know/No response
Guarumo 2018-02-02 2187 2.5% 3.2% 8.4% 12.5% 6.5% 12.2% 1.7% 5.8% 0.9% 14.6% - 1.6% 1.6% 6% 16.3% 4% El Tiempo, W Radio
YanHass 2018-02-02 1251 3% 3% 8% 13% 4% 6% 2% 2% 1% 14% 1% 1% 2% 6% 30% 2.2% RCN
Invamer 2018-02-02 1200 - 4.2% 15.6% 23.5% 11% 9.2% 3.4% - 1.7% 20.2% 2.2% 1.6% - 6.7% - 3% Caracol TV, Blu Radio, Semana
Cifras y Conceptos 2018-02-02 2813 3% 4% 10% 16% 5% 8% 1% 5% 1% 19% - 1% 4% 7% 16% 4.6% Caracol Radio, Red+ Noticias
Centro Nacional de Consultoría 2018-02-08 1187 1% - 10% 23% 5% 8% 2% 6% 2% 18% 1% 1% 1% 22% - 3.6% Noticiero CM&
Centro Nacional de Consultoría 2018-02-22 1175 2% - 8% 22% 5% 15% 2% 6% 1% 16% 2% 0% 1% 20% - 3.8% Noticiero CM&
Centro Estratégico Latinoamericano de Geopolítica 2018-02-28 1200 - 5.6% 13.5% 19% 7.3% 6.2% - 8.4% 5% 24% - - 3.5% 7.5% - 1% - 2.8% -
Cifras y Conceptos 2018-03-01 2960 3% - 8% 22% 4% 22% 1% 6% 1% 11% 2% 1% 1% 2% 6% 4.5% Caracol Radio, Red+ Noticias
Guarumo 2018-03-04 3425 1.5% - 6.3% 23.1% 4.1% 23.6% 1% 5.7% 0.3% 8.1% 0.8% 0.3% 1.5% 13.2% 10.5% 2.7% El Tiempo, W Radio
Centro Nacional de Consultoría 2018-03-08 1192 3% - 7% 21% 4% 38% 1% 11% 1% 12% 2% 1% 1% 18% - 3.6% Noticiero CM&
Invamer 2018-03-27 1200 - - 6.3% 26.7% 5% 45.9% - - - 10.7% 2.5% - - - - - portafolio.co
Invamer 2018-04-27 1200 - - 7.9% 31% 2.5% 41.3% - - - 13.3% 2% - 0.1% 1.9% 46.5% 3% Semana

Second round[edit]

Former candidate of Sergio Fajardo, leader of Movimiento Compromiso Ciudadano, announced his blank vote for the second round,[18] as well as former liberal candidate Humberto de La Calle, although his party joined Iván Duque's campaign.[19] The Alternative Democratic Pole joined Gustavo Petro's campaign, but a minority sector led by Senator Jorge Robledo (MOIR) decided to vote blank too.[20] The directive of the Green Alliance let their followers to choose between supporting Gustavo Petro or voting blank, but considered unacceptable to support Iván Duque.[21] Movimiento Mejor Vargas Lleras and the Radical Change party sent their former candidate's program to Iván Duque, to consider it for a future government, although there was not an official adhesion.[22] The Partido de la U and the Social Party of National Unity encouraged their followers choose freely to vote for their preferred option.[23][24]

Polling organisation/client Date(s) conducted Sample size Candidate Margin of error Source
Gustavo Petro Iván Duque Márquez Blank vote Don't know/No response
Centro Nacional de Consultoría 2018-05-31 1323 35% 55% 10% - 3.05% Noticiero CM&
YanHaas 2018-06-05 1251 34% 52% 14% - 3.2% RCN, La FM, El Colombiano
Mosqueteros 2018-06-07 2147 38.3% 50.2% 11.5% - 2.17% JPG, MSM, Yamil Cure Ruíz
Invamer 2018-06-07 1200 37.3% 57.2% 5.5% - 2.83% Caracol TV, Blu Radio, Semana
Datexco 2018-06-08 1993 40.2% 46.2% 13.6% - 2.31% W Radio
Cifras & Conceptos 2018-06-08 1983 36.4% 45.3% 18.3% - 4.8% Caracol Radio, RED+ Noticias
Centro Nacional de Consultoría[permanent dead link] 2018-06-09 1591 38% 51% 11% - 2.8% Noticiero CM&
Guarumo 2018-06-10 3955 36% 52.5% 11.5% - 2.1% El Tiempo, W Radio
CELAG /[citation needed] 2018-06-11 2063 40% 45.5% 7.7% 6.8% 2.2%

Results[edit]

Candidate with the most votes in the first round by municipality:
  Iván Duque - Marta Lucía Ramírez
  Gustavo Petro - Ángela María Robledo
  Sergio Fajardo - Claudia López
  Germán Vargas Lleras - Juan Carlos Pinzón
Candidate Party/alliance First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Iván Duque Márquez Grand Alliance for Colombia 7,569,693 39.14 10,373,080 53.98
Gustavo Petro List of Decency 4,851,254 25.09 8,034,189 41.81
Sergio Fajardo Colombia Coalition 4,589,696 23.73
Germán Vargas Lleras Mejor Vargas Lleras 1,407,840 7.28
Humberto De la Calle PLCASI 399,180 2.06
Jorge Antonio Trujillo We Are All Colombia 75,614 0.39
Promotores Voto En Blanco Party of Ethnic Reclamation "PRE" 60,312 0.31
Viviane Morales Hoyos Somos Región Colombia 41,458 0.21
Blank votes 341,087 1.76 808,104 4.21
Invalid votes 300,080 295,499
Total 19,336,134 100 19,510,684 100
Registered voters/turnout 36,227,267 53.37 36,783,940 53.04
Source: El Tiempo Government


First round votes by department[edit]

Department Duque Petro Fajardo Vargas De la Calle Trujillo Morales
Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes %
Amazonas 7,114 39.02% 5,931 32.53% 2,693 14.77% 1,295 7.10% 739 4.05% 87 0.47% 51 0.27%
Antioquia 1,367,745 53.10% 238,440 9.25% 731,609 28.40% 99,642 3.86% 59,974 2.32% 7,626 0.29% 5,203 0.20%
Arauca 49,415 56.70% 17,824 20.45% 12,036 13.81% 3,336 3.82% 1,588 1.82% 395 0.45% 229 0.26%
Atlántico 234,045 27.18% 331,687 38.52% 85,634 9.94% 171,968 19.97% 16,728 1.94% 3,872 0.44% 2,244 0.26%
Bogotá 983,931 26.78% 1,098,478 29.90% 1,240,799 33.77% 172,158 4.68% 93,830 2.55% 13,959 0.37% 6,354 0.17%
Bolívar 256,732 40.61% 242,378 38.33% 55,468 8.77% 52,111 8.24% 10,304 1.62% 2,544 0.40% 1,616 0.25%
Boyacá 225,146 40.81% 122,686 22.24% 148,029 26.83% 29,967 5.43% 10,647 1.93% 1,959 0.35% 1,321 0.23%
Cauca 107,141 22.84% 230,919 49.24% 60,891 12.98% 42,032 8.96% 13,128 2.79% 2,533 0.54% 1,228 0.26%
Cesar 171,647 43.60% 141,502 35.94% 29,021 7.37% 39,281 9.97% 3,112 0.79% 1,831 0.46% 948 0.24%
Chocó 30,136 26.14% 49,552 42.98% 3,834 3.32% 24,343 21.11% 3,843 3.33% 536 0.46% 504 0.43%
Caldas 190,557 42.91% 34,694 7.81% 161,420 36.35% 30,784 6.93% 14,322 3.22% 1,449 0.32% 1,215 0.27%
Córdoba 228,190 38.70% 249,303 42.28% 22,396 3.79% 66,728 11.31% 10,448 1.77% 3,186 0.54% 1,387 0.23%
Caquetá 67,884 52.23% 29,965 23.05% 21,157 16.28% 3,497 2.69% 2,675 2.05% 443 0.34% 381 0.29%
Casanare 107,131 60.25% 23,130 13.00% 38,047 21.39% 3,445 1.93% 1,473 0.82% 579 0.32% 371 0.20%
Cundinamarca 475,359 40.13% 236,862 19.99% 328,519 27.73% 85,862 7.24% 20,567 1.73% 5,115 0.43% 2,810 0.23%
Guainía 3,872 40.92% 2,126 22.47% 1,218 12.87% 1,839 19.43% 185 1.95% 45 0.47% 27 0.28%
Guaviare 11,488 46.13% 5,762 23.13% 3,869 15.53% 1,646 6.60% 927 3.72% 141 0.56% 85 0.34%
Huila 240,669 53.48% 95,270 21.17% 77,837 17.29% 17,623 3.91% 7,155 1.59% 1,067 0.23% 798 0.17%
La Guajira 76,137 38.51% 85,149 43.07% 10,243 5.18% 18,010 9.11% 3,492 1.76% 889 0.44% 481 0.24%
Magdalena 160,752 38.23% 143,107 34.03% 28,233 6.71% 71,896 17.10% 6,811 1.62% 1,833 0.43% 992 0.23%
Meta 211,322 49.36% 75,945 17.73% 101,987 23.82% 21,473 5.01% 4,737 1.10% 1,832 0.42% 855 0.19%
Nariño 134,455 26.09% 238,683 46.33% 70,707 13.72% 44,709 8.67% 10,455 2.02% 1,376 0.26% 1,333 0.25%
Norte de Santander 377,152 61.00% 56,848 9.19% 102,210 16.53% 63,525 10.27% 6,108 0.98% 2,424 0.39% 1,091 0.17%
Putumayo 23,136 22.81% 60,520 59.68% 9,788 9.65% 1,850 1.82% 2,973 2.93% 253 0.24% 200 0.19%
Quindío 109,072 41.92% 30,357 11.66% 97,741 37.57% 11,861 4.55% 4,335 1.66% 1,010 0.38% 480 0.18%
Risaralda 175,159 40.38% 54,207 12.49% 164,736 37.98% 20,657 4.76% 7,645 1.76% 1,054 0.24% 816 0.18%
San Andrés y Providencia 5,691 44.71% 2,361 18.55% 1,986 15.60% 1,507 11.84% 655 5.14% 150 1.17% 32 0.25%
Santander 439,664 44.35% 171,806 17.33% 271,849 27.42% 63,762 6.43% 17,250 1.74% 4,180 0.42% 2,059 0.20%
Sucre 129,004 37.00% 154,208 44.23% 12,041 3.45% 40,761 11.69% 4,805 1.37% 2,121 0.60% 937 0.26%
Tolima 284,138 49.59% 95,458 16.66% 117,874 20.57% 49,266 8.59% 11,775 2.05% 2,112 0.36% 1,217 0.21%
Valle del Cauca 523,898 29.97% 485,943 27.80% 499,925 28.60% 137,245 7.85% 40,923 2.34% 8,523 0.48% 3,684 0.21%
Vaupés 1,013 15.09% 2,514 37.47% 553 8.24% 1,359 20.25% 1,141 17.00% 24 0.35% 21 0.31%
Vichada 8,466 53.68% 3,244 20.57% 1,513 9.59% 1,962 12.44% 207 1.31% 68 0.43% 88 0.55%
Source: El Tiempo [1]

Second round votes by department[edit]

Candidate with the most votes in the second round by municipality:
  Iván Duque - Marta Lucía Ramírez
  Gustavo Petro - Ángela María Robledo
Department Iván Duque Gustavo Petro
Votes % Votes %
Amazonas 9 962 50.42% 9 324 47.19%
Antioquia 1 844 027 72.53% 558 514 21.97%
Arauca 59 417 64.94% 28 858 31.54%
Atlántico 342 866 42.82% 440 103 54.96%
Bogotá 1 447 685 40.98% 1 884 869 53.35%
Bolívar 345 415 51.18% 316 670 46.92%
Boyacá 308 733 54.81% 233 755 41.50%
Cauca 160 191 32.19% 323 443 65.00%
Cesar 216 750 54.24% 174 175 43.58%
Chocó 46 289 39.21% 69 448 58.82%
Caldas 283 920 65.67% 121 476 28.09%
Córdoba 310 231 50.16% 298 944 48.34%
Caquetá 79 689 62.17% 43 511 33.94%
Casanare 127 906 72.78% 41 559 23.64%
Consulates 180 995 69.91% 69 558 26.86%
Cundinamarca 658 212 56.48% 452 307 38.81%
Guainía 5 873 57.06% 4 097 39.80%
Guaviare 15 755 58.35% 9 838 36.43%
Huila 296 245 64.71% 146 530 32.01%
La Guajira 106 328 49.89% 103 271 48.45%
Magdalena 226 136 51.83% 201 567 46.20%
Meta 264 513 63.95% 131 819 31.87%
Nariño 192 588 33.53% 366 673 63.85%
Norte de Santander 486 004 77.89% 112 496 18.03%
Putumayo 30 918 27.88% 77 220 69.63%
Quindío 156 973 62.76% 78 071 31.21%
Risaralda 257 267 61.57% 136 646 32.70%
San Andrés y Providencia 9 303 61.20% 5 282 34.75%
Santander 591 714 60.30% 345 224 35.18%
Sucre 171 322 48.25% 178 934 50.39%
Tolima 379 766 65.89% 174 655 30.30%
Valle del Cauca 746 819 43.66% 885 289 51.76%
Vaupés 3 096 38.75% 4 759 59.56%
Vichada 10 172 63.94% 5 304 33.34%

References[edit]

  1. ^ Resolution No 5552 Archived 2017-06-06 at the Wayback Machine National Civil Registry (Colombia)
  2. ^ a b Explainer: Colombia's 2018 Elections AS/COA, 28 June 2017
  3. ^ Colombia. "¿Cómo funciona el proceso de inscripción de cédulas?". Colombia.
  4. ^ Secretaria General del Senado. "Acto Legislativo número 02 de 2015". secretariasenado.gov.co (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  5. ^ Manetto, Francesco (9 March 2018). "Las FARC retiran su candidatura a la presidencia de Colombia". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  6. ^ "Vargas Lleras confirma a Juan Carlos Pinzón como fórmula vicepresidencial | ELESPECTADOR.COM". ELESPECTADOR.COM (in Spanish). 16 March 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  7. ^ Bonces, Eduardo. "Piedad Córdoba no despegó y se retiró". www.elcolombiano.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  8. ^ Muñoz, Leonardo. "Viviane Morales Renuncia a su candidatura presidencial". www.eltiempo.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Viviane Morales renunció a su candidatura presidencial". www.lafm.com.co (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  10. ^ Marulanda, Olga Patricia Rendón. "Partido de Viviane Morales se dividió entre Duque y Vargas Lleras". www.elcolombiano.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  11. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20180420112837/http://www.semana.com/elecciones-presidenciales-2018/noticias/debate-presidencial-en-antioquia-sin-agravios-pero-con-pullas-562406
  12. ^ Bonces, Eduardo (2018-04-03). "Candidatos hablaron sobre Ferrocarril de Antioquia". www.elcolombiano.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  13. ^ "Debate Caribe". EL HERALDO (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  14. ^ "Los momentos más álgidos del debate presidencial en el Caribe". www.elpais.com.co. Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  15. ^ Debate, Caribe (2018-04-20). "Debate Caribe: Lo que dijeron los candidatos a la Presidencia sobre Electricaribe | El Heraldo". Archived from the original on 2018-04-20. Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  16. ^ "¿Qué proponen los candidatos para el Pacífico?, esto dijeron en el debate". www.elpais.com.co. Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  17. ^ Tiempo, Casa Editorial El (2018-04-18). "Café y Turismo, temas clave del debate a puerta cerrada en Manizales". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  18. ^ "Ni Petro, ni Duque: Sergio Fajardo anuncia que votará en blanco" (in Spanish). Semana. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  19. ^ "Humberto de la Calle votará en blanco" (in Spanish). Semana. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  20. ^ "Polo Democrático se decide por Gustavo Petro" (in Spanish). El Espectador. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  21. ^ "Alianza Verde convoca a votar contra Duque" (in Spanish). El Espectador. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  22. ^ "Cambio Radical entrega a Duque el programa de gobierno de Vargas Lleras" (in Spanish). Semana. 28 May 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  23. ^ "Partido de la U deja en libertad a sus electores" (in Spanish). El Colombiano. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  24. ^ "La ASI deja en libertad a su militancia de cara a la segunda vuelta" (in Spanish). El Heraldo. 12 June 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.