A colonial mentality is the internalized attitude of ethnic or cultural inferiority felt by people as a result of colonization, i.e. them being colonized by another group. It corresponds with the belief that the cultural values of the colonizer are inherently superior to one's own. The term has been used by postcolonial scholars to discuss the transgenerational effects of colonialism present in former colonies following decolonization. It is commonly used as an operational concept for framing ideological domination in historical colonial experiences. In psychology colonial mentality has been used to explain instances of collective depression, anxiety, and other widespread mental health issues in populations that have experienced colonization.
Notable Marxist influences on the postcolonial concept of colonial mentality include Frantz Fanon's works on the fracturing of the colonial psyche through Western cultural domination, as well as the concept of cultural hegemony developed by Italian Communist Party Founder Antonio Gramsci.
Influences from Marxism
Frantz Fanon's Marxist writings on imperialism, racism, and decolonizing struggles have influenced post-colonial discussions about the internalization of colonial prejudice. Fanon first tackled the problem of, what he called, the "colonial alienation of the person" as a mental health issue through psychiatric analysis.
In The Wretched of the Earth (French: Les Damnés de la Terre), published in 1961, Fanon used psychiatry to analyze how French colonization and the carnage of the Algerian War had mentally affected Algerians' self-identity and mental health. The book argues that during the period of colonization there was a subtle and constant mental pathology that developed within the colonial psyche. Fanon argued that the colonial psyche is fractured by the lack of mental and material homogeneity as a result of the colonial power's Western culture being pressured onto the colonized population despite the existing material differences between them.
Here Fanon expands traditional Marxist understandings of historical materialism to explore how the dissonance between material existence and culture functions to transform the colonized people through the mold of the Western bourgeoisie. This meant that the native Algerian came to view their own traditional culture and identity through the lens of colonial prejudice. Fanon observed that average Algerians internalized and then openly repeated remarks that were in line with the institutionalized racist culture of the French colonizers; dismissing their own culture as backward due to the internalization of Western colonial ideologies.
According to Fanon this results in a destabilizing existential conflict within the colonized culture:
"In the West, the family circle, the effects of education, and the relatively high standard of living of the working class provide a more or less efficient protection against the harmful action of these pastimes. But in an African country, where mental development is uneven, where the violent collision of two worlds has considerably shaken old traditions and thrown the universe of the perceptions out of focus, the impressionability and sensibility of the Young African are at the mercy of the various assaults made upon them by the very Nature of Western Culture."
During the period of the British Raj, proponents of British Imperialism typically regarded native Indian culture with disdain and supported European colonization as a beneficial "civilizing mission". Colonization was largely framed as an act of charity aimed at uplifting the "uncivilized" Indian, rather than an act of direct exploitation and domination; which targeted native cultural practices deemed to be "barbaric" by colonial administrators.
For example, the colonial policies barring the self-immolating practice of sati, and the influence of British missionaries in discouraging perceived acts of idolatry, the latter of which has been noted by some scholars to have played a large role in the developments of the modern definition of Hinduism. These claims base their assumptions on the lack of a unified Hindu identity prior to the colonial period, and modern Hinduism's unprecedented outward focus on a monotheistic Vedanta worldview. These developments have been read as the result of colonial prejudices which discouraged aspects of Indian religions which differed too greatly from the template of Christianity. It has been noted that the prominence of the Bhagavad Gita as a primary religious text in Hindu discourse was a historical response to colonial criticisms of Indian culture. Europeans found that the Gita had more in common with their own Christian Bible, leading to the denouncement of Hindu practices more distantly related to monotheistic world views; with native subjects continually characterizing their faith as the equal of Christianity in belief (more clear monotheism) and structure (providing an equivalent primary sacred text).
Hindu nationalism developed in the 19th century as an internalization of European ideological domination; with local elites aiming to make themselves and Indian society modern by "emulating the West". This led to the emergence of what some have called 'neo-Hinduism': consisting of reformist rhetoric transforming Hindu tradition from above, disguised as a revivalist call to return to the untainted origins of the faith. Reflecting the same arguments made by Christian missionaries, who argued that the more superstitious elements of Hindu practice were responsible for corrupting the potential rational philosophy of the faith (i.e. the more Christian-like sentiments). Moving the definitions of Hindu practice away from more overt idol worshiping, reemphasizing the concept of Brahman as a monotheistic divinity, and focusing more on the figure of Krishna in Vaishnavism due to his role as a messianic type figure (more inline with European beliefs) which makes him a suitable alternative to the Christian figure of Jesus Christ.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), India's current ruling party, follows this tradition of nationalistic Hinduism (Hindutva), and promotes an Indian national identity infused with neo-Vedantic thought influenced by this historical colonial mentality.
Critics have claimed that British writer Rudyard Kipling's portrayals of Indian characters in his works generally supported the colonialist view that colonized people were incapable of surviving without the help of Europeans, describing these portrayals as racist. In his famous poem "The White Man's Burden", Kipling directly makes this point by romanticizing British colonialism in India and elsewhere in the world. Kipling's poem idolizes Western culture as entirely rational and civilized, while treating non-white cultures as 'childlike' and 'demonic'. Similar sentiments have been interpreted in Kipling's other works. Notably defending the Second Anglo-Boer War as a "white man's war"; presenting 'whiteness' as a morally and culturally superior trait of the West, and using it as a legitimizing for British colonial expansion and rule. His portrayal of Indians in his Jungle Book stories have also been criticized as examples of the chauvinistic infantilization of colonized peoples in popular culture. Generally, fiction, such as Kipling's works, have contributed towards colonial mentality in the ways that the colonized people in these fictional narratives are made submissive to and dependent on white colonizers.
Individuals of Indian ancestry who adopt European culture, internalizing these colonial prejudices, have sometimes been labeled "Macaulay's Children". The term is usually used in a derogatory fashion, connoting disloyalty to India. It derives from 19th century British historian, politician, and colonial administrator Thomas Macaulay, who regarded British culture as superior to Indian culture and who famously argued in favor of replacing Indian languages/dialects with English as the medium of instruction in educational institutions. The consequences of this development can still be felt in contemporary India, where the use of English, as opposed to Hindi, still carries with it a level of superiority. Nationalist politicians have campaigned and pushed forward policy changes to promote Hindi official use in education and media over English which ironically was protested against in the south as Hindi imposition in the vein of colonialism.
In the colonial territories administered by the Spanish Empire, racial mixing between Spaniard settlers and the indigenous peoples resulted in the restrictive racial classes, like mestizo, which promoted Spanish cultural hegemony and restricted 'Otherness' within these colonized societies.
Mestizos and other mixed raced combinations were categorized into different castas by colonial administrators as a means of maintaining Spanish dominance over the majority. This system was applied to Spanish colonies in the Americas and the Philippines, where large populations of mixed raced individuals made up the increasing majority of the colonized population.
These racial categories punished those with Black African, Afro-Latin, or indígenas (natives) heritage specifically. With those of European descent given privilege over these other mixtures. As a result of this system, Mestizos struggled to downplay their indigenous heritage and cultural trappings, in order to appear superficially more Spanish. With these internalized prejudices individuals' choices of clothes, occupations, and forms of religious expression. Those of mixed racial identities who wanted to receive the institutional benefits of being Spanish (such as higher educational institutions and career opportunities), could do so by suppressing their own cultures and acting with "Spanishness". This mentality lead to commonplace racial forgery in Latin America, often accompanied by legitimizing oral accounts of a Spanish ancestor and a Spanish surname. Most mixed-white and white people in Latin America have Spanish surnames inherited from Spanish ancestors, while most other Latin Americans who have Spanish names and surnames acquired them through the Christianization and Hispanicization of the indigenous and African slave populations by Spanish friars.
In this heavily racial segregated context, the encomienda system was put in place. Under this system, entire native communities could be used as forced labor under the guise of collecting tribute. A means of rewarding notable soldiers or colonial officials with colonial possessions, as well as extorting native resources with free indigenous labor. Eventually, some Spaniards openly objected to the encomienda system, notably Bartolomé de Las Casas, who insisted that the American indígenas were human beings with souls and rights and were, in the words of Queen Isabella I, "to be treated with justice and fairness".
Historically, the religious identities of natives were targeted and suppressed by colonial authorities for Christian conversion. The Spaniards were committed to converting their Amerindian subjects to Roman Catholicism, and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end. However, most initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as Amerindian groups simply blended Catholicism with their traditional beliefs. Syncretism between native beliefs and Christianity is still largely prevalent in Indian and Mestizo communities in Latin America. On the other hand, the Spaniards did not impose their language to the degree they did their religion, and the Roman Catholic Church even evangelized in Quechua, Nahuatl, Guarani, etc., contributing to the expansion of these Amerindian languages and equipping them with writing systems.
Prior to colonization by the Spanish (1565-1898), the Sulu Archipelago (located in southern Philippines) was a colony of the Majapahit Empire (1293–1527) based in Indonesia. The Americans were the last country to colonize the Philippines (1898–1946) and nationalists claim that it continues to act as a neo-colony of the US despite its formal independence in 1946. In the Philippines colonial mentality is most evident in the preference for Filipino mestizos (primarily those of mixed native Filipino and white ancestry, but also mixed indigenous Filipino and Chinese, and other ethnic groups) in the entertainment industry and mass media, in which they have received extensive exposure despite constituting a small fraction of the population.
The Cádiz Constitution of 1812 automatically gave Spanish citizenship to all Filipinos regardless of race. The census of 1870 stated that at least one-third of the population of Luzon had partial Hispanic ancestry (from varying points of origin and ranging from Latin America to Spain).
The combined number of all types of white mestizos or Eurasians is 3.6%, according to a genetic study by Stanford University. This is contradicted by another genetic study done by California University which stated that Filipinos possess moderate amounts of European admixture.
Evidence suggests that fair skin was a characteristic of the cloistered ladies called binukot, who were often kept indoors from a very early age. In historical epics of the Philippines their fair skin was presented as a standard of beauty among the upper class. Some cite this as proof that desire for light-colored skin predates colonial influences. One of the more adverse physical consequences in the idealization and acceptance of colonial mentality can be seen in the high rate of consumer demand for skin bleaching products used by some indigenous women and a smaller percentage of indigenous men and dark-skinned mestizas and mestizos, in the Philippines. Demand in the Philippines and in some other tropical countries continue to be widespread.
- Cultural assimilation
- Cultural cringe
- Cultural identity
- Cultural imperialism
- Hamitic theory
- Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation
- Intercultural competence
- Language shift
- Macaulay's minutes
- Melting pot
- Mongrel complex
- Paper Bag Party
- Passing (racial identity)
- Romanization (cultural)
- Self-fulfilling prophecy
- Social interpretations of race
- Nunning, Vera. (06/01/2015). Fictions of Empire and the (un-making of imperialist mentalities: Colonial discourse and post-colonial criticism revisited. Forum for world literature studies. (7)2. p.171-198.
- David, E. J. R.; Okazaki, Sumie (1 April 2010). "Activation and Automaticity of Colonial Mentality". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 40 (4): 850. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00601.x. ISSN 1559-1816.
- David, E. J. R. (2010). "Testing the validity of the colonial mentality implicit association test and the interactive effects of covert and overt colonial mentality on Filipino American mental health". Asian American Journal of Psychology. 1 (1): 31–45. doi:10.1037/a0018820.
- Unconscious dominions : psychoanalysis, colonial trauma, and global sovereignties. Anderson, Warwick, 1958-, Jenson, Deborah., Keller, Richard C. (Richard Charles), 1969-. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. 2011. ISBN 9780822393986. OCLC 757835774.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Goss, Andrew (2009). "Decent colonialism? Pure science and colonial ideology in the Netherlands East Indies, 1910–1929". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 40 (1): 187–214. doi:10.1017/s002246340900006x. ISSN 1474-0680.
- Felipe, Lou Collette S. (2016). "The relationship of colonial mentality with Filipina American experiences with racism and sexism". Asian American Journal of Psychology. 7 (1): 25–30. doi:10.1037/aap0000033.
- Paranjpe, Anand C. (11 August 2016). "Indigenous Psychology in the Post- Colonial Context: An Historical Perspective". Psychology and Developing Societies. 14 (1): 27–43. doi:10.1177/097133360201400103.
- Utsey, Shawn O.; Abrams, Jasmine A.; Opare-Henaku, Annabella; Bolden, Mark A.; Williams, Otis (21 May 2014). "Assessing the Psychological Consequences of Internalized Colonialism on the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adults in Ghana". Journal of Black Psychology. 41 (3): 195–220. doi:10.1177/0095798414537935.
- 1972-, Rabaka, Reiland (2010). Forms of Fanonism : Frantz Fanon's critical theory and the dialectics of decolonization. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739140338. OCLC 461323889.
- The postcolonial Gramsci. Srivastava, Neelam Francesca Rashmi, 1972-, Bhattacharya, Baidik, 1975-. New York: Routledge. 2012. ISBN 9780415874816. OCLC 749115630.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Fanon, Frantz (2008). Black Skin, White Masks. London, United Kingdom: Pluto Press. pp. xxiii. ISBN 978-0-7453-2849-2.
- Robertson, Michael; Walter, Garry (2009). "Frantz Fanon and the confluence of psychiatry, politics, ethics and culture". Acta Neuropsychiatrica. 21 (6): 308–309. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5215.2009.00428.x. ISSN 0924-2708.
- Bell, Vikki (4 January 2011). "Introduction: Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth 50 Years On". Theory, Culture & Society. 27 (7–8): 7–14. doi:10.1177/0263276410383721.
- Fanon, Frantz (1961). The Wretched of the Earth (PDF). Sartre, Jean-Paul, 1905-1980, Farrington, Constance. New York: Grove Press, Inc. p. 250. ISBN 978-0802150837. OCLC 1316464.
- Fanon, Frantz (1961). The Wretched of the Earth (PDF). Sartre, Jean-Paul, 1905-1980, Farrington, Constance. New York: Grove Press, Inc. p. 194. ISBN 978-0802150837. OCLC 1316464.
- Fanon, Frantz (1961). The Wretched of the Earth (PDF). Sartre, Jean-Paul, 1905-1980, Farrington, Constance. New York: Grove Press, Inc. p. 162. ISBN 978-0802150837. OCLC 1316464.
- Fanon, Frantz (1961). The Wretched of the Earth (PDF). Sartre, Jean-Paul, 1905-1980, Farrington, Constance. New York: Grove Press, Inc. p. 161. ISBN 978-0802150837. OCLC 1316464.
- Fanon, Frantz (1961). The Wretched of the Earth (PDF). Sartre, Jean-Paul, 1905-1980, Farrington, Constance. New York: Grove Press, Inc. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-0802150837. OCLC 1316464.
- Falser, Michael (2015). Cultural Heritage as Civilizing Mission | SpringerLink. Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context. Cham: Springer. pp. 8–9. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-13638-7. ISBN 978-3-319-13637-0.
- Fischer–Tiné, Harald (26 July 2016). "Britain's other civilising mission". The Indian Economic & Social History Review. 42 (3): 295–338. doi:10.1177/001946460504200302.
- Mukta, Parita (1999). "The 'Civilizing Mission': The Regulation and Control of Mourning in Colonial India". Feminist Review. 63 (1): 25–47. doi:10.1080/014177899339045.
- Ganguly, Swagato (2 January 2017). "Idolatry: concept and metaphor in colonial representations of India". South Asian History and Culture. 8 (1): 19–91. doi:10.1080/19472498.2016.1260353. ISSN 1947-2498.
- Pennington, Brian K. (2005). Was Hinduism Invented?: Britons, Indians, and the Colonial Construction of Religion - Oxford Scholarship. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/0195166558.001.0001. ISBN 978-0195166552.
- Hatch, Brian A. (2008). Bourgeois Hinduism, or the faith of the modern Vedantists : rare discourses from early Colonial Bengal. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195326086. OCLC 191044640.
- Sarma, Deepak (1 April 2006). "Hindu Leaders in North America?". Teaching Theology & Religion. 9 (2): 115–120. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9647.2006.00272.x. ISSN 1467-9647.
- Bayly, C. A. (2010). "INDIA, THE BHAGAVAD GITA AND THE WORLD". Modern Intellectual History. 7 (2): 275–295. doi:10.1017/s1479244310000077. ISSN 1479-2451.
- Yelle, Robert A. (1 April 2005). "Christians and Missionaries in India: Cross-Cultural Communication since 1500. Edited by Eric Frykenberg (Grand Rapids, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2003) 419 pp. $39.00". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 35 (4): 681–682. doi:10.1162/002219505323383059. ISSN 0022-1953.
- Longkumer, Arkotong (3 April 2017). "The power of persuasion: Hindutva, Christianity, and the discourse of religion and culture in Northeast India" (PDF). Religion. 47 (2): 203–227. doi:10.1080/0048721x.2016.1256845. ISSN 0048-721X.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe. (2007). Hindu Nationalism : A Reader. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9780691130972. OCLC 368365428.
- Battaglia, Gino (3 October 2017). "Neo-Hindu Fundamentalism Challenging the Secular and Pluralistic Indian State". Religions. 8 (10): 216. doi:10.3390/rel8100216.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe. (2007). Hindu Nationalism : A reader. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780691130972. OCLC 368365428.
- Hatcher, Brian A. (2008). Bourgeois Hinduism, or the faith of the modern Vedantists : rare discourses from early Colonial Bengal. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195326086. OCLC 191044640.
- Harriss, John (2 October 2015). "Hindu Nationalism in Action: The Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian Politics". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 38 (4): 712–718. doi:10.1080/00856401.2015.1089826. ISSN 0085-6401.
- Singh, Jan (2015). "India's Right Turn". World Policy Journal. 32 (2): 93–103. doi:10.1177/0740277515591547.
- "Kipling comes under review". BBC News. 10 September 1999. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Brantlinger, Patrick (2007). "Kipling's "The White Man's Burden" and Its Afterlives". English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920. 50 (2): 172–191. doi:10.1353/elt.2007.0017. ISSN 1559-2715.
- Brantlinger, Patrick (2005). "The Complexity of Kipling's Imperialist Politics". English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920. 48 (1): 88.
- Syed, Jawad; Ali, Faiza (1 March 2011). "The White Woman's Burden: from colonial civilisation to Third World development". Third World Quarterly. 32 (2): 349–365. doi:10.1080/01436597.2011.560473. ISSN 0143-6597.
- Free, Melissa (2016). "Fault Lines of Loyalty: Kipling's Boer War Conflict". Victorian Studies. 58 (2): 314–323. doi:10.2979/victorianstudies.58.2.12. JSTOR 10.2979/victorianstudies.58.2.12.
- Mondal, Sharleen (2014). "WHITENESS, MISCEGENATION, AND ANTI-COLONIAL REBELLION IN RUDYARD KIPLING'S THE MAN WHO WOULD BE KING". Victorian Literature and Culture. 42 (4): 733–751. doi:10.1017/s1060150314000278. ISSN 1060-1503.
- Hotchkiss, Jane (2001). "THE JUNGLE OF EDEN: KIPLING, WOLF BOYS, AND THE COLONIAL IMAGINATION". Victorian Literature and Culture. 29 (2): 435–449. doi:10.1017/s1060150301002108. ISSN 1470-1553.
- Lee, Jonathan Rey (1 November 2012). "When Lions Talk: Wittgenstein, Kipling, and the Language of Colonialism1". Literature Compass. 9 (11): 884–893. doi:10.1111/j.1741-4113.2012.00916.x. ISSN 1741-4113.
- 1960-, Low, Gail Ching-Liang (1996). White skins/Black masks : representation and colonialism. London: Routledge. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-0203359600. OCLC 54666707.
- Pritchett, Frances. "Minute on Education (1835) by Thomas Babington Macaulay".
- Evans, Stephen (1 September 2002). "Macaulay's Minute Revisited: Colonial Language Policy in Nineteenth-century India". Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 23 (4): 260–281. doi:10.1080/01434630208666469. ISSN 0143-4632.
- Prasad, G. J. V. (2006). "A Minute Stretching into Centuries: Macaulay, English, and India". Nineteenth Century Prose. 33 (2): 175.
- Chand, Vineeta (1 February 2011). "Elite positionings towards Hindi: Language policies, political stances and language competence in India1". Journal of Sociolinguistics. 15 (1): 6–35. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9841.2010.00465.x. ISSN 1467-9841.
- Mangan, Jane E. (2013). "Moving Mestizos in Sixteenth-Century Peru: Spanish Fathers, Indigenous Mothers, and the Children In Between". The William and Mary Quarterly. 70 (2): 273–294. doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.70.2.0273. JSTOR 10.5309/willmaryquar.70.2.0273.
- Zuniqa, Jean-Paul (1999). "The Power of Blood: From Mestizo to the Idea of Race Mixture in Spanish Colonial America". Annales. 54 (2): 425.
- Olson, Christa (16 October 2009). "Casta Painting and the Rhetorical Body". Rhetoric Society Quarterly. 39 (4): 307–330. doi:10.1080/02773940902991429. ISSN 0277-3945.
- Lentz, Mark (1 February 2017). "Castas, Creoles, and the Rise of a Maya Lingua Franca in Eighteenth-Century Yucatan". Hispanic American Historical Review. 97 (1): 29–61. doi:10.1215/00182168-3727376. ISSN 0018-2168.
- Ramos-Kittrell, Jesús A. Playing in the cathedral : music, race, and status in New Spain. New York, NY. ISBN 978-0190236830. OCLC 957615716.
- Ronald., Loewe (2011). Maya or mestizo? : nationalism, modernity, and its discontents. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 1–5. ISBN 9781442601420. OCLC 466659990.
- 1954-, Dueñas, Alcira (2010). Indians and mestizos in the "lettered city" : reshaping justice, social hierarchy, and political culture in colonial Peru. Boulder, Colo.: University Press of Colorado. ISBN 9781607320197. OCLC 664565692.
- Ramos-Kittrell, Jesús A. (2016). Playing in the cathedral : music, race, and status in New Spain. New York, NY. pp. 37–38. ISBN 9780190236816. OCLC 933580544.
- Quinonez, Ernesto (19 June 2003). "Y Tu Black Mama Tambien". Retrieved 2 May 2008.
- "Documentary, Studies Renew Debate About Skin Color's Impact". Pittsburgh Post Gazette. 26 December 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- "Is Light Skin Still Preferable to Dark?". Chicago Tribune. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- Batchelder, Ronald W.; Sanchez, Nicolas (1 July 2013). "The encomienda and the optimizing imperialist: an interpretation of Spanish imperialism in the Americas". Public Choice. 156 (1–2): 45–60. doi:10.1007/s11127-012-9953-9. ISSN 0048-5829.
- "Queen Isabella: More Than Just a Patron of Columbus".
- Murry, Gregory (16 May 2013). ""Tears of the Indians" or Superficial Conversion?: José de Acosta, the Black Legend, and Spanish Evangelization in the New World". The Catholic Historical Review. 99 (1): 29–51. doi:10.1353/cat.2013.0017. ISSN 1534-0708.
- Wagner, E. Logan (1 January 2014). "The Continuity of Sacred Urban Open Space: Facilitating the Indian Conversion to Catholicism in Mesoamerica". Religion and the Arts. 18 (1–2): 61–86. doi:10.1163/15685292-01801005. ISSN 1568-5292.
- Ditchfield, Simon (1 December 2004). "Of Dancing Cardinals and Mestizo Madonnas: Reconfiguring the History of Roman Catholicism in the Early Modern Period". Journal of Early Modern History. 8 (3): 386–408. doi:10.1163/1570065043124011. ISSN 1570-0658.
- Beatty, Andrew (1 June 2006). "The Pope in Mexico: Syncretism in Public Ritual". American Anthropologist. 108 (2): 324–335. doi:10.1525/aa.2006.108.2.324. ISSN 1548-1433.
- Voltaire, Luis Arce Borja, Red. "Eliane Karp: pasado y presente, por Luis Arce Borja".
- Gómez Rivera 2000
- García 2009
- "Is the 'racist' BAYO advert real?". 6 June 2012. GMA News Online. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "The semantics of 'mestizo'". 27 July 2012. GMA News. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- Jagor, Fëdor, et al. (1870). The Former Philippines thru Foreign Eyes
- "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania" (PDF). Stanford University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- *Institute for Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco (2015). "Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos". Genetics Online. 200 (4): 1285–1295. doi:10.1534/genetics.115.178616. PMC 4574246.
- Abrera & 2008-2009
- Counter, S. Allen, Whitening skin can be deadly, Boston Globe, 16 December 2003
- "The Beauty In Me". Archived from the original on 15 July 2007.
- Abrera, María Bernadette L. (January–December 2008–2009), "Seclusion and Veiling of Women: A Historical and Cultural Approach", Philippine Social Sciences Review, 1-2, 60-61: 34–56, ISSN 0031-7802, OCLC 5657379, archived from the original on 21 August 2010 Check date values in:
- García, José Miguel (30 June 2009), "The North American Invasion Continues", Patria Philippines, at the Recovery of Our Inherited Archipelago, San Francisco, California, United States of America: Blogger by Google, archived from the original on 4 September 2010, retrieved 5 September 2010
- Gómez Rivera, Guillermo (20 September 2000), The Filipino State, Spain: Buscoenlaces, CHAPTER VI 1900s: The Filipino People was Deprived of its Own State, archived from the original on 5 August 2010, retrieved 5 September 2010
- Perdón, Renato (2010), Footnotes to Philippine History, Boca Ratón, Florida, United States of America: Universal-Publishers, p. 268, ISBN 978-1-59942-842-0